Power And Politics In Organizational Behaviour Study

Power And Politics Study Organizational Behaviour Notes

Power And Politics Influenced In Organizational Behaviour

Power and politics are very crucial for organizational behavioural actions of individuals and groups. Individuals in organization use their power to satisfy their common needs or get what they want. While Groups or organizations use power and politics to control their members and employees for obtain and maintain to achieve their goals. power and politics influence team processes and organizational leadership in Organisational Behaviour. power and political in organizational behavior can be unethical and destructive for any organization.
Organizations are organized bodies of individuals or systems. Existence of political act in any organization is normal act. Thus, organizational life dominates by political relations. The strategic use of political power in organizations involves taking or gaining control of real symbolic resources. A political view of organizations, pointed out by Max Weber in1947. In 1978, Bacharach believes that an organization is a composite entity, in which interest and coalitions groups are important for the development of political perspectives in intra-organizational behaviors. From Dehrender's work in 1959 it is clear that, there are three groups which are important for the political analysis of any organizations, they are
Work groups.
Interest groups.
Coalition groups.

Work Groups

This groups may be based on the differences determined by departmental work activity, or organizational hierarchy.

Interest Groups

These groups can be defined as a group of actors who have similar goals and their Equality of Interdependence to achieve goals relation to the operation of their work.

Alliance Groups

An alliance is formed by groups of interested groups. Which Can be defined as to achieve common goals. They are based on joint action of two or more interest groups against another interest groups.

Definition Of Power

Gbadamosi in 1996 give the definition of power that, Power is the ability to employ force and mobilize resources, energy and information on behalf of a preferred goal.

Max Weber given powe definition in 1947 which is that, Power is the possibility that a person can do their will despite resist

Power is to impose individual will on group of individuals in spite of others Resistance. Which can be regular supply stop, rewards And punishment, as well as the effect is made in negative approval given by Blan in 1964.

Mechanic given the definition of power in1962 that, Power is defined as a force that results change in behavior, if power is not present that does not exist.

Kaplan in 1964 told that, Power] is the ability of one person or group of individuals to influence others behavior, that is, to change the possibilities that others have in some ways Replies.

Types Of Power

In 1961 Etzioni identifies three forms of power which are,
Coercive Power.
Remunerative Power.
Normative Power.

Coercive Power

It rests on the ability to exert the threat of physical sanction.

Remunerative Power

It is based on the control of material resources and rewards.

Normative Power

This power is based on the control of symbolic rewards.

Sources Of Power

After identifying the primary source of power, There are four main sources of power they are
Office or structural position Power
Individual Characteristics Power
Expertise power
Opportunity power

Office or Structural Position Power

The office or structural position can provide a access to various bases of power. Some positions may provide less information but sufficient powerful resources, while others positions may provide capacity to manipulate symbols or mobilize internal commitments to certain criteria

Individual Characteristics

The most marked personal attribute that is a source of this is Shakti Charisma. As Weber (1947) states, the charismatic leader possesses the power of unusual and often mysterious characteristics. However, relevant personal characteristics may include verbal skills, the ability to reason effectively for positions, or even physical features for example, the physical disability of a supporter's loyalty or the opposing position.

Expertise Power

Expertise refers to specific information. It is usually based on activities outside the organization, for example, education. It is regarded in French as a source of power rather than a basis for power, as it appears to be a means by which a party comes under control rather than control specific information.

Opportunity Power

This special source of power is embedded in informal structure of organization. This idea came from an analysis of the power of by the mechanic in 1962. at the lower level in an organization example regional employees. Informal aspects of formal positions or informal positions that are not officially recognized can provide an important source of organizational power

The flow of power

Usually power flows from upwards to downwards from higher levels management to lower level. it applies to the better subordinate relations as a whole and relates to the power of superiors over subordinates. However, the treatment of power means that subordinates can also exercise power, and that power is truly multidimensional. The effect of the multidimensional aspect of power is the method of power that, gives subordinates ability to manipulate the senior and the superiors to gain the most from their subordinates as specified in formal role obligations. Thus, a political approach to organizations implies a multidimensional image of power, and means a distinctly different, as well as, influence in terms of structure.

Organizational Politics

The word politics is derived from the Greek word "politics" which means a city or state. Originally Aristotle in 384 to 322 used this word in his book Politics refers to Greek city or state affairs. according to Aristotle view, man is a political human being that interacts with other or more persons, creating a relationship called politics. in 1951 lasswell told about the politics that politics is essentially a struggle for positions or power and influence by which such monopolies enabling society to make decisions that, affect the lives of every citizen of the country. politics can be practice in both governments and organizations for the purpose of fighting for power and influence, conflict, bargaining. Conciliation, resolution and consensus. there are two types of politics, which are, state politics and organizational politics. Here, we will mainly focus on organizational politics. Organizational politics deals with behaviors that are excluded from those in which one has taken a specific position for or against organization, the behavior intended to achieve selfish and personal ends which Others are opposed to the end of the organization. They seem impracticable but at the same time there are wide shifts from organization to organization. Ethical issues often come up and bargaining is an important consideration in Organizational politics. Organizational politics creates very reactionary reactions because people look at the whole. The way both negative and positive process depends on the particular viewpoint. However, those who succeed in organizational politics are seen to be positive, perhaps they are also successful competitors in other respects.

Organizational Politics Tactics

There are following organizational politics tactics proposed to gain a competitive advantage. Experts influence the timing and location of your bargaining efforts so that situations are chosen to support your goals. In many cases, it is advisable to bargain in your home area. this is a desirable bargaining strategy to hide your true interests for as long as possible. Service Being overly eager can leave you with a loss of district. Regarding other related ideas. Initially shoot for the moon so that you can settle for less but do not use this tactic for the same person. Identify any weaknesses that may be counterproductive and work continuously on. Promote them. Bind assemblies are alliances that try to indicate the difference between the alliance and any of your common interests with each member, thus attempting to divide and conquer. Establish alliances with superiors, peers, and subordinates so that when needed Be counted on your behalf. Select subordinates who are not only competent but reliable, and loyal. You do not get in a position to rely on the expertise of an opponent. if you are not knowledgeable in an area, secure your own expert and take steps to establish that credibility. Do not injure any other person in a position so that he couldn't take revenge. Do nothing to isolate or anger former allies when you step down. Unexpected burnt bridges As may be required. If the proposal developed by an adversary is unattractive, but cannot be rejected immediately, an attempt was made to refer to a committee to reduce it and widen the bargaining area. If the outcome is uncertain, It is often desirable to support aggressive efforts rather than someone else to get themselves ahead. That way, it can be easier to get on if you are in a hurry to sink. Steer the ship. In dealing with an opponent, try to leave the door open so that there is no communication is closed, if necessary differences can still be resolved. Avoid dealing with personality, never personally attack the adversary and focus on real facts and issues. Solve an issue when and under what circumstances a vote should be used. When you know how to let matters go to vote for a resolution. These were the importance organization politics tactics.

United States Calls On LNA To Observe Cessation Of Hostile In Libya By COVID-19

United States Observe Cessation Of Hostile In Libya By COVID-19

United States Calls On Observe Cessation Of Hostile In Libya By Coronavirus COVID-19

The United States joined the mission, which is started by United Nations in Libya, an immediate hostility to allow local authorities to come together in response to the unprecedented public health challenge imposed by COVID-19 by Libyan Prime Minister al-Sarraj. It has been decided to support human endowment. Libyan government's top leaders must immediately take action to prioritize the health of the Libyan people; This is the only responsible thing. At this time all Libyan leader actors, including LNA Commander Hafta, to suspend military operations, reject toxic foreign intervention and enable health officials to fight this global epidemic. The United States has taken immediately action to consistently opposed  all military growth and the transfer of foreign military equipment and personnel to Libya; In that spirit, we support negotiations between Libyan actors facilitated by the United Nations to achieve a lasting cease-fire and for all actors to halt their military activities and return to meaningful dialogue.

United States President On Coronavirus Outbreak Stop Progress

United States Coronavirus COVID-19 Outbreak

United States President Remarks On Combat to Coronavirus Outbreak

Medical successes are often held back by outdated, cumbersome government rules and regulations. For President Trump, this result is unacceptable. united states and all the world are facing threat from coronavirus COVID-19, President Trump made another important announcement at a White House briefing today. The United States President share with you the exciting progress to combat the Coronavirus COVID 19, In which the FDA is doing with the private sector because we kill red tape like no one has ever done before, united states president instructed the FDA to abolish the old rules and bureaucracy so that this work can go on quickly and fast. And we have to overcome every obstacle. United states President Trump want to thank all Americans for pulling us together. FDA Commissioner Dr. Stephen Hahn said during today's briefing that the FDA provides regulatory flexibility and guidance during this Coronavirus crisis Committed to Doing, the product fulfills its duty to ensure safety and effectiveness. Obstacles are being cleared for American Coronavirus patients with the latest, unbelievable speed. Including the race to develop not only vaccines for Coronavirus COVID-19, There is progress in making the therapy widely available. Clinical trials are already underway for therapy to fight Coronavirus. United States people know very well that our country have unbelievable innovators. We have people who every day do their job to develop treatments for all kinds of diseases, Dr. Hain also announced that an existing treatment for Coronavirus COVID-19 would be available soon for many patients. All people of united states from all backgrounds unite against this invisible Coronavirus enemy, President Trump wants every American to know that we are facing this historic challenge. the united states President signed the Family First Bill, which left our workers in the coming days, which will provides critical support for businesses and families. Paid leave and paid medical leave will be for those affected by the Coronavirus. More help is on the way. Tens thousands of tests are being conducted each day and available in all 50 states, Vice President Mike Pence announced. Access to medical devices is being expanded rapidly for everyone, including businesses, hospitals, and local state leaders. America Confirms that our economy will be boost again.

U.S. State Department Sanctions On Trading Transporting Petrochemicals For Iran

U.S. State Department Sanctions On Iran

U.S. State Department Sanctions On Petrochemicals Supply Entities And Companies for Iran

U.S. State Department Sanctions On Entities And Companies Trading Transporting Petrochemicals For Iran. On March 18, the U.S. State Ministry imposed sanctions in accordance with Executive Order (EO) 13846 on the following seven entities for intentionally engaging in an important transaction for the purchase, acquisition, sale, transportation, or marketing of petrochemical products for Iran. These are the following companies, South Africa company SPI International Proprietary Limited, Hong Kong-based companies McFly Plastic HK Limited, Saturn Oasis Co., Limited, and Sea Charming Shipping Company Limited; And China companies Dalian Golden Sun Import & Export Company Limited, Tianyi International Dalian Company Limited, and Aoxing Ship Management Shanghai Limited. were banned by the U.S. State Department, over the following two entities, each of which owns or controls by SPI International Proprietary Limited, and had knowledge of its approved activities. South African Company Main Street 1095; Tathairani unit Armed Forces Social Security Investment Company U.S. State Department imposed sanctions, E.O. 13846, on the executive officer of the above entities. 

United States Wish On Ireland National Day St. Patrick's Day

United States Wish On St. Patrick's Day

United States Wish On The Occasion Of Ireland National Day St. Patrick's Day

On behalf of the United States government, secretary of state MICHAEL R. POMPEO, congratulate and wish the people of Ireland on their National Day, St. Patrick's Day. On St. Patrick's Day, Americans have traditionally celebrate Irish St. Patrick's Day,  in the all parts of United States and all over the world. Many contributions were honored. Irish talent, self determination, and optimism lie in the heart of our mutual prosperity. The strength of united states partnership is reflected in our strong trade and investment relations with Ireland, which generate employment in both countries. United States important main function is to close cooperation on world security, and other global issues which contributes to peace and security around the world. The United States and the Ireland relations, ties and shared historical values, which will continue in the year ahead for Peace and security. United states secretary of state MICHAEL R. POMPEO, wish the people of Ireland a happy St. Patrick's Day and another year of continued success.

United States And European Commission Concerns Over Coronavirus COVID-19

U.S. And  European Commission Over Coronavirus COVID-19

United States Secretary of State Michael R. Pompeo spoke with European Commission President

United States Secretary of State Michael R. Pompeo spoke with European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen on 14 March. The United States and The European Commission discussed the importance of working together to limit the spread of Coronavirus COVID-19, noting that preventing the spread of the Coronavirus was a shared priority. Secretary Pompeo and President von der Leyne agreed that cooperation between the United States and the European Union was important. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a United States Department of Health and Human Services, has determined that the virus presents a serious public health hazard, and the CDC continues to take steps to prevent Coronavirus spread. But with state and local health departments, the CDC has limited resources, and the public health system may be overwhelmed if large-scale human-to-human transmission of the Coronavirus is sustained in the United States. The CDC has determined that the United Kingdom SARS-CoV-2's is widely spreading person-to-person. The people are experiencing transmission As of March 13, 2020, the World Health Organization reported that there were 594 cases of COVID-19 in the United Kingdom, 5 times as many as 7 days ago. The Republic of Ireland has an open border with the United Kingdom, in which individuals generally Can be freely transferred between the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom - by land to Northern Ireland and Wales and England and Scotland by ferry or plane.  the World Health Organization reported that there were 70 cases of COVID-19 in the Republic of Ireland, 5 times more than 7 days earlier.

The G7 Ministerial Summit should be Virtual on Video Teleconference due to Coronavirus COVID-19

The G7 Ministerial Summit should be hosted with an abundance of caution of Coronavirus, The United States has decided to host the upcoming G7 Ministerial Summit by video teleconference rather than assemble in Pittsburgh on 24 to 25 March. We thank the City of Pittsburgh for hosting this year's G7 Minister summit and for planning and assisting this year's event. due to Coronavirus Covid-19.

Temporary stagnation of international students exchange programs due to COVID-19

The Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) will temporarily pause all ECA-funded international students exchange programs, due to prevent the spread of Coronavirus. the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Alert Level 2 for Avoid Non-Sensory Travel or Increased Foreign travel for stopping the spread of Coronavirus  COVID-19.