Showing posts with label Organisational Behaviour and Design. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Organisational Behaviour and Design. Show all posts

Power And Politics In Organizational Behaviour Study

Power And Politics Study Organizational Behaviour Notes

Power And Politics Influenced In Organizational Behaviour


Power and politics are very crucial for organizational behavioural actions of individuals and groups. Individuals in organization use their power to satisfy their common needs or get what they want. While Groups or organizations use power and politics to control their members and employees for obtain and maintain to achieve their goals. power and politics influence team processes and organizational leadership in Organisational Behaviour. power and political in organizational behavior can be unethical and destructive for any organization.
Organizations are organized bodies of individuals or systems. Existence of political act in any organization is normal act. Thus, organizational life dominates by political relations. The strategic use of political power in organizations involves taking or gaining control of real symbolic resources. A political view of organizations, pointed out by Max Weber in1947. In 1978, Bacharach believes that an organization is a composite entity, in which interest and coalitions groups are important for the development of political perspectives in intra-organizational behaviors. From Dehrender's work in 1959 it is clear that, there are three groups which are important for the political analysis of any organizations, they are
Work groups.
Interest groups.
Coalition groups.

Work Groups


This groups may be based on the differences determined by departmental work activity, or organizational hierarchy.

Interest Groups


These groups can be defined as a group of actors who have similar goals and their Equality of Interdependence to achieve goals relation to the operation of their work.

Alliance Groups


An alliance is formed by groups of interested groups. Which Can be defined as to achieve common goals. They are based on joint action of two or more interest groups against another interest groups.

Definition Of Power


Gbadamosi in 1996 give the definition of power that, Power is the ability to employ force and mobilize resources, energy and information on behalf of a preferred goal.

Max Weber given powe definition in 1947 which is that, Power is the possibility that a person can do their will despite resist

Power is to impose individual will on group of individuals in spite of others Resistance. Which can be regular supply stop, rewards And punishment, as well as the effect is made in negative approval given by Blan in 1964.

Mechanic given the definition of power in1962 that, Power is defined as a force that results change in behavior, if power is not present that does not exist.

Kaplan in 1964 told that, Power] is the ability of one person or group of individuals to influence others behavior, that is, to change the possibilities that others have in some ways Replies.

Types Of Power


In 1961 Etzioni identifies three forms of power which are,
Coercive Power.
Remunerative Power.
Normative Power.

Coercive Power


It rests on the ability to exert the threat of physical sanction.

Remunerative Power


It is based on the control of material resources and rewards.

Normative Power


This power is based on the control of symbolic rewards.

Sources Of Power


After identifying the primary source of power, There are four main sources of power they are
Office or structural position Power
Individual Characteristics Power
Expertise power
Opportunity power

Office or Structural Position Power


The office or structural position can provide a access to various bases of power. Some positions may provide less information but sufficient powerful resources, while others positions may provide capacity to manipulate symbols or mobilize internal commitments to certain criteria

Individual Characteristics


The most marked personal attribute that is a source of this is Shakti Charisma. As Weber (1947) states, the charismatic leader possesses the power of unusual and often mysterious characteristics. However, relevant personal characteristics may include verbal skills, the ability to reason effectively for positions, or even physical features for example, the physical disability of a supporter's loyalty or the opposing position.

Expertise Power


Expertise refers to specific information. It is usually based on activities outside the organization, for example, education. It is regarded in French as a source of power rather than a basis for power, as it appears to be a means by which a party comes under control rather than control specific information.

Opportunity Power


This special source of power is embedded in informal structure of organization. This idea came from an analysis of the power of by the mechanic in 1962. at the lower level in an organization example regional employees. Informal aspects of formal positions or informal positions that are not officially recognized can provide an important source of organizational power

The flow of power


Usually power flows from upwards to downwards from higher levels management to lower level. it applies to the better subordinate relations as a whole and relates to the power of superiors over subordinates. However, the treatment of power means that subordinates can also exercise power, and that power is truly multidimensional. The effect of the multidimensional aspect of power is the method of power that, gives subordinates ability to manipulate the senior and the superiors to gain the most from their subordinates as specified in formal role obligations. Thus, a political approach to organizations implies a multidimensional image of power, and means a distinctly different, as well as, influence in terms of structure.

Organizational Politics


The word politics is derived from the Greek word "politics" which means a city or state. Originally Aristotle in 384 to 322 used this word in his book Politics refers to Greek city or state affairs. according to Aristotle view, man is a political human being that interacts with other or more persons, creating a relationship called politics. in 1951 lasswell told about the politics that politics is essentially a struggle for positions or power and influence by which such monopolies enabling society to make decisions that, affect the lives of every citizen of the country. politics can be practice in both governments and organizations for the purpose of fighting for power and influence, conflict, bargaining. Conciliation, resolution and consensus. there are two types of politics, which are, state politics and organizational politics. Here, we will mainly focus on organizational politics. Organizational politics deals with behaviors that are excluded from those in which one has taken a specific position for or against organization, the behavior intended to achieve selfish and personal ends which Others are opposed to the end of the organization. They seem impracticable but at the same time there are wide shifts from organization to organization. Ethical issues often come up and bargaining is an important consideration in Organizational politics. Organizational politics creates very reactionary reactions because people look at the whole. The way both negative and positive process depends on the particular viewpoint. However, those who succeed in organizational politics are seen to be positive, perhaps they are also successful competitors in other respects.

Organizational Politics Tactics


There are following organizational politics tactics proposed to gain a competitive advantage. Experts influence the timing and location of your bargaining efforts so that situations are chosen to support your goals. In many cases, it is advisable to bargain in your home area. this is a desirable bargaining strategy to hide your true interests for as long as possible. Service Being overly eager can leave you with a loss of district. Regarding other related ideas. Initially shoot for the moon so that you can settle for less but do not use this tactic for the same person. Identify any weaknesses that may be counterproductive and work continuously on. Promote them. Bind assemblies are alliances that try to indicate the difference between the alliance and any of your common interests with each member, thus attempting to divide and conquer. Establish alliances with superiors, peers, and subordinates so that when needed Be counted on your behalf. Select subordinates who are not only competent but reliable, and loyal. You do not get in a position to rely on the expertise of an opponent. if you are not knowledgeable in an area, secure your own expert and take steps to establish that credibility. Do not injure any other person in a position so that he couldn't take revenge. Do nothing to isolate or anger former allies when you step down. Unexpected burnt bridges As may be required. If the proposal developed by an adversary is unattractive, but cannot be rejected immediately, an attempt was made to refer to a committee to reduce it and widen the bargaining area. If the outcome is uncertain, It is often desirable to support aggressive efforts rather than someone else to get themselves ahead. That way, it can be easier to get on if you are in a hurry to sink. Steer the ship. In dealing with an opponent, try to leave the door open so that there is no communication is closed, if necessary differences can still be resolved. Avoid dealing with personality, never personally attack the adversary and focus on real facts and issues. Solve an issue when and under what circumstances a vote should be used. When you know how to let matters go to vote for a resolution. These were the importance organization politics tactics.

The Dynamics Of Organization Behaviour

The Dynamics Of Organization Behaviour in OB

Organizational Behavior Dynamics


The dynamics of organization behaviour reaches far beyond an organization's product or service and its processes. The study of the dynamics of organization behaviour focuses on aspects of human resources and includes the firm's cultural structure, how to motivate employees in the organization, how to handle  conflict and how to lead change. Thus organizational dynamics affects the necessary business functions, which can cause changes in organizational dynamics. You need a positive environment in order to work truly and profitably in your business. However, many business functions can affect the dynamics of your business and bring out behaviors in employees that can be counter-productive. You cannot end these tasks, but you can be aware of their potential effects on your company, and see signs of change in your organization so that you can move quickly to re-establish positive morale. Organizational dynamics is a central focus on people in major organizations and applies to almost every industry. Employees gain marketing skills ranging from analysis of personal relationships to overreaching management of the organization. Some key concepts include in organization dynamics, which are  understanding the key organizational principles, team dynamics, effective communication, interaction conflict management, cultural competence, and data analytics. There are following organizational dynamics functions.

Organizational Foundations


Organizational Foundations focus on understanding the characteristics and qualities of human behavior and how they interact to make organizations work. This will include analysis of historical perspective as well as review of contemporary theories. The successful organization's case studies will be used to demonstrate the application of theoretical concepts of case studies for practical situations.

Organizational Theory And Practice


Organizational Theory and Practice gives an overview of how organizations work, including theory, research, and applications. Employee will get understanding of organizational structure, culture, communication, and strategic planning processes within internal and external business environments. Current trends and cases will be discussed and students will engage in experiential exercises to facilitate critical thinking and then apply the course content to an organizational setting.

Team Dynamics


The focus of the Team Dynamics is to use of team spirit behavior in organizations. Employees will gain a deep understanding of team structure, processes and performance reviews, team roles, leadership and decision making. And create a self-directed work environment by using the concepts and processes of team dynamics.

Negotiation/Conflict


This negotiation conflict skill focuses on managing disputes within organization. The negotiation skills is used to analyze complex conflict and dispute situations, shape appropriate processes to engage the right parties, creatively compromise, select arbitrators and facilitators, and It emphasizes conflict management and resolution leadership.

Cultural Competence


Cultural Competence is designed to develop decision-making methods to solve problems and to facilitate effective and appropriate cultural competence. Employees need human resource management, supervision and staff development, team building, motivation for performance, inter-organizational collaboration, organizational learning strategy, cultural competence is a tool to effectively serving diverse and multicultural people in the organization. And by this skills employee will learn aspects of program planning, strategic management and planning, and strategies for major change efforts.

Organizational Leadership


The Organizational Leadership introduces leadership and management principles concepts. It offers opportunity for the employees to apply these principles through case analysis and to enhance personal skills development through self-assessment exercises. The organizational leadership identifies present and as well as contemporary perspectives on ethics, networking management, organizational culture, diversity, strategic learning leadership, and crisis leadership.

Quality Control


You need quality control measures to ensure that your employees can produce the best work. A quality control supervisor is required to investigate the work and identify problems with the employees working. While quality-control measures can improve quality, but they can also cause employees to become dissatisfied. Some may even get annoyed with checking their work. Dynamics in your organization can change a climate of collaboration and teamwork.

Cost Controls


You have to control your expenses. One of those expenses is payroll. In fact, payroll may be your biggest expense. If you start reducing overtime and cut the amount you are paying in wages, these cost-control measures can create fear and anger through your organization. Anger and fear can promote unproductive behavior such as rebellion and low productivity.

Productivity Improvements


If you want to maintaining maximum production, which can be big challenge for you as a business owner. You can initiate a series of small production, then measures and closely monitor production to detect the development of problems. Employees and supervisors can resist your efforts and introduce a dynamic to your organization, which we find "versus them". You should improve productivity as a way to work together as a team to avoid battling reluctant employees.

Data Analytics


This data analysis examines the ways in which organizations can use data to gain insights and make better decisions. Data analytics are implemented in operations, marketing, finance, and strategic planning, among other functions. The ability to use data effectively to make rapid, accurate, and profitable decisions has been an important strategic advantage for organizations.

Staff And Professional Development


If you provide specialized training to improve skills in your workforce, you can think of the effort as a positive step. However, employees may see additional skills as a burden that they are not being paid to take. You should try to make it clear that skill-improvement is a necessity to maintain profitability and current salary levels. You should also recognize that many employee resistance can be based on fear of not being able to master new skills. Assure your workforce that you are initiating employee development to make employee functions more appropriate to the needs of the new company. To avoid the inefficiency, new development is necessary.

Stress Management Strategies For Reducing Stress In OB

Stress Coping Up Strategies For Reducing Managing Stress In OB

Strategies For Reducing And Managing Stress


In this tough volatile competitive and computerized world, the challenges faced by a jobber can be harder than ever. Therefore, it is very important to manage and reduce stress at workplaces.
For workers everywhere, the work situation become very harsh. Today's uncertain competitive work environment increased fear, uncertainty, and a high level of stress. The effects of stress are multifaceted, but one must try to very important to defeat stress. This is stress management. How better you deal  and manage your stress, the more you will positively affect the stress around you and the less others will affect you. Stress control is a leadership responsibility. Those who ignore the prevailing stress level are negligent in their duties. One must be diligent in combating stress. There are following strategies for dealing with stresses in stress management, which are discussed below.

Implications For The Individuals


Employees or workers productivity is the most deciding factor for the success of an organization. Productivity is depends on the psychological well-being of employees. In this highly dynamic and competitive world, human beings are exposed to all kinds of stress, due to stress human all life affect. While it is impossible to scrap it completely, there are certain ways and means of dealing with the brutal effects of stress. In stress management we control and maintain the situations, people and events.

Recognize Stress


Initially the existence of stress should be recognized. Stress observations include mental, social, and physical manifestations. When stress is interfering with your ability to work, take care of yourself and find what is bothering you. Once you identify the presence of stress, start by countering it.

Acquiring Knowledge About The Job


Job-related stress arises when the worker is not able to meet the inherent challenges in the job. The employee may lack some skills. The best way to reduce this type of stress is to acquire knowledge and skills in one's job according to their abilities.

Prioritize The Tasks


A list should be made of the tasks that should be done, and they should be arranged in order of importance. Start with high priority task. If something is unpleasant to do, quickly done it fast so that the rest of the day's work will be completed more peacefully. This kind of priority can help put things in order, and make tasks easier. Plan your day and stick to it for the schedule. You will feel less stress.

Plan The Work


Any employee working in the organization should plan their work clearly. When, what, how and why all such questions should be answered before starting the work. A well-planned job will end well without any chaos. This will not create any unnecessary stress or anxiety. Therefore, plan the work to be done. Planning ahead will improve the quality of work and prevent unnecessary confusion.

Managing The Time


Analyze your schedule, responsibilities and daily tasks. You have to manage a balance between work and family life, social activities and daily responsibilities. Avoid too much scheduling in single day. put tasks at the bottom of the list or eliminate them altogether if they are of minimal importance. Try to get to the office 15 minutes early and don't add to your stress levels by walking late. Do take a short breath. End the day work on time and moving away from work site to rest and recharge, which  keeps an employee more productive.

Ambiguous Work Situations


If people are uncertain about their jobs and careers, there is a feeling of helplessness and out of control. When the role is unclear due to lack of communication or the difference between assignment the role, it is better to clarify and receive roles with management as properly defined. There is a need for clear communication between personal and management.

Activities Vs Results


Simply engaging in various activities does not ensure that the desired results are being achieved. This reduces the quality of work and exhaustion. Therefore, one should not showing constantly busy, without showing results. First of all you should finish your first job, then taken others works in hand.

Delegate Responsibilities


If it is possible for the role occupant to share and divide the work, so that the necessary work must be done without much stress. If other people can take care of the work, you should have to give chance to them. So it will be possible to let go of unnecessary stress in the work process.

Stress Symptoms In The Workplace

Stress Symptoms at Workplace in Organizations

Stress At The Workplace


A good and healthy job is, where the pressure on employees is justified in relation to their abilities and resources, the amount of control they have over their work, and the support they receive from employer and organizations. a positive state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being at healthy workplace environment. people giving continuous assessment of risks to health, appropriate information on health issues and training. A healthy work environment in the organization is in which employees make health and promotion in their working lives. In this tough volatile competitive and computerized world, the challenges facing by the employee can be harder than ever. Both personal and occupational tensions increase human pulse and pressure. Everyone has special abilities, if these abilities are not used properly and recognized properly, they may feel reluctant or frustrated. Some low level of stress is a normal part of life, excessive stress interferes with productivity and reduces physical and emotional health. Therefore, it is very important to manage and reduce stress at work places. Ability to manage stress in the workplace can differentiate between success and failure at work. Stress is contagious and has an impact on the quality of life. Interacting with others as it transfers its bad characters to others. When an individual and organization experience role stress, adopt a variety of ways to deal with weight loss. This is stress management. The better you are managing your stress, the more you will positively affect the stress around you and the less others will affect you. Stress control is a leadership responsibility. Those who ignore the prevailing stress level are negligent in their duties. One must be diligent in combating stress. Understanding the concept of stress and reducing stress, one step at a time, can have a wonderful effect on controlling bad effects of stress.

Symptoms Of Stress


Due to these stresses or pressures, employees develop various stress symptoms that can damage their job performance. Often people who are under stress can panic and develop chronic anxiety. He is easily angry and unable to rest. They can be un-co-operative and in some cases excessive use of alcohol, drugs. Stress also gives rise to physical disorders due to physical changes to combat stress. This causes short distances disorders such as upset stomach, poor sleepiness, etc. such as stomach ulcers, diseases associated with the heart, kidneys, blood vessels, and parts of the body. The following figure specifies various symptoms of stress.

Physical Symptoms Of Stress


Physical symptoms of stress are associated with physical illnesses and increased blood pressure, increased heart and breathing rates, ulcers, headaches, convulsions and mild strokes.

Psychological Symptoms Of Stress


Not only physically affected, but will suffer personally due to the presence of mental stress. This causes job dissatisfaction, which is the most obvious psychological effect. In this state the person becomes mentally weak and unable to think further. Anxiety, aggression, boredom, depression, fatigue, frustration, guilt, hyper sensitivity, mental inhibition, danger and stress surround a person and imprison a worker in his or her cruel arms.

Behavioral Symptoms Of Stress


Behavioral Symptoms due to stress are related to changes in productivity, as well as changes in eating habits, increased alcohol consumption, rapid speech and sleep disorders, impaired speech, loss of appetite, impulsive behavior, emotional fit etc. arising from different job dimensions The occupational stress worsens the mental and physical health of the worker. It makes the employee stressed, depressed, anxious and emotionally unstable, Since the symptoms are just a siren blown against the threat, proper attention must be given to carrying it to work without any obstruction and dissatisfaction.

Stress Impact On Organizations


Stress Impact On Organizations shows Absenteeism, poor industrial relations and poor productivity, labor turnover rates, poor organizational climate, job and job conflicts, etc. will severely affect the running of an organization. With the advancement of technology, globalization and liberalization, stress has also increased. Therefore, stress management has become the need for the organization. Stress can inspire risky body-mind disorders. Therefore, it is important to keep this in mind to manage stress, before it takes a very bad effects on productivity and health of an employee.

Stress Affect And Factors On Employee Job Performance

Stress Management in Organizational Behavior


Stress Management Stress Effects On Job Performance


Stress in job performance is an important process, which enhances the improvement of production and profit. The performance of an employee will be good by applying low stress, since there are no serious problems and disruptions in the smooth functioning of the organization. If employees are squeezed without any need and facilities by high stress, then their performance will reduce. and if employees do not do their work, the mild stress is in such unpleasant situations, stress can either be 'helpful' or 'harmful' depending on the amount of tension. When there is no stress, job challenges are absent and performance is reduced. As stress increases, performance increases because stress helps the person to call. Resources to meet job requirements. At this point there is additional stress. Not much improvement. Finally, if the stress becomes too high, the performance of the employee starts to decline because the stress interferes with it. At this stage, one loses the ability to cope and is unable to make decisions and there uncertainty in the behavior. The logic underlying at low to medium level stress stimulates the body and increases its ability to react. At this stage, an employee's performance becomes better and deeper. Too much stress places unattainable demands on a person which leads to poor performance.

Organizational Stressors


Stress can arise due to difficulties encountered in one's own job. If the working condition is not fully utilized, if the job terminates a person completely. One who calls a person a serious person, his role is suppressed under the evils of stress in such situations. Stress affects a person on his right path and gets involved in destructive activities. The four commonly used terms in the literature are stress, tension, conflict, and pressure. Stress reduces the role of the occupant in the role. Occupational stress arising from different job dimensions worsens the mental and physical health of the employee. It makes the employee stressed, depressed, anxious and emotionally unstable.

Levels Of Stress


The nature of stress consists of high, medium or low stages. High and low levels of stress are not suited to a person and organization. But there is an optimal 'level' or moderate level of stress for each individual, under which he / she will work to perform the full potential. If the stress is reached below this optimal level, the person is bored,  then motivation is required to work, If someone works in a very low stress environment and experiences frequent boredom, the person is likely to be psychologically or physically carefree from work. Psychological will result in carefree mistakes being made frequently, forgetting things, etc. and physical will lead to decreased turnover.

Duration And Intensity Of Stress


Period of stress is very important for job performance and satisfaction. Stress can be either temporary or long-term, mild or severe, mostly depending on how long it causes, how strong they are, and how strong the employee's recovery powers are. If stress is temporary and mild, most people can handle it or at least recover from it rather quickly. the optimal stress levels are different for different individuals, each person can understand and determine how functional stress is for him or her to operate in a productive way. at low levels of stress, performance is reduced to the lowest level, then gradually the stress starts to rise and reaches the optimum level, the performance is also increased, And high levels of stress, performance start reducing and reaches a very low level.

Determinants Of Stress


Conditions that are responsible for causing stress are Typically combine to create stressful pressures. An employee takes action in several ways until stress develops and counteracts the strategy. Employees may react to these stresses by either positive or negative stress, which can result in personal as well as constructive or disastrous results. The determinants of stress are discussed below.

Personality Characteristics


An important factor contributing to the stress level of an employee is the personality of the person himself. It builds stress to such a level that someone can attempt suicide. A very competitive man would be in a situation, in which he threatened the most, by someone who is not competitive. This competitive person lives under time pressure and worry about lack of time. But there are those who capture some personality ambiguity, predict high tolerance for self-esteem, etc. and handle high levels of stress effectively. A high degree of tolerance ambiguity allows individuals to experience much less suffering, while having insufficient information or working in an uncertain condition.

Role Conflict


It is the simultaneous occurrence of two or more sets of pressures that would be more difficult compliance. Role conflict is more for employees who are not given proper work space, work instructions by higher officials. It is quite likely that those in the role experience some inconsistency between the two who have expectations from their role. Although conditions may not be antagonistic, the person may perceive them as incompatible and may suffer from ambiguous conditions.

Role Ambiguity


Due to lack of information, a role holder experiences this situation due to lack of understanding of the clues available to him or her. In some organizations, role holders do not have enough information about what they are expected to do, and specifically how they will have to do a task. As a result, they are subjugated by the role. Role occupants have no choice but are left to ponder what should be done next. Too much role ambiguity may be the cause of psychological and physical complaints. Therefore, role ambiguity is the most powerful stress.

Role Overload


At this stage, role occupants are faced with a set of obligations that require them to do more, than they are able to do within the available time. The employer's expectations can be bombarded, which he ultimately cannot cope with. People suffer from lack of time and many activities, called qualitative and quantitative stress. When workers understand job responsibilities beyond their capabilities, so that there is less time left for their friends and families. they are exhausted completely after finishing work, in this situation the employee is both physically and mentally disturbed.

Role Erosion


The act of removing sand particles by the river is called the river erosion. In the same way, when employees feel that something is being done that should really have been related to them, it can be overcome with stress and tension. If there are some tasks and role feels stressful to the person he or she wants to perform,

 Role Stagnation


The most dangerous aspect in the workplace is the lack of dull work, due to which Some people develop a strong contradiction to their jobs in the organization, but the secondary working conditions are sometimes so favorable that people stick to them involuntarily with satisfaction from their jobs. There is promotion here which automatically creates stress.

Role Incompatibility


This creates an agreement between a person and a job environment. It depends on personal abilities and possibilities presented by the jobber. If there is no coordination between the person and the environment (job), then the stress and tension of the employee will be cause for physical and emotional harm.

Self Role Distance


People experience tension between the role and the self, indicating how far the role is integrated with itself. When a person living in a role does not enjoy a particular role or does not join it, the distance between the self and the role is increased. Self-role distance indicates conflict between the self-concept and the predictable role-play from the actual role.

Scientific Developments


The mechanized system has developed rapidly in all areas, so many employees were fired from their jobs. Not only due to this mechanized system, but also the operation of such technical development is very difficult to understand. and it requires fresh training. Some level of adaptation will be necessary and may involve stress responses.

Inter Personal And Group Factors


However, the role of the personal suffers from any of the above stresses, is also not free from this stress. This includes factors such as conflicts, unpleasant relationships and poor communication with the group. Working between the attentive eyes of the seniors or keeping pace with them that no one supports can be a source of stress. Although some people, however, have tolerance for such conflicts and misunderstandings, the majority find it difficult to cope with such situations and create internal tensions. When faced with an environment of poor communication and unpleasant relationships, individuals try to avoid the stresses of being absent as often as possible or start working for other organizations that can leave the organization or even take voluntary retirement.

Nature Of The Job


The nature of the work performed by the person can often cause stress. If a job is too routine, sluggish and bored or may be demanding in the context of continuous travel, frequent transfers on attainment goals, that may limit the time spent together with the family, the person is likely to experience stress. Some jobs can also be dangerous or if morally conflicting for the person. People working in an explosive or bomb deactivating factory or if people feel there is a lack of cordial relations exist, or if the work calls for heavy work load and exhaust. An employee may become stressed after working in such a case . Workers in this area may be forced to live, which can be a constant source of severe stress and suffering.

Organizational Structural Factors


However, the above stresses can be avoided in one way or another, this condition will have to be spared with the occupant in the role. Environmental factors such as noise, heat, malfunction, light, radiation and smoke are the inducing agents. Poor light causes headaches and poor eyesight leads to mistakes. Sometimes a person may be forced to work with a noisy environment, which can not only cause obstruction, but may also interfere with the hearing of the occupant. Insufficient resources such as time-space, space, human-power, money, material, can lead to further stress.

Pay Scale And Promotion


Salary and promotions are considered important factors. Passion not only helps people to meet their basic needs but also plays an important role in the need to provide upper level satisfaction. Fringe benefits are also necessary but they are not as effective. In addition, many numbers of promotions take place, Promotions are past performance and recognition awards. Promotion will definitely move towards a positive change in work in which responsibility can be increased for people. When these benefits are denied, and an employee is deprived of all the blessings that may come from the work site, then automatically it disturbs the employee and creates tension, frustration, fatigue, and anxiety.

Inter Personal Relations


Stress may be unacceptable or as a result of feelings of discrimination by friends, co-workers are the most modest source of peaceful support, comfort, advise and assist the individual worker. Makes a "good" work group Do more enjoyable work. On the other hand, if reverse conditions exist, people are difficult to associate with. So an effective working group is needed, where is no fear, tension and confusion, which affects the performance of the worker.

Decreased Motivation


If workers are less motivated or not motivated through their monetary or non-monetary base, they lack the enthusiasm towards the work and become sleepy and inactive. and they don't give their best for their organization. In this situation worker will feel neglected, lose interest, become aggressive and engage in all kinds of unwanted activities.

Physiological Needs


Man lives by bread, if a man who is extremely and dangerously hungry, no other interest exists except food for a hungry man. He dreams for food, he don't remembers housing facilities, he didn't thinks of clothes, don't wants to meet the needs like freedom, love, community, feelings, respect, philosophy, sexual behavior etc. He only want food, a person who lacks food, he will be Too stressed with clothes, social, personal and material benefits, safety, love and respect anything else, when he will be not hungry.

Absence of social support


Relationships with others, both at home and at work, are often important for the well-being of a worker. It places high demands on social skills. There should be good relations between the employee and the family, employee and the people around his / her and management. When the individual is placed in an awkward, irritable position, he / she should receive the support of the society along with the collaborators. Social support can be monetary and non-monetary support. When the person grapples with the severe effects of stress, he or she must required the social support to manage the stress.

Stress Management Stress Definition Characteristics And Types

Stress Management in OB

Stress Definition


Stress is defined in terms of its physical and physiological effects on a person, and it can be mental, physical or emotional stress. Stress is defined as how it affects physical and psychological health, It includes mental, physical and emotional stress. Stress occurs when a demand exceeds a person's ability to imitate and disrupts his or her psychological balance.
Hanselye ‘The Father of Stress’, defined stress as “The force pressure or strain exerted upon a material object or a person which resist the exerted forces and try to maintain its original state is called stress”. Stress is a major problem in our society. 75% of bodily diseases causes are stress related. due to severe and prolonged stress lead to suppression of the body’s immune system,

Stress at Work


It is generally agreed that stress occurs at work, views differ on the importance of worker characteristics vs. working conditions as its primary cause. Different approaches and different ways suggest to prevent stress at work. Various personal characteristics, such as personality and copulation skills, can cause stress as a result of certain critical situations. In other words we can say that, stress for one person may not be a problem for someone else. Stress related disorders are psychological disorders example, depression, anxiety, traumatic stress disorder and other types of emotional stress such as, dissatisfied, fatigue, Stress and encompassing a wide array of situations, including malicious behavior like, aggression, Substance abuse, and cognitive impairment, concentration and memory problems. Job stress is also associated with various biological reactions, that can eventually lead to physical health, such as heart disease.

Characteristics Of Stress


Symptoms of stress The following are the salient features of stress. The word stress refers to the idea of a 'system'. This will be true for those who possess strong moral values of good and bad deep meanings of personal and organizational responsibility. Stress can be caused by excessive work load provided to worker or employees, within deadlines that undesirable work force consequences of stress for employees, which have to be stopped against the sense of duty. There are following Characteristics of stress, which are,

Stress Is Intangible In Nature


Stress is intangible in nature that can neither be seen nor touched, but its presence can be felt through its loss but sometimes it takes a turn for the better.

Stress Is Highly Individualistic And Impulsive


Stress in the form of stress or pressure on employee's inclination towards highly individualistic and impulsive labor. and thus enables one's to achieve organizational goals.

Stress Is A Strong Predictor


Stress can be used to predict of various personal and work-related results. In Encyclopedia of Stress, Flick defines stress as real or as a threat to one's physical or psychological integrity that results in a physical or behavioral response.  It is a reaction to challenging events.

Stress Taxes A Person’s Physical And Psychological Resources


Stress taxes a person's physical and psychological resources'. A person for whom no success is satisfactory, who gets angry and enmity towards the people on, who constantly worries about future risks and even more complex tasks about the next project, Puts oneself under an unfair degree of stress.

The Outcomes Of Stress Are Not Always Negative But Also Positive


The consequences of stress are not always negative but also positive. It has a positive effect on a person. However, too much excessive and frequent stress is unfavorable for employees.

Types Of Stress


Stress has often been misunderstood to be negative with some people, recognizing the importance and usefulness of positive stress. In our daily lives, stress is everywhere and certainly inevitable; Therefore our emphasis should be on differentiating between what is good stress and what is bad. Negative stress can cause many physical and psychological problems, while positive stress can be very helpful for everyone. There are four main types of stress. They are as follows,

Eustress


This is a positive type of stress. It prepares a person to be ready for the allotted work, to complete the work on time without delay and it provides the motivation and strength necessary to complete the work. "Eustress" is the enjoyable when Possible events happen.

Distress


It is a negative form of stress. It occurs when the mind and body are unable to cope with the changes, and this type of stress usually occurs when deviations occur from ideals. This type of stress can be acute or chronic, which can be either acute or permanent. This is unpleasant stress with negative events.

Hyper-stress


This is another form of negative stress that mostly occurs when the person is unable to cope with the workload. This happens when work is extremely stressful or may require work more than one hour of work to be handled by the person. If a person is suffering from hyper-stress, then he or she can get an emotional break down on extraterrestrial issues.

Hypo Stress


Finally, hypo stress occurs when a person has no connection with him / her and is constantly bored and unmotivated. This is due to insufficient volume of tension. Therefore, some stress is unavoidable and some are useful to us.

10 Most Efficient Effective Ways To Overcome Learning Barriers

Overcome Learning Barriers

Top Ten Effective Methods Learning Barriers 


Learning is the process by which a person receives, ingests and stores or accepts information. Our experiences with the information learned form our knowledge. Learning can change our behavior. Knowledge or skills acquired through schooling or study is also called learning. In learning, every learner has to face some hurdles or barriers. the learner should overcome on these barriers by himself. There are ten Ways to Overcome Learning Obstacles or barriers. Which are,

1 - Environment.
2 - Routine.
3 - Verbal Instructions.
4 - Respect.
5 - Non-curricular Activities.
6 - Improving Communication Skills.
7 - ICT and Presentation Facilities.
8 - Give Concentration.
9 - Learn New Culture
10 - Effective and Timely Feedback.

Environment


Environment is a big factor for the organization. Because of noisy environment, learning should be difficult for the learner. The organizational environment should be noiseless. In addition to these, the organization should use visual cues, gestures and / or a signature system that reinforce spoken and written language, creating a visual timetable, and as far as possible, eliminate outside noise.

Routine


This is important to reduce confusion and give people a sense of security. When routines have to be broken, make sure that people are prepared and talks to them about what is going to happen.

Verbal Instructions


Verbal instructions should be brief and precise. The instructor should make sure that the learner knows that he is addressing them, not someone else. The teacher should make sure that the learner knows that he is addressing them, not someone else. Instructions should be given. He must speak clearly and naturally to ensure that the learner can see the face of the trainer.

Respect


If Young people don't want to work in pairs or groups, then you should not be forced to work in pairs or groups if they are uncomfortable in that situation. Honor should be shown for differences and be aware of the social network of the room, where the teaching session Will be held.

Non-curricular Activities


Problems often arise when the session is going on. After session times, in breaking time Non-curricular Activities should be organized for learners. Like, computer clubs, organized games and patrons, provide valuable support and Some training in social skills. which will help the students to deal with new situations.

Improving Communication Skills


Good communication skills can be better for learning anything. In this case, the instructor must use language that can be understood by the learners. In order to learn better, we have to improve our communication skills as soon as possible.

ICT and Presentation Facilities


To successfully conduct a teaching session, the instructor or organization must use ICT and visual presentation facilities. This affects the learner in a short period of time.

Give Concentration


All learners should focus on learning sessions. the organization should arranges training session to improve the skills of the employees, but it should focus on concentration of employee learning to succeed in the career. Sometimes it helps the employees. organization clearly concentrate to tell employees their work. Therefore, if they do not listen to these things properly, they will not perform their duties properly.

Learn New Culture


Although different countries have different cultures in the same country, the learner must learn about the new culture and learn to adjust there before moving to a new culture.

Effective and Timely Feedback


This is important for any kind of learning. Know in advance the presence of the instructor in a discussion forum and ask the questions that keep the discussion going. The learners should be aware of their progress throughout the course. It has already been made clear that the barriers are in the learner's, within the center of education, within the education system and in the wider social, economic and political context. These barriers may be exposed in different ways. And are only apparent when the urge to learning is broken. when the learner is out of the system or when it appears outside. Sometimes it is possible to identify permanent barriers in the learner or system that enable obstacles during the learning process and are seen as metamorphic goes. Different interventions or strategies may be required to prevent these. If the Effective and Timely Feedback have to be considered at the time of arranging a separate session, the organization will be successful.

Main Common Learning Barriers In Organizational Behaviour

Learning Barriers In Organizational Behavior

Learning Barriers In Organizational Behaviour


In some circumstances, people have encountered some obstacles while learning. Learning barriers are problems or situations that prevent learners from accessing programs, making it difficult for learners to go to class or for learners. It becomes difficult to concentrate and learn.
There are seven barriers to learning which are,
Presentation problem.
changing new culture.
Not Available appropriate support.
Employment related issues.
Lack of concentrate.
The financial problem.
The political influence.

Presentation Problem


The presentation problem is one of the major biggest barriers to learning. Sometimes people do not understand the meaning of a subject, if it is presented verbally without using visual methods of any kind of presentation. In this situation it becomes very difficult for the learner to understand clearly.

Changing New Culture


Another barrier to learning is changing their culture. If people move to another new culture, sometimes they do not get the proper sufficient environment, and it disrupts the people learning process. In this case, first they have to learn the new culture within a very short period of time, and it become very difficult for learning process.

Not Available Appropriate Support


When learners do not get proper support from family and organizationfor Learning, they cannot learn things properly.

Employment Related Issues


Employment related issues can be a major problem in the learning process. People cannot learn if, they do not have a good relationship with their superior or subordinate. Moreover, if there is no reinforcement related to learning outcomes, employees cannot be motivated to achieve good results from it.

Lack Of Concentrate


Sometimes employees are unable to focus properly on the learning process due to their family, personal or organizational problems. There are some learning courses that require proper concentration.

The Financial Problem


Some people have financial problems and because of this they cannot participate in the learning process. Financial problems can be a hindrance to learning. insufficient funds or lack of finance hindrance people learning process properly.

The Political Influence


Political influence can be a hindrance for learning. If the political environment is in favor of the learner, then it becomes an opportunity for the learner. If the environment is not so good, then they have to face many problems due to political influences. If there is a problem with the person who will give information to the learners, then it becomes very difficult for the person to learn. There can be many problems such as lack of skills, language problems, lack of information, lack of desire, etc.




Different Methods Of Learning Styles In Organizational Behaviour

Learning Styles In Organizational Behaviour


Different Methods Of Learning In OB


There are mainly five different types of learning  methods,which are,
Trial and Error Method.
Conditional Response.
Learning by Insight.
Learning by Imitation.
Transfer of Training.

Trial and Error Method


Trial and error method is the most prominent and simplest method in which learning occurs. A person placed in a new position makes several random movements, in which he fails, eliminated and becomes successful. It is learning by trying something, succeeding or failing.

Conditional Response


This method was developed as a result of the experiments of conditional reaction by Ivan Pavlov and Watson. It is a process of replacing the original stimulus with a new one and associating the reaction with it. Pavlov conducted an experiment on a dog. He used to ring the bell while giving food to the dog. When food was placed in front of the dog and the bell rang the saliva spread to the dog's mouth, but it was also observed that when only the bell rang, but no food was given, saliva started coming out. Pavlov called the this response, conditional response. In learning by conditioned feedback, there is no choice or freedom. A good part of early childhood learning is the result of conditioning.

Learning by Insight


psychologists opposed the trial and error method. He argues that learning is not a blind and mechanical process. This includes insight into the total situation. In learning, we use our understanding as motor in insight learning activity. Learning by observation is learning by insight, understanding relation in the scene and learning by understanding the situation. After looking at the whole situation, the learner tries to make some sense about it and it gives him clues as to how to proceed to solve the problem, the way in which he should proceed and perform a task. There should be a general awareness of the consequences of learning

Learning by Imitation


Imitation is one of the most important process of learning. A man, consciously or unknowingly, imitates his partner's actions, manners and styles. A child learns to walk, talk and behave as its parent or sibling. It is therefore important that the first model should be replicable.

Transfer of Training


Transfer of training means that training is transferred from one skill to another. This is of particular importance for all types of industrial training programs. Simply put, the transfer of training from learning or not learning in the same situation will facilitate learning and performance in similar situations later. There are three possibilities of learning,

1:Positive transfer

Learning in one situation enhances learning or performance in a new situation.

2: Negative transfer

Learning in one situation prevents learning in a new situation.

3: No observational effect.

Continuous Learning Components is Organizational Behaviour

Continuous Learning In Organizational Behaviour

Continuous learning


Learning is a continuous process of life, the pinnacle of the vision and vision of the universe. Learning is the only thing that separates humans from animals. As a human being, we have a great privilege to think. Thinking is a great thing that we all can do. A great quote from the irreverent APJ Abdul Kalam is "The process of learning provides creativity, about learning. Creativity enhances to the thinking, thinking imparts knowledge, knowledge makes you great ". Adhyagam is a stance taken by a person who observes, seeks prior knowledge, guides. allows discovery, and the acquisition of information, attitudes and behavior from within, as well as without seeing. All of this is a process if we stop learning and thinking, then there is no creativity and knowledge in our lives. Every human being must struggle beyond anything to learn new things. Ever since we were born, we learn many things. First of all, we learn how to stand, how to speak, how to move which has been thought by our parents. After that we acquire all the basic skills of life like eating, sleeping, wearing clothes etc. and basic knowledge by ourselves and with the help of others. Then, we were old enough to go to school, our parents taught us Sent to go to school. We spent all our children learning consequently, We could get a good level of knowledge to get a job after graduation from high school or university. We got more and more knowledge in our field because our experience is very valuable. Then we got training, held a seminar or joined a cyber class, got knowledge from the Internet or studied at home myself. Continuous lemming is a process that surrounds one's approach to sharing knowledge, academic curiosity, reading and practice, creativity, ability to think, and levels of knowledge. All of which are very important in creating a complete personality. Many people, once they have passed any certificate or obtained a degree, they will feel that they have attained the pinnacle of life. However, in reality, it is not. It is only a small part of the lifelong learning process. From every failure in our life, we should be able to learn a new thing. Therefore, please do not limit us to learning in just one subject, if we can see it with a wide range of thinking, then the whole world looks very small. Also called the age of competition. Everyone wants to compete with each other. Learning is also for the same purpose. Also in learning, people leak to compete with other. We should continue to study. Today everyone tries to get the perfect job. After getting a job, they also try to get progress in their jobs. People know that nothing lasts forever. Knowledge changes so fast. We spend our whole life on education, it is life long work. People who are 60 years ahead are also involved in learning activities. To kill the time, they learn various literature, stories, books of comics etc., therefore, we all are related to learning.

Learning Components


Typically, learning can be defined as a relatively permanent change in behavioral ability that results from reinforced practice or experience. It can change our behavior. Since birth, everyone used to learn from their environment. On the other hand, the knowledge or skill acquired through schooling or study is also called teaching. Learning has many components. learning involves change. From an organizational perspective, change can be good or bad. People can learn adversarial behavior to capture prejudices or restrict their production. Temporal changes can only be reversible and may not represent learning. It is therefore required that learning should be relatively permanent in nature. Some form of experience is required to learn. Experience can be gained directly through observation or practice, or it can be gained indirectly, as through reading. Learning involves concentration and participation. It is usually quick and long lasting when the learner actively participates. As a result of participation, people learn more quickly and sustain that learning for a longer time. Learning does not happen in the classroom at a specific location. It is informal and can be obtained anytime, anywhere. There is no specific time to learn. A person can learn various things throughout his life. A change in a person's thought processes or attitudes, if not accompanied by a change in behavior, would not lead to learning. Learners benefited more from building an in-depth explanation of the content than memorizing the facts. If there is no explanation in learning, then learning by learning will be difficult for the learners. There are many ways to learn things. But the learner must know which is the best way to learn and choose it. It is related to the constant feedback that the learners should receive from the instructors and peers during the teaching process. Without it, well-learned abilities will also go away. feedback would be most effective if it is delivered in an enjoyable setting that involves a considerable level of personal interaction and personal support.

Four Types Learning Theories Models In Organizational Behaviour

Learning Theories Models In OB


Learning Theories In Organizational Behaviour 


Learning is the individual's personal growth as a result of collaborative interactions with others. Learning has taken place if a person reacts to others or changes in prior behavior. there are four types of learning Theories, which are,
Classical ConditioningLearning Theory. 
Operant Conditioning Learning Theory. 
Cognitive Learning Theory.
Social Learning Theory.

Classical Conditioning Learning Theory


Classical conditioning is a type of conditioning in which a person reacts to certain stimuli that would not normally produce a response. It is a learning process to add a particular thing to our environment to predict what will happen next. With Classical conditioning, resulting in behavior along with another desired event connection to understand learning processes. When we think of classical conditioning, the first name that comes to our mind is that Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov. The general stimulus for the flow of saliva is the taste of food. But often mouth watering at the sight of luscious peaches, described on it or even thinking about it. Thus, one situation is substituted for the behavior of another. This is called conditioning. In the case of classical conditioning, a simple surgical procedure allowed Pavlov to accurately measure the amount of saliva secreted by the dog. When Pavlov presented a dog with a piece of meat, the dog experienced a significant increase in saliva. When Pavlov stopped the presentation of the meat and only rang the bell, the dog did not salivate. Pavlov then proceeded to add the flesh and the ringing of the bell. After hearing the bell repeatedly before receiving food, the dog started dripping saliva as soon as the bell rang. After a while, the dog only salutes at the sound of the bell, even if no food is offered. In classical conditioning, learning involves a conditional stimulus and unconditional stimulus. Here, the flesh was an unconditional stimulus; This of course caused the dog to react in a specific way. When the bell was paired with the meat, the reaction eventually produced when presented alone. It is a conditioned response.

Operant Conditioning Learning Theory


The second type of conditioning is called operational conditioning. Here, we learn that a particular behavior usually has a reward or punishment. What Pavlov did for classical conditioning, Harvard psychologist B.F. Skinner did it for operational conditioning. Operator conditioning argues that the behavior of one will depend on different conditions. People will repeatedly behave in a specific way from where they will get benefit. On the other hand, they will try to avoid a behavior where they will not get anything. Skinner argued that creating pleasurable results for specific forms of behavior would increase the frequency of that behavior. In a well-known experiment in which handlers exhibit learning, psychological B.F. Skinner trained the mice to press a lever to obtain food. In this experiment, a hungry rat was placed in a box containing some hidden food. At first, the rat ran randomly around the box. When press the lever, the food box Leaving the food reinforced the reaction of the lever. After repeating the process of pressing the lever after quitting the food, the rats pressed the lever for food. If they are positively reinforced to do so then people Will engage in desired behavior. Rewards are most effective way, if they immediately follow the desired response. Also, behavior that is not rewarded, or punished is less likely to be repeated. For example, suppose you are an 'X' bank employee. Your branch manager has announced in a meeting that you will get a bonus if you can deposit $ 100,000,000 for the bank. You worked hard and found that you did it successfully. But when the time comes, you get That you are not given any bonus for your hard work, which increases the bank's deposit by $ 100,000,000. In the next year, if your manager again tells you about hard work. Maybe you Will not work hard because last year you got nothing for it. Many of the activities that we will engage in during everyday life can be classified as an operator. Locking your keys in a lock, writing a letter, saying "I love you" to your wife, to parents Calling on the telephone, these are all functions that are operative in the sense that we do them in anticipation of a return that acts as a corroboration for the commission of these behaviors.

Cognitive Learning Theory


Cognitive theory refers to a person's thoughts, knowledge of interpretations, understanding or ideas about himself or her environment. It is a process of learning through active and creative thought processes, such as practice or using our memory. An example could be that you were taught how to tell time by looking at a clock. Someone told you about big hands and small hands. The meaning is taught, and you have to practice telling the time when you were learning it for the first time. This learning process was completely inside your mind and did not involve any physical movements or behaviors. Cognitive Theory has been used to explain mental processes as they are influenced by both internal and external factors, which ultimately bring about learning in a person. Cognitive Learning theory implies that various processes related to learning are first explained by analyzing mental processes It envisions that with effective cognitive processes, it is easier to learn new information stored in memory over a longer period of time. On the other hand, ineffective cognitive processes result in learning difficulties that can be traced back to someone.

Social Learning Theory


Social learning theory also called observational learning, emphasizes on person's ability to learn what happens to Model, Parents, teachers, co-workers, movies TV actors, bosses and others behavior are learned by observing the behavior of others and its consequences for them. In this theory, it is said that the influence of the model is the central issue. Four procedures have been found to determine the influence of Social Learning Theory on a model. These processes are,
Attention Process
Retention Process
Model Reproduction Process
Reinforcement Process

Attention Process


People learn from a model only when they identify and pay attention to its important features. If the learner is not attentive, they will not be able to learn anything. We are most often affected by the available attractive models because we see the same as ours.

Retention Process


The effect of the model depends on whether the model is not readily available. After how well do people remember the functions of the model.

Model Reproduction Process


 A person has observed a new behavior by observing the model, This involves recalling the model's behaviors and performing its own tasks and matching them with those models. This process then demonstrates that the individual can perform modeling activities.

Reinforcement Process


If positive incentives or rewards are awarded Then individuals are motivated to exhibit impersonal behavior. Positively reinforced behavior is given more attention, learned better and performed more often. Finally, we can say that social learning theory is a function of outcomes. This observation also acknowledges the existence of education and the importance of perception in learning. In this case, a person who wants to learn must identify the target behavior and select the appropriate model and modeling medium.

Learning Characteristic In Organizational Behaviour

Learning Characteristic Study Notes Organizational Behaviour

Learning Characteristic Study In Organizational Behaviour


Learning is the process by which a person acquires, stores and accepts information. Key feature of learning, It is a process of acquiring knowledge to change human behavior through interaction, practice and experience. Our experiences with learned information compose our knowledge. Learning is a unique process to everyone. Some learn and scan information quickly,  and master the concept or skill seamlessly. Others stumble while processing information, Takes longer time to understand the concept.
There are Following Learning  Characterist
Learning involves change.
All learning involves activities.
Learning Requires Interaction.
Constitute Learning.
Learning is a Lifelong Process.
Learning Occurs Randomly Throughout Life.
Learning Involves Problems Solving.
Learning is the Process of Acquiring Information.
Learning Involves far more than Thinking.
Experience is Necessary for Learning.


Learning involves change


It is a process of joint thinking, learn new skills and informations. For example, when a child learns to read, they can maintain this knowledge and behavior for the rest of their life. This is not always reflected in the performance. Change from learning can not be apparent until a situation arises in which new behavior may occur.

All learning involves activities


These activities include physical or mental activity. They can be simple mental activities of involving various complex muscles, bones, etc. Therefore mental activities can also be very simple which involve one or two activities that involve complex or higher mental activities.

Participation is required for learning


At the time of learning, the person is constantly influenced by the environment. This experience alters or modifies behavior in order to deal with it effectively.

Constitute Learning


change must be permanent. Temporary changes can only be reflective and fail to represent any learning, so continuous learning is essential.

Learning is a lifelong Process


Learning is a lifelong process of obtaining and using information presented to an individual. It is not static. A person never stops receiving new information. Learning keeps a person's mind active and aware, but also conscious of the world around them.

Learning Occurs Randomly Throughout Life


Learning process continue throughout life, learning includes getting something new from experiences, getting information and thoughts, for example reading a newspaper or watching a news broadcast, talking with a friend or colleague, chance of meetings and unexpected experience.

Learning Involves Problems Solving


 Is not involved in solving the problem obtaining various Understanding the relationship between materials to get involved information search, knowledge, and skills in any situation. It results from a person's interaction with the environment.

Learning Involves far more than Thinking


Learning involves more than thinking, it involves the whole personality senses, emotions, intuition, beliefs, values, and desire. If we have desire, then we cannot learn, and if we have learning we can learn, change in some way.

Experience is necessary for learning


Some kind of experience is necessary for learning. We can learn the experience from direct observation or from formal perspectives such as training, mentoring, coaching and teaching. Learning more or less is a new discourse. Learning is a new way of speaking, acting, talking, seeing the world and knowing it. It will be successful only when the information received is used and understood. There is an ongoing process that will be followed by a person who gives an overview, seek prior knowledge, discovery guides, and seen within as well as without, allowing the acquisition of information, perspectives and practices. It is an important process in human behavior. we can compare learning in simple ways in which a child feels and behaves, then with complex methods like adult behavior, its skills, habits, emotions and the like.

Learning Guidelines In Organisational Behaviour

Learning Guidelines In Business Management

Learning Guidelines In OB


Learning means the action, process, or experience of acquiring knowledge or skills to change our behavior. It is the individual's personal growth as a result of cooperative interactions with others. It is an advancement of understanding that enables the learner to work better in their environment, improve behavior, build and maintain healthy relationships and achieve personal success. The guidelines for learning are tried and tested by decades of teaching research. There are 12 guidelines for learning,
Readiness.
Recency.
Repetitiveness.
Reinforcement.
Relevance.
Feedback.
Schedules of Learning.
Whole vs. Part Learning.
Primacy.
Boundary Less.
Presentation Effect.
Multiples Routes.

Readiness


Readiness means a degree of concentration and eagerness. Individuals learn best when they are physical tangible; Both mentally, and emotionally ready to learn, Although every person can learn from the environment, a human must learn things quickly and they must learn from others. One should learn things voluntarily without taking any force from it.

Recency


The theory of recitation states that recently learned things are best remembered. Conversely, a further Expression is removed from time to time by understanding a new factor, as difficult as it is to remember. For example, it is quite easy to remember an address that is noted a few minutes earlier, but usually a new address It is impossible to recall what has been noted in the last month.

Repetitiveness


Things that are repeated many times with the learner can easily capture these things. Learning includes  the repetition of key ideas so that they can be recalled during a test. When an employee does an activity over and over again, he or she can learn it completely and be less likely to do wrong things And the employee can do this work in less time. Human memory is decaying. The mind can rarely maintain, evaluate, and apply new concepts or practices after a single performance. Every time practice occurs, learning continues. The instructor must repeat the important items of the subject matter at appropriate intervals.

Reinforcement


This is another important principle of learning. This means recognition of activity. A learner may be positively or negatively reinforced. When the learner is positively reinforced, it means that when they receive financial rewards or non-financial incentives at the time of reaching a higher level of skills, they have Continued their behavior and when they are negatively reinforced, means that when there is no assessment of their learning, Those who stop their behavior. There are four basic forms of reinforcement  positive reinforcement, avoidance, extinction and punishment

Relevance


Relevance means is closely linked to the case at hand or appropriate. Learning is useful when the material to be learned is meaningful. If the learner can know the overall purpose of a task before attending a learning session, it will give them the relevance of each task. A document or a piece of information Must be relevant to learning. Irrelevant information impedes proper learning.

Feedback


In the learning task, learners benefit from feedback on their performance, but response time depends on the task. Feedback about performance will enable the learner to know that Where he stands and to initiate corrective action if there is any deviation from the expected target. Such feedback is virtually indispensable for learning. A crane operator, for example, would have difficulty learning to manipulate controls "without knowing how the crane controlled the action.

Schedules Of Learning


Probably the best way of the established and well-documented learning principles is that distributed or vacancy practice to continuous or comprehensive practice. This seems to be true for both simple laboratory tasks and highly complex tasks. In fact, the learning schedule can be manipulated in three different ways: the duration of the practice session, the duration of the rest session, and the state of the rest session. supports short exercise periods and moderate rest periods. It is usually much more effective to have only one or two shorter consecutive rest periods compare to single long rest periods, after one or two long exercise periods.

Whole vs. part learning


It has been a major task in the psychology of learning to determine whether to learning the whole job is better than breaking the work and learning into parts. In learning a person not only has to learn each of the different parts It is possible to combine individual parts so that the entire performance is complete. However, there is no overall conclusion in this area.

Primacy


It means a state of being first, often a strong one. Makes almost unstable perception. Previously learned things create a strong impression in the mind which is difficult to erase. In many ways, "aphorism" is the best move to initial attachment. For the instructor, what is taught the first time must be correct For the student, this means that learning must be correct.

Boundry less


The learner can learn anything anywhere, Learning should be threshold-less. It should not have any specific area or location.

Presentation effect


To improve the learning process we have to develop IT and visual presentation facilities. For better and easy understanding, we should use multimedia where we can show different information or pictures.

Multiples Routes


There are many ways to progress or move forward. It allows learners to make choices, relying on their own strengths and learning styles and problem-solving, while also exploring alternative styles. These are all learning guidelines or principles. These guidelines are very important for learning anything effectively and efficiently. In fact, it is the act of acquiring new knowledge, or modifying and reinforcing existing knowledge, behavior, skills, values or preferences, and in different kinds of information. Can be synthesized. Basically, the above list presents the basic principles that underlie effective learning Theories. discovered, tested and used in practical situations. They provide additional insights for people to learn most effectively.

What Is Learning Meaning Definition In OB

Learning Definition Theories

Learning Theories Meaning Definition


Learning is the process of modifying one's behavior, more or less permanently, as the consequences of what he does and the consequences of his action, or what he sees. Learning involves change. From organizational perspective, change can be good or bad. People can learn unfavorable or favorable behavior. It is the accumulation of knowledge but more importantly it is the application of knowledge. Learning means behavior modification, especially through experience or conditioning.

Learning Psychological Concepts and Definitions 


Steers and Porter defined learning as "a relatively permanent change in behavioral ability that occurs as a result of reinforced practice or experience."
Hulse, Deese, and Egeth put their thoughts about learning, that learning as "it is a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior that is the result of direct or indirect experience.
SP Robbins defined, learning is permanent changes in any behavior, that is outcome of  experience results.
Scott Miller defined," Learning is a change that occurs in response to imagine or other erotic stimuli.
Bishwanath Ghosh defined learning is the modification in behavior through experience and training.
Michele Griffin given his views that, "learning is an individual dealing of information, behavior and practices, through observation, seeking past knowledge, searching for guides , And also looking within.
When we see any change in a person's behavior, we can say that learning process has taken place. Learning means the action, process or experience of acquiring knowledge or skills. It can change our behavior from birth, every person learn from their environment. On the other hand, knowledge or skills acquired through schooling or study is also called learning. Finally, we can say that if the person experiences a change in behavior, Then its behavior comes from learning, reacting and taking responses from others.