Showing posts with label Organisational Behaviour and Design. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Organisational Behaviour and Design. Show all posts

Management Theories Of Motivation In Organizations

Theories Of Motivation

Theories Of Motivation In Management 

Application of motivation theories in Workplace for business management is very important, to encourage employee performance and group work in organizations. Top Most Important Management Motivation theories of employee motivation in organizations. Motivation theories are given by many  phycologists, which is used to describe, explain and influence human behavior. Old and modern motivation theories help to discover the reasons for people's actions, desires and needs. Motivation theories control one's behavior and directing employees' actions. There are many theories of motivation, which are given by phycologists and human resource experts. These motivation theories is given below.
 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory,
 Mcgregor's Theory X and Theory Y,
 Herzberg's Two-factor theory,
 Clayton Alderfer's ERG Theory,
 McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory,
 Edwin Locke's Goal Setting Theory,
 Albert Bandura's Theory of Self Efficacy,
 B.F. Skinne Reinforcement Theory,
 Cognitive Evaluation Theory,
 Victor H. Vroom's Expectancy Theory,
 J. Stacy Adam Equity Theory,

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory

According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory, human has following five hierarchy of needs.
Physiological Needs,
safety Needs,
Social Needs,
Esteem Needs,
Self-actualization Needs,

Physiological Needs

Physiological Needs are the main basic requirements for the human life. mainly basic needs for human life are food, water, shelter, clothing, sexual satisfaction and the like. Maslow assumed that people did not inspire as long as these requirements are not complete satisfied to sustain life.

Safety Needs

There is a need for safety and protection from physical danger, possibility of loss of job, property, food, or shelter.

Social Needs

Social Needs are necessary because people are social animals, they need to relate and accept others. Social needs are, Physical connection and contact, belonging, love and affection, acceptance and choice by peers.

Esteem Needs

Big desires needs are reasonably satisfied the needs of the ego, People want to be held in the esteem of both themselves and others. Such a requirement produces satisfaction such as power, prestige, status, and confidence. This includes internal respect factors such as self-esteem, autonomy, and achievement, And external honor factors such as status, recognition and attention.

Self Actualization Needs

Maslow considers Self Actualization Needs as the highest requirement in his hierarchy. It is the desire to become one, who is capable of becoming one to maximize one's potential and achieve something. It is clear that, it is impossible to motivate workers by fulfilling all of the above requirements. It is not valid for workers in developing countries. This may be true to some extent for developed countries. The strata are presented as triangles or pyramids with the largest and most basic strata at the lowest level, and requiring self realization at the top. When one need is satisfied to a great extent, then the next need dominates. No need is not made ever complete satisfaction, There is no need to be satisfied to a great extent. The highest level of pyramid is development needs into higher and lower orders, physical and safety requirements are described as lower-order. Social, respect, and self-realization are as higher-order needs. The requirements of the lower order are mainly satisfied externally.

Mcgregor's Theory X and Theory Y

In the 1960s, Douglas McGregor states two theories on employee motivation and management. His principles divided the employees into two categories Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X employees avoid working and dislike responsibility. To motivate them, employers need to enforce rules and enforce penalties. Theory Y employees trying to enjoy the work, when they have control over the workplace.  Douglas McGregor expressed his ideas of human nature in two sets, Theory X and Theory Y.

Theory X Assumptions

Theory X assumptions are negative. employees naturally dislike work and will try to avoid it whenever possible. employees Prefer to do work, if they should be confiscated, controlled or threatened with punishment. Employees will avoid responsibilities and make formal instructions whenever possible. managers think that external control is unreliable, irresponsible and apt to deal with immature people. Drawing too much on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, McGregor concludes that Principle-X's assumptions about the nature of man are usually But the management practices that develop from these beliefs are wrong and often lead people to work towards organizational goals Will fail to inspire. Management cannot be successful with direction and control because it is a questionable way of motivating those, whose physical and safety needs are fully satisfied, and whose social respect and self-realization needs are becoming stronger.

Theory Y Assumptions

Theory Y assumptions are positive, employees want to see work being as comfort or play. People will make self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives. The average person can learn to accept responsibility. The ability to make innovative decisions is widely spread across the employees. Theory-Y about the nature of humans Managers who accept beliefs do not structure, control, or closely monitor employees. Instead, these managers help their employees mature by subjecting them to progressively less external control, and greater self-control. Allow workers to meet the needs of social respect and self-realization. In Theory-Y, employees can achieve their personal goals by consulting, participating and communicating themselves for the objectives of the organizational goals. In this process, employees are expected to exercise a greater degree of intrinsic motivation. Theory X assumes that lower-order need to dominate individual. While Theory Y posits that higher-order needs to dominate individuals. McGregor himself  thinks that Theory Y's assumptions were more valid than Theory X. There is no evidence to confirm that any set of Theory X or Theory Y assumptions is valid. Either assumptions may be appropriate in a particular situation.

Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory

Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation is describe two types of factors. These factors are satisfactory (motivational) and dissatisfied (maintenance or hygiene). Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory's Internal or satisfying (motivational) factors are advancement, recognition, responsibility, and achievement appear to be related to job satisfaction. Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory's Unsatisfied respondents Cited external or hygiene (maintenance) factors are supervision, salary, company policies and working conditions.

Clayton Alderfer's ERG Theory

ERG theory includes three groups of core needs, which are existence, relatedness, and growth. ERG theory shows that an individual works on meeting these needs simultaneously or separately based on differences in goals, situation and environment.

Existence Needs

These needs are frequent and widely important in a work setting. Some of them are job security, appropriate working conditions, proper working hours, pay and benefits, physical and safety requirements.

Relatedness Needs

Related Needs require attention to, how people relate to their social environment. This includes relationships with others, family, supervisor, co-worker, subordinate, friend and so on. Maintain important interpersonal relationships between social and status desires require interaction with others.

Growth Needs

Growth needs make a person to creative or productive. Growth satisfaction is a need to experience a person in the spirit of wholeness as a human being.

McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory

McClelland’s Acquired needs theory study the needs of individuals, and classify them into three motivational drivers, the need for achievement, power, or affiliation. In the theory of acquired needs, McClelland proposes that each individual's personal choice and personal experience comes in three types of requirements. David McClelland states, that How a person's life experiences can change the type of personal needs over time. McLelland suggested that we all have three motivational drivers, regardless of our gender, culture, or age, McClelland's theory of acquired needs is also known as "human motivation theory", or "motivational needs theory". It is used to understand the need of employees and to formulate a strategy for the motivational process in the organization.
McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory Classifies Needs in following types.
Need for achievement.
Need for power.
Need for affiliation.

Edwin Locke Theory Of Goal Setting 

Edwin Locke theory of Goal setting theory of motivation states, that specific and challenging goals with appropriate feedback contribute to higher and better performance. Goals indicate and give direction to employees, what should be done and how much effort is needed. In the 1960s, Edwin Locke put the goal-setting principle of motivation. The theory states that goal setting is essentially tied to performance. In goal-setting theory, goals must be set based on 5 principles. To be motivated, goals setting theory must contain these Principles.
Task Complexity.
Goal commitment.

Albert Bandura's Theory of Self Efficacy

Self-efficacy theory by Albert Bandura is states, that people are more likely to engage in activities that they consider themselves competent. The four sources of self-efficacy theory are Performance Accomplishments, Vicarious Experience, Social Persuasion, and Physiological and Emotional States. Albert Bandura's self-efficacy theory follows the theory that, Self-efficacy is the belief in one's effectiveness in performing specific tasks. Albert Bandura's theory of self-efficacy has important implications for motivation. According to Staples et al. (1998), self-efficacy theory suggests that there are four major sources of information used by individuals, when making self-efficacy decisions. these Sources of Self-Efficacy Beliefs are,
Performance Accomplishments.
Vicarious Experience.
Social Persuasion.
Physiological and Emotional States.

 B.F. Skinne Reinforcement Theory

B.F. Skinne Reinforcement Theory of motivation is the rule of effect, where behaviors are chosen by their consequences and ignore the individual's internal state. reinforcement theory of motivation was giving by B. F. Skinner and his colleagues. It states that a person's behavior is a function of its consequences. It is based on the "law of effect". The rule of effect is the idea that behaviors are chosen by their results, that is, the person's behavior with positive results is repeated, but the behavior of the person with negative consequences is not repeated. The reinforcement theory of motivation ignores the individual's internal state, that is, individuals internal feelings and drives are ignored by Skinner. This theory focuses solely on, what happens to a person when he takes some action. according to Skinner, the external environment of the organization is effectively and positively designed to motivate the employee.
The managers follow the given below methods for controlling the behavior of the employees, these are.
Positive Reinforcement.
Negative Reinforcement.

Cognitive Theory Of Evaluation

Cognitive theory of evaluation is describe to explain the effects of external outcomes on intrinsic motivation. In Cognitive evaluation theory there are two motivation systems; Internal and external, in Internal Motivational,  Responsibility and Competence that come from the actual performance of a task or job. In External motivation include, promotions, feedback, working conditions - Things that come from a person's environment are controlled by others. Internally motivated individuals perform for their achievement and satisfaction, The recognition is that the presence of powerful external motivators reduce a person internal motivation.

Victor H. Vroom's Expectancy Theory

The expectancy theory of motivation says, that the strength of the tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation, that the act will be followed by a given outcome and the attraction of that outcome to the individual. Very simply The expectancy theory states that an employee will be motivated to, when he believes that, he will be better evaluate by organizational rewards for good performance. There are Three components of Expectancy theory.
Expectancy Effort Performance.
Instrumentality Performance Outcome.

 J. Stacy Adam Equity Theory

The equity theory of motivation, depends on employees perception, how appropriate compensation and treatment are for their work input. Equity theory states that employees compare their inputs-output ratio. Motivation's equity theory describes the relationship between an employee's perception of how he is being treated and motivated to work. This theory include following input output ratio parameters.


Inputs include following diverse elements that an employee believes that they contribute for a job are their education, experience, effort, loyalty, commitment.


Output results are the rewards they receive from their jobs and employers, including direct pay and bonuses, fringe benefits, job security, social rewards, and psychological.

Motivation Definition In Organizational Behaviour

Motivation Features In Organizational Behaviour

Motivation Features and Definition

Motivation is the processes for a person's intensity, direction, and continuity towards achieving the goal. The word "motivation" is taken from Latin word "mowre", which means move. human aims are based on needs, the primary requirements for human is, water, air, food, sleep and shelter. Other requirements are secondary tailoring in the form of self-esteem, status, affiliation with others, affection, giving, achievement and self-confidence. naturally these needs intensity vary in human over the time. Motivation is usually drives, desires, needs, and equal forces. manager must motivate his subordinates to Inspire, do things that they will satisfy these drives and desires, and allow subordinates to act in the desired way.
Erit Kregakabhiprern defined, the act to stimulate someone to a desired action is the art of motivating for enterprise success by honesty and hard work of employees.
According to L.A. Allen, motivation is the job for a manager to inspire, motivate and encourage people to take the necessary action. Motivation is often called "dynamic of behavior". The term 'Dynamic' means energy or force that moves to physical bodies. In psychology and administration, a mental force or motivation that activates organs. Most of the people thinks, that motivation is a personal trait, some have and others do not. Motivation is the result of interaction between person and situation. The three key elements of motivation are,


Intensity is related to how hard a person works. When we talk about motivation, intensity is the most focused eliment.


In motivation process, direction is the orientation that benefits the organization.


Persistence is the measure of how long a person can sustain his efforts. Motivated person live long with a task to achieve their goal.


Motivators are the things that motivate a person to perform. motivators arrange recognized, rewards or incentives that intensify to drive the fulfill of these desires. A manager can do much to sharpen objectives, by establishing an environment conducive to certain drives. For example, employees in a business have developed a reputation for excellence that motivates them to contribute their best performance for this reputation. A motivator affects a person's behavior. It makes a difference what a person will do. motivators motivate employees to perform effectively for their organization. Motivation is the management process of influencing individuals behavior based on knowledge.

Features of Motivation

Motivation is a captivating process. It is fascinating but a complex process. The following main features of motivation are,
Motivation is goal-oriented,
Motivation is a continuous process,
Motivation can be positive or negative, Motivation can be monetary or non-monetary,
Motivation is inclusive. Can not be considered in pieces,
Motivation is a psychological phenomenon that converts abilities into performance.

Objectives of Motivation

Motivation aims to create situations in which people are willing to work with enthusiasm, initiative, interest and enthusiasm. Motivation creates situations in which people work with responsibility, loyalty, discipline, pride and confidence so that To achieve effectively the goals of an organization.

Perception Definition Stages Types

Perception Meaning Definition Stages Types

Perception Types Meaning and Definition

Perception is the interpretation of sensory information to represent and understand the enviro nment of any organization. perception is the feelings of physical or chemical stimulation of the sense organs signals in the nervous system. This signals  are not passive receipt, but is shaped by learning, memory, expectation, and attention. Perception is a process of converting sensory organs signals into meaningful information. what we see or hear in our mind and later use it to judge a situation, person, group etc. and give a decision. Perception  functioning is influenced by three classes of variables, the objects or events being considered, The environment in which perception occurs, and the person who makes perception.

Definition Of Perception

Perception is complex functions of the nervous system but seems intuitive because this process occurs outside conscious awareness.
Joseph Reitz tells; "Perception encompasses all the processes by which one obtains information about one's environment by to see, hear, feel, taste and smell."
B. V. H. Gilmour defined, "perception is the process of being aware of situations in order to add meaningful associations to cognition."
According to Udaya Pareek perception is the process of reacting, selecting, organizing, interpreting, checking, and reacting to sensory stimuli or data".
P. Robbins tells, "perception is the process by which person organize and interpret their sensory impressions to give meaning to their environments."
The perception consists of following senses.
Social World,

Importance Of Perception

The perception is a subjective, active, and creative process, through which we assign meaning to sensory information to understand ourselves and others. It also includes how we respond to information. Through the perceptual process, we gain information about the qualities and elements of the environment that are important to our existence. The conception not only builds our experience of the world around us, but allows us to function within our environment. Perception help to understanding human behavior because every person believes the world and adapts to life's problems differently. Whatever we see or feel, it is not necessarily the same. When we buy something, it is not because it is the best, but because we believe it to be the best. If people behave based on their perception, then we understand the current perception of environment and their behavior in changed circumstances. Can guess, A person may be looking at facts in a way that may be different from the facts seen by another viewer. With the help of perception, different people's needs can be determined, because people's perception is influenced by their needs. Perception helps for the manager to eliminate the errors, when dealing with people and events in the organization,  different people perceive the same situation differently. To deal with subordinates effectively, managers must understand their assumptions properly. Concept can be important because it provides more than objective production; It incorporates an observation and creates a transformed reality enriched by past experiences. Dharna builds character (not necessarily good or bad character) that defines the various roles that individuals play in clowns, Come in hypocritical, self-righteous, victimized, etc. It is important if we try to see things from others' point of view with them or Walk in their shoes for some time. If we walk in their shoes, we will get a new view of things and understand and love each other and can help the other properly. Thus, to understand human behavior, their Understanding perception is very important, that is, how they understand different situations. People's behavior is based on their perceptions of what reality is, not reality itself. Yes. The world as it is believed is the world which is important for understanding human behavior.

Factors Affecting Perception

By Perception processo, a person selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture. Individual Perception depends not only on physical stimuli but also depends on the stimuli of the surrounding area and the conditions. through which information from the external environment is selected, obtained, organized and interpreted to make it meaningful. Many factors distort the shape of  the perception. These factors may reside in the object or goal being perceived, or in the context of the situation in which the assumption is made. When a person sees a goal and tries to interpret what he sees, his Interpretation is strongly influenced by the personal characteristics of the individual thinker. The personal characteristics that influence the perception include a person's attitude, personality, origin. View, interest, past experience, and expectations. There are some factors that affect the target such as novelty, speed, sounds, size, background, proximity, similarity, etc. Characteristics of the target being viewed may be affected. Because goals are not viewed in isolation, the relation of a target to its background also affects perception,  There are also some situational factors, such as the time for others to think, work settings, social settings, etc. that influence the perception process. Apart from this, there are some other factors. From perceptual learning that is based on past experiences or any particular training that we receive, each of us learns to emphasize certain sensory inputs and ignore others. Another factor is the mental set, Such as anticipation keeps a person ready with good focus and concentration. We have a level of knowledge that we feel in our behavior. Learning has a great impact on perception. It creates hope in people. The perception is determined by both the physical and psychological characteristics of a human being, whereas sensation is imagined only with physical characteristics. Thus, the assumption that no one sees with the eye is a much more complex process by which a person selectively uses environment. When a person sees a goal and tries to interpret what he sees, then the interpretation comes from the personal characteristics of the individual thinker.

Perception Process

Perception is the process, to experience the world around us. perception is largely a cognitive and psychological process, how we feel the people and objects around us, which affects our communication. to fully understand perception process, we have to follow three stages of the perception process, which are,


The world is filled with an infinite number of stimuli, but our minds do not have the resources to pay attention to everything. Thus, the first step of perception is to decide What to attend. When we feel specific thing in our environment such as, an odor, a feeling, a sound, or something else. it becomes the present stimulus. Selection is the first part of the process, in which we focus on sensory information to attention. In selection, we select stimuli that attract our attention. We focus on those who stand for our senses (sight, sound, smell, taste and touch). We seek information through all our five senses, but our perceptual field contains so many sensations, that it is impossible for our mind to process all senses. Therefore as information comes through our senses, Various factors influence through the perception process.


When we decide to participate in a stimulus in the environment, then our brain started a series of neural responses, This neural process activates our sensory receptors, such as touch, taste, smell, vision, and hearing. Planning is the second part of the perception process, in which we sort and classify information that we congenital and learned cognates.


When we participate in a stimulus, and our brain receives and organizes information, we interpret it in such a way, that it makes sense to use our existing information about the world. By placing different stimuli into categories, we Can better understand others and react to the surrounding world. perception involves informing to people about sensing, organizing and interpreting. Sensation is a main symptom of perception, as it relates to external input. In the perceptual process, first of all thinker must choose, what will be considered. Then, organization occurs, when listeners identify the type of sound and compare it to other sounds heard in the past. Explanation and Classification Generally Are the most subjective areas of perception, they make decisions about, what listeners like and they want to keep listening. Assessments automatic judgments of positive and negative reactions to others, which are outside our awareness. Based on this, Perceptual output, which means that the values, attitudes, behavior, etc. of the thinker may be different. Therefore, when people react differently in a situation, Whose share of the behavior can be explained by examining their perceptual process, and their perceptions of how leading to their responses.

Errors In Perception

Perception is a process of analyzing and understanding stimuli. But always it is not possible to feel the stimuli as they are. Consciously or unknowingly, we forget the stimulus and misinterpret it. Many a times person behavior can be according to, time of perception, adverse background, lack of clarity of excitement, confusion, conflict in mind and other such factors errors in perception. There are following errors in the perception.
Halo Effect,
Horn Effect,


Illusion is a misconception. Where the person will mistake a stimulus, and experience it incorrectly. such as, in the dark, a rope is mistaken as a snake or vice versa. unknown person voice can be mistaken as the voice of a friend.


Sometimes we come across instances where a person perceives some excitement even if it is not present. This phenomenon is known as hallucinations. A person can see an object, a person, etc., or he can hear some sound, although in reality there are no objects and no sounds.

Selective Perception

Selective perception refers to a situation when people make selective interpretations based on their interests, background, experience, and viewpoint. This means that any feature that makes a person, object, or event stand out will increase the probability, that It will be considered. Because it is impossible for us to assimilate what we see, only certain stimuli can be taken.

Halo Effect

The person is evaluated on the basis of his positive quality, trait or characteristic. When we make general assumptions about a person based on, intelligence, sociability, or presence, a halo effect operates. In other words, it gives a rating to a man high or low in other traits. if any person has an exceptionally high or low characteristic in any traits, he will be rated in high in high traits except being low in other traits.


People can usually fall into at least one general category, on which they will be evaluated, on the basis of physical or behavioral symptoms, When we judge someone based on our perception, we are using a shortcut called stereotyping. for example, a manager might assume, that Middle East countries worker is lazy and cannot meet performance objectives, even if the worker has tried his best.


Often, people seek out and rate more positively those, who are similar to themselves. This tendency to approve equality may cause evaluators to give better ratings to employees, who exhibit similar interests, work methods, attitudes, or standards.

Horn Effect

When a person is fully evaluated on the basis of negative trait or characteristic. This results in an overall lower rating. for example, if an employee is not formally dressed up in the office, then he may also consider casual on work.


If people is rated relative to other people rather than individual performance. evaluate an employee's performance with other employees. In the early 20th century, Wilhelm Wundt identified opposite as a core principle of perception, and since then many different areas have been confirmed their influence. These effects shape not only visual properties such as color and brightness, but also other types of perception.

Failure of Perception

Perception often misinterprete of sensory information. Such cases are known as delusions. delusion is a term used by psychologists to refer to misconceptions. There are two types of delusions, they are caused by physical processes and due to cognitive processes. Confusion due to the deformity of physical conditions involves hallucinations, in which a person considers objects that are non-existent, for example, water on a dry road. Cognitive processes result in many illusions, but more general shapes. There are illusions, which often have unstable consequences. Misconceptions of the world around them can cause problems for workers. Mentoring managers, who flame out because they fail to read the circumstances properly and act accordingly. They develop poor working relationships, are very authoritarian, or have conflicts with upper management. As a result, their careers come to a standstill. It should be avoided and they were able to feel rightly, what they needed to do and had the emotional maturity and ability to make the necessary changes.

Causes Of Perception Very 

Our perceptions differ from person to person, and we are all have differ perceptions. Different people feel different things about the same situation. But more than that, everything we experience is told different meanings. And the meaning can change for a certain person. One can change one's perspective or just make things something else. . The way we see the world around us is different, and our personality is unique. Even though we can see the same picture, but the interpretation can be different, depending on many factors, Basically, perception is a very interesting aspect of life and business. How we perceive our world and how we think about our world, we think that we can determine, how we act and how we respond in certain situations. Thus, senses or mind Through perception, or apprehension, can be a very powerful and influential aspect of our lives.

Attitude Changing Functions Behavior Barrier Beliefs

Attitude Changing Functions Organizational Behaviour Study Notes

Attitude Changing Functions In Organizational Behaviour

Attitude is the most important challenge for managers to hiring new staff. In which right attitude is major factor to find in a new employee. The most important function of an attitude is, who holds it and where. attitude is often critical.
There are following functions of an attitude.
Adjustment Function.
Ego Defensive Function.
Value Expressive Function.
Knowledge Function.

Adjustment Function

Attitudes play important role in adjusting to their work environment. When employees are treated well in an organization or firm, they are likely to develop a positive attitude towards management and the organization. When employees are criticized and given a minimum wage, they are negative towards management and the organization. These approaches help employees adjust to their environments and are a foundation for future behavior. The adjustment function leads people to pleasurable or rewarding and keep away from unpleasant and undesirable. It is based on the utilitarian concept of maximizing reward and minimizing punishment. Thus, consumers' perceptions is depends on what is satisfactory and what is punishable.

Ego Defensive Function

Ego defensive function holds attitudes that affect our self-esteem, or that justify actions that make us feel guilty. This function includes psychoanalytic theories where people find themselves with psychological harm. Use defense mechanisms to protect, denial, suppression, projection, rationalization, etc. old and senior manager whose decisions are constantly challenged by a younger subordinate manager, may feel that the latter is cruel, arrogant, immature and inexperienced. In the true sense, only young subordinates can be right in challenging decisions. The old manager may not be a very effective leader and can consistently make bad decisions. On the other hand, the old managers are not going to accept it, but will try to protect the ego by placing blame on the other side.

Value Expressive Function

Ego defensive attitude is formed to protect a person's self-image, while value expressive function, enable the expression of centrally held values of the individual. Central values establish our identity and give us social Granting acceptance, gives us an idea of who we are and what we stand for. Some perspectives are important to a person, because they convey values that are integral to that person's self-concept. Therefore consumers adopt certain attitude to express their values more tangibly and easily. Our value-expressing approach is closely related to our self-concept. A person with independence central value has a very positive attitude towards the management authority decentralization in the organization, flexible work schedules, and relaxation of dress standards.

Knowledge Function

The knowledge function is consistent and relatively constant. It allows us to predict, what is likely to happen, and gives us a sense of control. Some attitudes are useful because they help in understanding the world more. They help people to tell the cause of events and pay attention to the characteristics of people or situations, that are likely to be useful in their meaning. As a result, they help to make the world more understandable, predictable knowable. Knowing a person's point of view helps us to understand their behavior. For example people who are not familiar with nuclear power can develop an attitude that it is dangerous and not used as an energy source. Stereotyping is another example. In the absence of knowledge. We can adopt a conservative attitude to identify the person.

Barriers to Change Attitudes

Employees' attitudes can be changed, and trying to do so is the best interest of management. For example, if employees believe that their employer does not care for their welfare, then the management should change the attitude of employees, and help to develop a more positive attitude towards them. However, the process of changing attitude is not easy task. But organization should try to take action to change the attitude of its employees, to achieve its preset goals with them and take corrective action.
There are following barriers to change attitudes,
Prior Commitment.
Insufficient Information.
Balance and Consistency.
Lack of Resources.
Improper Reward System.
Resistance to Change.

Prior Commitment

When people commitment to a particular action, that has already been agreed upon and thus makes it difficult for them to change or accept new ways of functioning.

Insufficient Information

Insufficient Information acts as a major barrier to change attitude. Sometimes people should not change their attitude due to non-availability of right information.

Balance and Consistency

Another barrier to the change of attitude is the attitude theory of balance and stability. This is why humans prefer their attitudes about people and things to conform to their behavior and objects towards each other.

Lack of Resources

If plans become overly ambitious, sometimes can be hindered by a lack of resources from a company or organization. Therefore, in this case, if the organization wants to change the attitude of employees towards the new plan, So sometimes it becomes impossible for lack of resources to achieve this.

Improper Reward System

Inappropriate reward system acts as a barrier to change attitude. If an organization places too much emphasis on short-term performance and results, managers may ignore long-term issues as they set goals, And make plans to achieve high profits in the short term. If this reward system is introduced in the organization, the employees Not motivated to change their perspective.

Resistance to Change

Resistance to change is  Another barrier in continuous process within and outside the organization to set goals. Employees have to change themselves when the authority changes a plan of the organization. But among them Some do not like it. If their attitude about the change of plan cannot be changed, the organization will not succeed.

Ways of Changing Attitudes

If we separate the negative attitude from the positive attitude, then the attitude can be changed. A positive attitude can bring a positive change in life, it is difficult to change the attitude but with some effort, it can be done. A person who has a hostile viewpoint, cultural deprived environment, can often change their attitude by education. A person with acquired subculture, who is always held to a democratic attitude, may be negative towards a group due to an unfortunate experience. Well established attitudes are resistant to change, but more responsive to change than others. The attitude can be changed in many ways. New information can be used to help change the attitude. Negative attitudes are formed mainly due to negative information. Attitudes can change through direct experience. Another way in which behavior can be changed is to resolve discrepancies between behavior and behavior. Friends or Attitude can change through persuasion of peers. Through law, attitudes can change.

Workplace and Attitudes

How attitude can affect the workplace. The challenge in the workplace is that, organization Is tied to the people and individuals present in it. we can have thoughts or beliefs about managers in general. It is important here that, how a person or situation feels. Obviously not every manager is trustworthy, but if we determine our negative outlook on how we view and react to managers, we will never Will not see if there are some really good people and they can be trusted. Definitely a good one based on trust with the manager in the workplace.

Attitude Surveys

attitude concept is social psychology. attitude is a psychological tendency, expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or enthusiasm, Provides an understanding of how employees perceive organizations and workgroups. Pre-existing reviews indicate that knowledge of employee related to employee behavior. employee attitude survey organization needs the most popular way Often organizational training and development through the use of attitude survey. These surveys often consist of a series of multiple-choice items grouped along one or more dimensions of the organization. These types of surveys provide an understanding of how the employee perceives the organization. Employee's attitude survey Measures the opinion of Including Total satisfaction. Management Employee Relationship, Corporate culture. Career development. Knowledge Reimbursement. Benefits. Recognition and Rewards. Working Conditions. Training. Levels of Workers. Safety Concerns. Policies and Procedures. Organizations' Interest in Retaining the Right Talents Targeting New Talents; Measuring employee attitude indicates how successful an organization is in fostering a conducive environment that nurtures an employee's great attitude toward their job and company. Internal organization survey Getting employee feedback on. Current programs, policies and procedures.

Attitudes and Beliefs

Attitude is a relatively permanent association tendency of beliefs, feelings, and behavior towards socially important objects, groups, events, or symbols. A learned predicate is to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object. It is an expression of evaluation towards a person, place, thing or event. It will always have a positive and negative element and a tendency to behave in a certain way. Attitudes are mainly based on underlying values and beliefs. While attitude is the tendency to act in a particular way towards an object or situation, An expression of a person's decision about the facts of a particular person. Situations are evaluated. Beliefs are acquired through real experiences, but most of the original experience related to a particular belief is forgotten. It affects the quality of our work and relationships as we experience. Beliefs are an important part of our identity. They can be religious, cultural or moral. Beliefs reveal who we are and how we live our lives. It is composed of many factors for the structure of family, society and life. It is the belief that nothing is true and good without doubt. It is an inner feeling that something is true, whether that belief is unproven or irrational. I believe that walking down the ladder brings bad luck.

Attitudes vs. Behavior

Attitude refers to predictions of feelings, beliefs, thoughts and behavior directed toward people, groups, or objects. It affects the behavior of individuals. It tells us how to act or behave in a particular situation. behavior is a kind of habit. This is the normal way of doing things. Everything will get better in an organization, if everyone's attitude gets better. Success and failure in life depends on the attitude of individuals. If attitudes are positive, human attitude will be positive. It is internal and it is very difficult to change. Behavior is the way a person responds to his or her viewpoint. This response is either positive or negative, depending on how his situation is. See an example if, an employee who disagrees? an employee who Dislikes any other colleague or has very little respect for the colleague, he can demonstrate attitude by talking harshly to this person. Can be influenced by many factors beyond behavior, including prior perceptions about oneself and others, monetary factors, social influences, and convenience. It is the action or response of an individual or animal in response to external or internal stimuli. It indicates the manner in which certain functions are performed or operated.

Attitude Definition Types In Organizational Behaviour Notes

Attitude Definition Types Organizational Behaviour

Attitude Types Definition and Meaning

Attitude is the way of thinking, feeling, behaving and opinion by any person or people with regard to any person, thing, situation or something around the particular object or event. Meaning and Definition of Attitude is the feeling of the way that you think, feel or behave opinion about something or someone. An attitude is a positive, Negative and mixed assessment of an individual or object, which is expressed at some level of intensity. It is an expression of a favorable or unfavorable assessment of a person, place, object or event. These are fundamental determinants of our perceptions and actions towards all aspects of our social environment. The approach involves a complex organization of evaluative beliefs, feelings and tendencies for certain actions. How much we like or dislike something. Determines our behavior towards. We want to interact with the things we like or stay connected to. We avoid things we don't like. For example if somebody has a positive attitude about changes, He is friendly and has a good attitude, He was showing some attitude during practice today. , So the coach refused them, I like my friends, which means that I am expressing my attitude towards my friends,

Definition Of Attitude

Attitude is the manner, temperament, emotion and condition, especially in relation to a person or thing tendency or orientation.
Gordon Allport describe , "attitude is an approach towards mental and neurological state, conducted through experience, which enhances an instruction or dynamic effect on a person's response to all objects and situations, with which it is related.
Frank Freeman describe, "An attitude is a readiness to respond to certain institutions, individuals, or objects in a coherent way that has been learned and becomes a specific mode of response.Thurstone describe, "An attitude reflects the sum of man's inclinations and feelings, prejudice predetermined assumptions, thoughts, apprehensions, threats, and any other specific subject."
According to Anastasi "attitude is a tendency to react favorably or unfavorably to a specified class of stimuli, such as a national or racial group, a practice or an institution."
NL Munn describe, “attitude is Practices learned to be a precursor to aspects of our environment. They may be positively or negatively directed towards some people, service or institution. "

Characteristics Of Attitude

Attitude is describe as a tendency to react positively or negatively to a person or situations. Thus the two main elements of the attitude are the tendency and the direction of the approach. It is defined as the mental state of readiness, Organize through experience that has a directive or dynamic effect on responses. These can be explicit and implicit. Explicit attitudes are those, we consciously know the clearly influence of our behaviors and beliefs. . Implicit attitudes are unconscious, but still have an impact on our beliefs and behaviors. according to psychologists Thomas, who limits the tendency of one level attitudes as positive and negative, is associated with the object of psychology. Object psychology has included symbols, words, slogans, people, institutions, and ideas.
There are following Characteristics of Attitude.
Attitude is a complex combination of things that we call personality, beliefs, values, behaviors and motivations. All people, regardless of their status or intelligence, Attitude is present in every person's mind. Which define our identity, guide, our actions, and influence. how we assess people. the sense and belief component of attitudes is intrinsic to a person, we can change a person's perspective. Can be seen by his or her behavior. attitude helps us to define how we see situations, as well as to define it. it behave towards situation or object we can offer an inner feeling, belief and thoughts about people and goods. attitude is consciously aware of an implicit attitude that is unconscious, but still has an effect on our behavior. attitude based on direct experience predicts future behavior more accurately. personality has certain aspects such as interests, appreciation, and social conduct. It represents the total sum of a man's inclination and emotions.

Components of Attitudes

There are three components of an attitude, which affect the behavior, which are
Cognitive Component.
Affective Component.
Behavioral Component.

Cognitive Component

The cognitive component of an attitude descibe to the beliefs, ideas, and characteristics, that we associate with an object or person. Attitude relates to a person's general knowledge. They usually come to light in generally or stereotypes.

Affective Component

The affective component is the emotional segment of an attitude. It is related to the statement, that affects another person. It is related to the feelings or emotions, that are brought to the surface about something, such as fear or hate.

Behavioral Component

The behavioral component has the tendency of a person to behave in a particular way towards an object. It refers to the part of the attitude, that reflects a person's intentions in the short term or long term.

Factors Influnces Attitudes

There are following main factors, which influence attitude.
Social Factors.
Direct Instruction.
Personal Experience.
Educational and Religious Institutions.
Physical Factors.
Economic Status and Occupations.

Social Factors

There are a majority of people in every society who like to live a harmonious life. They try to avoid unnecessary confrontation with people. Naturally, they are inclined to develop positive attitudes towards most people and issues. Our attitudes positively facilitate our relationships with members of valued groups. And can maintain. Social roles and social norms more influence on attitudes. Social norms include rules of society considered appropriate for behavior.

Direct Instruction

In general, the attitude of the people is important. Sometimes direct instruction can affect the formation of attitude. A person gives information about the usefulness of a fruit. Based on this information, we can develop a positive or negative view of that fruit.


The family is the main source for the formation of attitudes. Parents, older brothers or sisters provide information about various things. An individual developed approach, whether positive or negative is the result of family influence, which is very effective and difficult to change.


Attitude may involve a bias, in which we prejudice an issue without giving fair evidence to all the evidence. Prejudices are pre-determined thoughts or judgments where the person develops some attitude toward other people, objects, etc. If we favor someone who is accused of a crime, we can find him guilty regardless of the evidence. We can also be biased in favor of something.

Personal Experience

To form the basis of attitudes, personal experiences have left a strong impression. Therefore, when personal experience involves emotional factors, the attitude will become more easily. In situations involving feelings, appreciation is more deeply experienced and The trace will be longer.


Communication, mass media such as television, radio have a major influence in shaping people's opinions and beliefs. new information on something by the media, that provides the basis for the emergence of new cognitive attitudes towards it.

Educational and Religious Institutions

These Institutions have strong influence in shaping attitudes, as they lay the foundation for understanding and moral concepts within the individual. Understanding the good and the bad, the dividing line between something, Which can and cannot get from the center of education and religious institutions.

Physical Factors

Health clinical psychologists have generally recognized that physical, health, and vitality are important factors of adjustment, and it has often been found that malnutrition or disease or accidents have interfered so severely with normal development, that severe disturbances behavioral of individual.

Economic Status and Occupations

Our economic, business and occupation situation also contributes to the attitude. They determine, in part, our attitude towards unions and management and we believe that some laws are 'good' or 'bad'. Our socio-economic background influences our current and future perspectives. positive or negative evaluations include other characteristics, such as importance, certainty, access, and associated knowledge. Attitudes important in the study of social psychology Are because they affect the amount of attention and a person has a specific vision. Shapes can influence the type of decision. Generally, we recognize that people behave according to their behavior. However, social psychologists have found that attitudes and actual behaviors are not always fully aligned.

Types Of Attitude

A man can have various attitude even thousands of attitude, but organizational behavior focuses limited number of work-related attitude. Mainly three types of attitude in organizational behavior, which are,
Job Satisfaction.
Job Involvement.
Organizational Commitment.

Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is the level of satisfaction, a person feels about their job. This feeling is mainly based on a person's perception of satisfaction. A person with a high level of job satisfaction has a positive attitude about the job, while a person who is dissatisfied with their job has a negative attitude about the job. A person with a negative angle exhibits a temperament disposition that's inclined to expertise nervousness, tension, upset, distress, etc. whereas those with a positive angle can feel happy in themselves, others, and their work. Job involvement refers to the degree to which a person psychologically identifies with their job and is considered important for self-worth. Higher levels of job involvement have been found to be related to lower absenteeism and lower resignation rates.

Job Involvement

Job involvement refers to the degree to which a person psychologically identifies with their job, and is considered important for self-worth. Higher levels of job involvement have been found to be related to lower absenteeism and lower resignation rates. However, it predicts more frequent turnovers than absenteeism, as was the former with more than 16 percent of variance.

Organizational Commitment

The final job-approach reflects organizational commitment. It is understood as identifying one with its organization and feeling proud to be its employee. It is defined as a state in which an employee identifies a particular organization and its goals, and the organization Wants to maintain membership. Various studies suggest that a person's level of organizational commitment is a better indicator of business than most By fie-use job satisfaction over 34 percent portends to be original, when the organizational commitment of employees, the turnover and less absenteeism.

Individual Life Values In Organizational Behaviour Study

Individual Life Values In Organizational Behaviour

Individual Values In Organizational Behaviour

Generally value refers to moral considerations, general perceptions or inclination towards the world or sometimes just to interests, attitudes, preferences, needs, feelings and propositions. Values defined in organizational behavior are considered good, desirable, and appropriate or bad, undesirable and inappropriate in a culture. Some common values definition are giving below.
According to M. Haralambos Consider, “A value is a belief that something is good and desirable”.
According to R.K. Mukherjee, “Values are socially approved desires and goals that are internalized through the process of conditioning, learning or socialization and that become subjective preferences, standards, and aspirations”.
According to Zaleznik and David Consider, “Values are the ideas in the mind of men compared to norms in that they specify how people should behave.
Values conjointly attach degrees of goodness to activities and relationships”
According to I. J. Lehner and N.J. Kube Consider, “Values are an integral part of the personal philosophy of life by which we generally mean the system of values by which we live.
The philosophy of life includes our aims, ideals, and manner of thinking and therefore the principles by that we have a tendency to guide our behavior”
According to T. W. Hippie Consider, “Values are conscious or unconscious motivators and justifiers of the actions and judgment”

Characteristics of Value

Values are different for each individual. They can be defined as the thoughts or beliefs that a person holds desirable or undesirable. There is variability in that statement, first, which can give importance to a person, and Second, the degree to which he values. Values may be specific, such as respecting one's parents or owning a home, or they may be more general, such as the self Health, love and democracy. Personal achievement, personal happiness and materialism are the core values of modern society. The concept of desirable Defined as, an internal construct or standard of evaluation that an individual possesses. Values are of value, they are extremely practical, and assessment requires not only techniques, but also an understanding of the strategic context. They can provide standards of competence and ethics. They can go beyond specific situations or individuals. Work can be influenced by a combination of tradition, internal and external factors. They are relatively permanent. They are more central in a person's core. Most of our core values are family, friends, neighborhood schools, mass print, visual media, and society. Are learned early in life from other sources of life. Values are filled with effective ideas about thoughts, objects, behavior, etc. There is an element that follows a person's thoughts as right, good or desirable. Values can vary from culture to culture and even from person to person. Important in the integration and fulfillment of the basic impulses and desire of human beings. Play roles and are suitable for their livelihood. They are both personal and social responses and attitudes in social action. They are common experiences. They build societies, integrate social relationships. They mold ideal dimensions of the depth of personality and culture. They influence people's behavior and provide criteria for evaluating the actions of others. They help create norms for directing day-to-day behavior. The values of a culture may change, but most remain constant during an individual's lifetime. Socially shared, intensely felt values are our fundamental part of life. These values become part of our personality. They are shared and reinforced by the people we interact with. Since values often strongly influence both attitudes and behavior, they act as a kind of personal compass for employee conduct in the workplace. These help to determine, if an employee is passionate about work and the workplace, which in turn leads to above-average returns, high staff Satisfaction, strong team building and may lead to synergy.

Types Of Values

The values that are important to people influence the types of decisions they make, how they view their environments and their actual behaviors. Rokeach find two types of values and divided into
Terminal Values.
Instrumental Values.

Terminal Values

These are the values that we feel are the most important or most desirable. They refer to desirable end-stages of existence, the goals a person wants to achieve in his lifetime. They include happiness, self-respect, recognition, inner harmony, Enriched life and professional excellence are included. This survey lists 18 terminals which are
A comfortable and prosperous life
An exciting and stimulating active life
A sense of accomplishment
World of peace free from war and conflict
A world of beauty of nature and the arts
Equality, brotherhood, equal opportunity for all
Family security taking care of loved ones
Freedom, independence, free choice
Happiness and contentedness
Inner harmony and freedom from inner conflict
Mature love and spiritual intimacy
National security and protection from attack
Pleasure, enjoyable and leisurely life
Salvation, saved and eternal
Self-respect and self-esteem
Social recognition, respect and  admiration
True friend and close companionship
Wisdom and mature understanding of life

Instrumental Values

Instrumental values behave with ideas on acceptable means of conductors to achieve terminal values. These include being honest, honest, ethical and ambitious. These values are more focused on personality traits and character. There are many types of values. One of the most established surveys for estimating individual values is the Rochech value survey. This survey lists 18 instrumental values which are
Ambitious and hardworking
Broad and open-minded
Capable, competent and efficient
Cheerful, lighthearted and  joyful
Clean, neat and tidy
Courageous and standing up for your beliefs
Forgiving and willing to pardon
Helpful and working for the welfare of others
Honest, sincere and truthful
Imaginative, daring and creative
Independent, self-reliant and self-sufficient
Intellectual, intelligent and reflective
Logical, consistent and rational
Loving and affectionate
Obedient, respectful and dutiful
Polite, courteous and well-mannered
Responsible, dependable and reliable
Self-controlled,restrained and self-disciplined

Importance Of Values

Values are permanent beliefs that are better for a specific type of conduct or eventual state of existence, personally or socially. They are more difficult to change. As ethical conduct in the workplace gains more visibility, as a matter of discussion in management The importance of values increases. Values are general principles for regulating our daily behavior. They not only give direction to our behavior, but also have ideals and objectives in themselves. They are the expression of the ends, goals or objectives of social action. Our values are desirable, beautiful, appropriate, right, important, meaningful and good. With the undesirable, the ugly, the wrong, the unfair and the bad are the basis of our decisions about what. Pioneer sociologist Durkheim described the disruptive personal passion Emphasized the importance of values in Iyantrit. Indian sociologist R.K. Mukherjee describe "By their very nature, all human relationships and behaviors are intrinsic in values. The value is the foundation for understanding the level of motivation. It influences our perception. Value helps to understand what should happen or what should not be. It has interpretations of right or wrong. They affect behavior. The meaning is that some behaviors are preferred over others. They allow members of an organization to interact in a harmonious manner. They make it easier to reach goals that would be impossible to achieve individually. These set goals for achievement, and they connect cognitive, affectionate to all our activities. They are the guides of our lives, and they direct us are who we want to be. Values and morals can not only guide but also inspire and motivate a person. I can give energy and a zeal to live life and do something worthwhile. In fact, values are important for the study of organizational behavior, because they lay down the foundation for understanding of attitudes and motivations. They are part of a person's makeup. They remind us what is important in our lives, such as success or family, but on the other hand they provide the opposite which is not important. over time, Values cannot change. When we grow and change as individuals, we will begin to value different aspects of life. If we are younger, we value family as we do. When the children grow up, then we can start getting more business success from the family.

Sources Of Values 

Sources of value are a comprehensive guide to financial decision making as both an art and a science. Generally, none of the values are relatively constant and permanent. An important part of the values established by parents in our early years. parents, teachers, friends and others. There are many sources from which we can derive different values. These are the Main Sources of values
Friends & peers
Community or society

Values in Workplace

Values can strongly affect employee conduct in the workplace. If an employee values honesty, hard work, and discipline, Therefore, this person is a more efficient employee, than an employee of opposite values. Can be a positive role model. Conflict can occur, however, if an employee realizes that his coworkers do not share his values For example, an employee who values hard work may dislike coworkers who are lazy or unproductive without being reprimanded. However, additional conflict may result if the employee overcomes his or her colleagues. Attempts to force one's own values. Values help guide our behavior. It determines what we think for right, wrong, good or injustice. Values are more or less permanent in nature. They represent a single belief, which guides action and judgment on objects and situations. They originated from social and cultural fields.

The Individual Processes Personality Organizational Behavior

Individual Processes Personality Theory In Organizational Behavior

Individual Personality Theory Organizational Behavior

Organizational behavior is a study of how organizations behave, this includes studies of individuals behavior alone, as well as individuals behave in groups. Organizational behavior aims to use  individual and group dynamics in an organizational setting, to achieve organization goal  in more efficient and effective way. There are many organizational factors, that may impact on individual and group behavior. organizational behavior includes many levels of analysis, which are necessary to understand behavior within organizations because people do not act individualy in an organization, they work in groups.

Individual Personality

Personality is defined as a specific set of behavioral, cognition, and emotional patterns that develop from biological and environmental factors. While there is generally no consensus on the definition of personality, most theories focus on motivation and psychological interactions with one's environment. Raymond Cattell, define personality as traits, that predict a person's behavior. On the other hand, behaviorally based approaches define personality through learning and habits. most theories consider personality to be relatively stable.

Theoretical Structure of Personality

Theoretical Structure of Personality Several theories have been developed to explain personality, that have great organizational impact.

Traits Theory

Trait theory is important in the analysis of individual personality. This describe a person's behavior. Various characteristics, aggression, humility, laziness, ambition, loyalty, and punctuality. Allport's theory of personality affect the individual and internal cognitive and motivational processes that affect individual behavior. Allport believes that personality is biologically determined at birth, and is shaped by a person's environmental experiences.

Cognitive Theory of Personality

Cognitive theory values a person's thoughts, determining his feelings, behaviors and personality. cognitive theorists believe that, without thought processes, we can not have no emotions, no behavior and no function. Thoughts is the process that always come before any emotion and action. The cognitive perspective of personality is the idea that, tell to the people who they are, how information is included, perceived, analyzed, interpreted, encoded, and retrieved. People have specific cognitive form habits that are seen in their personalities. The cognitive view is a person's mental organization. the information people receive in this world, they need to cope with, integrate and organize all the information in the world.

Humanistic Theory

The humanist view focuses on the positive image of Human nature. Abraham Maslow proposed that a person is motivated by a hierarchy of needs. The order requires from lowest to highest, satisfaction of hunger and thirst, safety, being loved, avoiding loneliness, achievement, recognition, self-esteem, Self-realization. Maslow also believed that during life's activities, the achievement is extreme experiences, feelings of incredible peace and happiness.

Psychodynamic Theory

Psychodynamic Theory was proposed by Sigmund Freud, he was the founder of psychoanalysis, there are 3 elements of personality in his theory, that are driven by identity, internal and basic needs, which are usually as important such as hunger and thirst. Personality development depends on the interaction and environment during the first five years of life. Parents behavior is important for normal and abnormal, Personality and mental health development. American psychologist Henry Murray explanation  the theory of personality, that requires, "the ability or readiness to respond in a certain way under certain circumstances". Theories of personality based on needs and objectives, that our personality reflect in behavior. these psychological needs play a major role in our personality.

Social Learning Theories of Personality

Social learning theory is concept of human behavior, that is specifically learn and shaped by reinforcement, rewards and  punishment. Social learning theory is cognitive learning theory that is influenced by psychological factors such as behavioral learning based on environmental stimuli. Albert Bandura's theories of social learning emphasized on cognition, behavior, and environment, Bandura's theory has 3 main  components that include your behavior, the environment in which the person behaves and observes the behavior of others, Some psychologists theories focus on genetic influences on personality. Hans Essenck consider that genetics is the dominant determinant of personality, on the other hand, he believes conditioning also plays a major role in personality development.

Five Dimensions of Personality

The five most important dimensions of personality, that play an important role in organizational behavior. Numerous studies have shown that employees, who are highly attentive and perform better than those who are not so diligent. These five most important dimensions of personality, will help to exaggerate a tendency to achieve something on managerial and sales jobs.


Conscientiousness or Duteness refers to a person who is orderly, punctual, achievement oriented and reliable. Integrity is a personality trait that similarly predicts, how high a person's performance will be in various occupations and jobs. In fact, dutiful is the most desired attribute which should be seen by recruiters in a job seekers candidates, and highly dutiful applicants succeed in the interview.


Extrovertism is the quality in a person, by  which he is outgoing, talkative, sociable, and enjoys socializing. this quality is more effective in sales-related jobs.


Agreeableness is the degree which teach a person to sociable, tolerant, sensitive, trustworthy, kind and warm. people who are high in agreeableness are people who get along with others. Not surprisingly, agreeable people constantly help others in work.


Neuroticism is a quality in a person, which results anxious, irritable, tempered, and moody. This is probably the only major five dimension where high scoring is undesirable. Neurotic people have a tendency to experience emotional adjustment problems and habitual stress and depression. In neuroticism, a lot of people experience many problems at work.


Openness is a quality of a person which results curious, original, intellectual, creative and open to new ideas. People high in openness tend to thrive in situations that require flexibility and learning new things. They are highly motivated to learn new skills, and do well in training settings.

USA Top MBA Colleges Best Business Schools Ranking List

Top MBA Colleges Best Business Schools Ranking In USA

USA Top MBA Colleges Business Schools

USA Best Top MBA Business Schools Ranked in 2021, US Top MBA Colleges in USA, Ranking 2021, Fees, Courses, according to US News. You want to know Best Executive MBA Programs and Best International MBA Programs, Here are the top MBA programs Colleges in the USA, Best Business Schools in the USA.
Stanford University
Stanford, CA
Best Business Schools
$74,706 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
University of Pennsylvania (Wharton) 1
Philadelphia, PA
Best Business Schools
$80,432 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
University of Chicago (Booth)
Chicago, IL
Best Business Schools
$73,440 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
Northwestern University (Kellogg)
Evanston, IL
Best Business Schools
$74,871 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
Harvard University
Boston, MA
Best Business Schools (tie)
$73,440 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Sloan) 1
Cambridge, MA
Best Business Schools
$77,168 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
Columbia University
New York, NY
Best Business Schools (tie)
$77,376 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
University of California--Berkeley (Haas)
Berkeley, CA
Best Business Schools (tie)
$68,444 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
Yale University
New Haven, CT
Best Business Schools
$72,350 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
Dartmouth College (Tuck)
Hanover, NH
Best Business Schools (tie)
$77,520 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
Find the best Business School MBA program to fit your goals. Which MBA is best in USA? Is USA good for MBA? What are the top MBA programs in The United States? Top 100 Best Business Schools (MBA) Ranked in 2021, Rankings of top business schools MBA in America. U.S. Most Popular MBA Programs Universities Business School in United States, want to Pursue Most Popular American MBA Programs, Here are Top 100 Ranked MBA Programs Universities and Colleges Names In the United States (USA).

Harvard University
Cambridge, USA

Master of Business Administration
Stanford University
Stanford, USA

Full-Time MBA
The University of Chicago
Chicago, USA

Master of Business Administration
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, USA

Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, USA

One Year MBA
Northwestern University
Evanston, USA

Columbia University
New York, USA

Princeton University
Princeton, USA

Master in Finance
University of California - Berkeley Campus
Berkeley, USA

Full Time MBA
University Of Michigan
Ann Arbor, USA

Full Time MBA
New York University
New York, USA

Duke University
Durham, USA
Global Executive

University of California - Los Angeles Campus
Los Angeles, USA

Full-Time MBA
Yale University
New Haven, USA

Dartmouth College
Hanover, USA

Carnegie Mellon University - USA
Pittsburgh, USA

Master of Business Administration
Cornell University
Ithaca, USA

Two-Year MBA
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Chapel Hill, USA

The University of Texas at Austin
Austin, USA

Full-Time MBA
Indiana University
Bloomington, USA

Master of Business Administration
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, USA

Emory University
Atlanta, USA

Two-Year MBA
Texas A & M University
College Station, USA

Full-Time MBA
Georgetown University
Washington DC, USA

Master of Business Administration
University of Southern California
Los Angeles, USA

The Ohio State University
Columbus, USA

Hult International Business School - USA
Cambridge, USA

One Year MBA
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Champaign, USA

Master of Business Administration
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Minneapolis, USA

Master of Business Administration
Florida International University
Miami, USA

International MBA
University of Washington
Seattle, USA

Full Time MBA Program
Arizona State University
Tempe, USA

Full Time MBA
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison, USA

Full Time MBA
Boston University
Boston, USA

Full Time MBA
Washington University in St Louis
St Louis, USA

Vanderbilt University
Nashville, USA

Master of business Administration
Michigan State University
East Lansing, USA

Full Time MBA
Pennsylvania State University-University Park
State College, USA

MBA Program
Brigham Young University
Provo, USA

University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, USA

One Year MBA
University of Maryland
College Park, USA

Full Time MBA
Rice University
Houston, USA

Masters of Business Administration
University of California - Irvine Campus
Irvine, USA

Full Time MBA
Purdue University
West Lafayette, USA

MS Marketing
Boston College
Boston, USA

Master of Business Administration
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, USA

Full Time MBA
University of California, Davis
Davis, USA

Brown University
Providence, USA

Executive MBA
University of South Carolina
Columbia, USA

One-Year MBA
Temple University - USA
Philadelphia, USA

Global MBA
Johns Hopkins University
Baltimore, USA

University of San Francisco
San Francisco, USA

Full Time MBA
George Mason University
Fairfax, USA

University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, USA

Master of Business Administration
Southern Methodist University
Dallas, USA

Full Time MBA
University of Rochester
Rochester, USA

Full Time MBA
University of Denver
Denver, USA

Master of Science in Management
University of Colorado Boulder
Boulder, USA

Leeds MBA
University of California, Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara, USA

MA in Economics
California Lutheran University
Thousand Oaks, USA

Master of Business Administration
University of California - San Diego Campus
San Diego, USA

Full- Time MBA
The University of Texas at Dallas
Richardson, USA

Full-Time MBA Program
University of Miami
Coral Gables, USA

Full Time MBA
University of Arizona
Tucson, USA

Full Time MBA
University of Iowa
Iowa City, USA

Professional MBA Program
University at Buffalo
Buffalo, USA

Full Time MBA
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, USA

University of Georgia
Athens, USA

University of Florida
Gainesville, USA

Full-Time MBA
Northeastern University
Boston, USA

Full Time MBA
Auburn University
Auburn, USA

Master of Business Administration
University of Connecticut
Mansfield, USA

Full-time MBA Program
University of Massachusetts Boston
Boston, USA

Rutgers University
Newark, USA

University of Missouri
Columbia, USA

Master of Business Administration
The University of Utah
Salt Lake, USA

Full Time MBA
Babson College
Boston, USA

Two year MBA
Pepperdine University
Malibu, USA

Full-Time MBA
The George Washington University
Washington DC, USA

Global MBA
Tulane University
New Orleans, USA

Master of Business Administration
Thunderbird School of Global Management
Glendale, USA

Master of Global Management (MGM)
University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Lincoln, USA

University of Alabama
Tuscaloosa, USA

Master of Business Administration
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State university
Blacksburg, USA

Professional MBA
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, USA

Clemson University
Alexander City, USA

MBA in Entrepreneurship & Innovation
Colorado State University
Alexander City, USA

Master of Business Administration
Drexel University
Philadelphia, USA

Full-Time MBA
University of Hawaii at Manoa
Honolulu, USA

Master of Human Resource Management
Florida State University
Tallahassee, USA

Accelerated Master of Business Administration
Miami University-Oxford
Oxford, USA

MBA Programme
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, USA

MBA Full-Time
Oregon State University
Corvallis, USA

Master of Business Administration in Marketing
Baruch College
New York, USA

MBA - Marketing
Baylor University
Waco, USA

Full Time MBA
The University of Memphis
Memphis, USA

International MBA
San Diego State University
San Diego, USA

Master of Business Administration
Claremont Graduate University
Claremont, USA

The Drucker MBA Program
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, USA

Full-Time MBA
Iowa State University
Ames, USA

Master of Business Administration
University of South Florida
Tampa, USA

Master of Business Administration (MBA)
DePaul University
Chicago, USA
The DePaul

American University
Washington DC, USA

Full-time MBA
University of Oklahoma
Norman, USA

MBA Full-Time
University of Houston
Houston, USA

Full-Time MBA
Texas Christian University
Fort Worth, USA

Full Time MBA
University of Tennessee
Knoxville, USA

Full-Time MBA
Binghamton University
Binghamton, USA

University of Delaware
Newark, USA

Syracuse University
Syracuse, USA

The University of Illinois at Chicago
Chicago, USA

Full-time MBA Program
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Troy, USA

University of Kansas
Lawrence, USA

Masters of Business Administration
University at Albany-SUNY
Albany, USA

Full Time MBA
Texas Tech University
Lubbock, USA

Stem MBA
Fordham University
Bronx, USA

Full - Time MBA
West Virginia University
Morgantown, USA

Bentley University
Waltham, USA

Emerging Leaders MBA
University of Oregon
Eugene, USA

Master of Business Administration
University of Tulsa
Tulsa, USA

Mississippi State University
Starkville, USA

University of Kentucky
Lexington, USA

One Year MBA
Northern Arizona University
Flagstaff, USA.

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