Showing posts with label Organisational Behaviour and Design. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Organisational Behaviour and Design. Show all posts

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Virtual And Networked Organization Characteristics In OB

Virtual And Networked Organization Organizational Behavior

Virtual Organization


According to the contemporary English language conception "virtual" means something very special. "Virtual" is almost something. Yet there are Virtual Organizations that perform very real tasks as a result of the products and benefits. To follow this development scholars try to develop and define virtuality as the frame of physiology, but in the frame of management the wide range of definitions makes it difficult to demand scholarly consensus. Virtual Organization has been defined as,
Cooperation of enterprises. (Arnold and Hartling, 1996);
A network of firms in association with the product of the day (Borgatti, 1996);
Group of people who guided and interact through interdependent tasks by common objectives, that link space, time, And works across organizational boundaries strengthened by webs of communication technologies. (Lipnank and Ticket, 1997);
A geographically distributed organization, whose members have long been tied-to words of common interest or goals and who communicate and coordinate their work through information technology. (Ahuja and Carly, 1998);
A task project or permanent organization that is decentralized and independent of any spatial relationship. (Fisher and Fisher, 1998; Hoefling, 2001);
Building a network or using loose alliances and administrative services. Integrated computer and communication technology to connect different groups. Personnel for a specific business purpose, when the purpose is different from being met done. (Wilson, 1999);
Geographically scattered individuals, short time or permanent groups of groups, organizational units that do not belong to one firm or organization, or may be an organization that relies on electronic interconnection. (Papajogulu et al., 2000);
An aggregation of autonomous agents who are communicating and collaborating achieve common goals. (Gallivan, 2001);
A consolidation made up of truly existing organizations and individuals. (Okokane, 2002);
A consolidation of multiple business units that have human and work processes to interact, achieving common outcomes and mutual benefits. Butkus (2003);
An entity that uses information technology networks to connect people, assets, and ideas without creating and delivering products, and services to traditional organizational boundaries or physical spaces. (Loudon and Loudon, 2004);
A network of people or organizations that are independent is a common realization of the project or common economic activity communication of information, and information is not dependent on process and time through information technology and space. (Vernus and Valcin, 2006);
A flexible, dynamic structure of geographically dispersed entities, where communication is realized mostly or exclusively by electronic means, where tasks are divided according to the expertise or ability of the member. (Dumitrescu, 2009);
A single entity, acting as a self-sufficient organizational unity and using a combined information system built with networking and information technology (Ratkus, 2011).
Since Virtual Organization is mostly integrated with a unity of partners Described in what it considers organizational as communication direction external in VO for member of unity. Dubey and Savaneviciene (2010).
state in their research, that an organization without ICT-based communication between partners can be network only, not virtual. Some authors, as Forslund et all (1998) and Camarinha-Matos et al (2009) do not present concrete definitions for Virtual Organization, yet they emphasize companies that are service providers as potential members of VO . Mowshowitz (2002), Msanila and Afsarmanesh (2008) summarized Virtual Organization managing goal-oriented activity in a way independent of the means for its realization. As the geographical distribution is being mentioned by most authors, there are also those who compare conception as 'virtual' equivalent to the geographically dispersed '' (Durrett & Snyder, 1999; Lipnack & Stamps; 2000; Muethel And Hogle, 2010). Duoba and Duobine (2011) stated virtual organization features are defining geographic distribution, networking, identity, orientation to essential orientation, orientation to trust, consumer and Information Communication  Technology (ICT) use. Direct and indirect definitions of VOs allow single salient features of presenting Virtual organizations to single out a possible consensus on the case.

Characteristics Of Virtual Organization


Recognized characteristics have not been as aspects of the Virtual Organization, but in 1993 prospects for business by Sproll and Kiesler, stated differs from the traditional workplace in relation to time, space and employees, whose organization Connected Internet or a commercial network may belong to electronic groups whose members come from many different organizations. The following are the main Characteristics of Virtual Organization. Consolidation of organizations groups or individuals through external communication. Self-reliant unity Communicate through geographically distributed Internet Communication Technology. No dependence on time or space Share purpose Short time or permanent unit.

Networked Organization


A concept "network" is Only the basic verb form in the English dictionary. networked is described in two aspects first is computer connections and second is communication with others. Network is as much of a computer connection as people interact. Computer networking does not replace other forms of human communication; It increases human range of connectivity and the number of ways in which it is capable of making contact with others (Harsim, 1993).
Parker (2007) suggested that networks require actors and social relationships connected by relationships, shared power in decentralized decision-making (the absence of single-actor control and domination), information transfer and sensitivity (reflection) on practice and the world. Thoughts of), actors run out of recognition that influence them and are influenced by the behavior of other actors Finance. As the "networked" concept has no single meaning, the networked organization is even more distant, as defined in the consensus. The definition of Networked Organization is as follows.
An organization, or organizational area, where all members are connected through a single electronic network, to communicate (sometimes non-work matters) and through it they access information or Provide information. (Sproll & Kissler, 1991).
Traditional company boundaries with rich communication environments, information flow. (RockArt & Short, 1991).
Communication structures based on electronic structures where information spreads flexibly and expands group and organizational boundaries. (Miles and Snow 1992).
Acquisition and then expansion of a computer-mediated communication system improved unified connectivity with its neighbors in other countries. (Lee, 1995).
A collection of autonomous firms or units that behave as one large entity, using social mechanisms for coordination and control. (Borgatti, 1996).
A distributed or loose coalition of manufacturing and administrative services using a commercial purpose, then disarming when the objective is met. (Wilson, 1997).
Networked organization defined by the structure, process and elements of the objective Unit. a networked organization combines co-specialized, possibly intangible, assets under shared control. Joint ownership is necessary but it must also produce an integrated method of property, communication, and command in an efficient and flexible manner. Constitutionally, a network organization lacks participating agents' allowing agents to emerge or fade with the development or disintegration of action relations through their roles and positions within the organization while allowing others. (Van Elstein, 1997).
A collection of associations with linkages bind them to each other is often organized around a focal organization. There are many variations on joint partnerships, including strategic alliances, network organizational forms, R&D and a host of others. (Monge and Contractor, 1997).
An organization that uses information and communication technologies to expand its boundaries and physical location. (Smirnov et al., 2004).
Networked Organization is a structure that relies on multilateral cooperative relations. The existence of dense networks of communication between people based on structural, temporal and geographical boundaries. (Kimble, 2008).
An independent company in distributed networks. (Smirnov et al., 2008).
A management structure in which organizational units are tightened, such as the Keek honeycomb, where there is a molten network of relationships and functions. (Civiocla, 2011).
The other authors only give Networked Organization without definition. Emphasize particular aspects, such as RockArt and Short (1991), Wilson (1995), Norvis (2003), etc. RockArt and Short (1991) share the qualities of a networked organization which are, Specialization; work; Decision making; priority of time and issues; Responsibility, accountability and trust; Recognition and reward.

Characteristics Of Networked Organization


As long as 2000, although Networked Organization was separated from Virtual Organization as a word, still as a word, the language was the same. Review of direct and indirect definitions of the concept. The Networked Organization has the following characteristics, presenting a possible consensus on Networked Organization which are,
Single organization.
Network based organizational structure.
Deliver functions through Internet Communication Technology.
No structural, time or space boundaries in communication.
Flexible.

Knowledge Based Enterprise In Organizational Behavior


Knowledge Based Enterprise In OB

Knowledge Based Enterprise


The strategic alignment model given by Henderson, Venkataraman in 1990, defined two interrelated components of an enterprise. Number one is the business domain and second is the IT domain, If two other important components of enterprise management which are, the knowledge domain and the data domain, if all these four interrelated domains components have to be taken into account, then all these domains convert a business enterprise into a knowledge based business enterprise.

Knowledge Based Enterprise Structure


The major parts of Knowledge Based Enterprise Structure are,
Support Activities.
Primary Activities.
Interaction of Management Functions.

Support activities


Support activities are information processing activities such as, data processing, decision making, consequently they are changed to management functions.

Primary activities


Primary activities are material flow processing activities such as, manufacturing, and they are called Enterprise Process.

Interaction of Management Functions


 Management functions and enterprise process are called interactions of management functions Reaction, it is an important component of enterprise management control system.

Knowledge-Based Enterprise Management Framework


In an Organization or Company Every higher management level is associated with the lower level. The Elementary Management functions Cycles has different management control point of view. The Knowledge-Based Enterprise has four main management control functions which are,
Business Process Knowledge Management Functions.
Enterprise Knowledge Management Functions.
Knowledge Base Management Functions.
Enterprise Strategic Management Functions.

Business Process Knowledge Management Functions


Business Process Knowledge Management Functions is a management control attributes for the Enterprise Knowledge Base to exchange knowledge about business processes management.

Enterprise Knowledge Management Functions


Enterprise Knowledge Management is aimed to using knowledge stored in Enterprise Knowledge base through interface related with enterprise feedback.

Knowledge Base Management Functions


Knowledge Base Management is aimed to improve the structure and content of the Enterprise Knowledge Base by adjust content with the business goals through the feedback received by enterprise.

Enterprise Strategic Management Functions


Enterprise Strategic Management Level is the component, which defines the IT and business strategy requirements for the Enterprise Knowledge Base meta-modeling.

Knowledge-Based Enterprise Management Transactions


The knowledge based Enterprise Management Transaction is Business Process Management Cycle Framework. In which work flow, semantics, objective of the business is controled in an enterprise for the Generation of a specialized knowledge Business Process. It is the processing of the information, data and knowledge for the better decision making, Knowledge-Based Enterprise Management Transactions  activity includes a set of rules and procedures, for the conversion of real data and knowledge about business process and knowledge processing to define a set of business processes decision control. the outputs of Knowledge-Based Enterprise Management Transactions steps manipulate decisions and influence the business process.

Create Manage And Change Organizational Behavior In OB

Create Manage And Change Organizational Behavior


Creat Organizational Culture


From Where Organizational cultures come from? It is important to understand this question so that you know how they can be changed. The culture of an organization is shaped by facing the organization's external and internal challenges and learns how to deal with them. the founder's values priorities and industry demands are the most important factors in building the an organization's culture.

Founder's Values


An organizational culture depends on their founder's personality, background, values and their future vision for the organization. This gives one reason why changing culture is so difficult, it is shaped in the early days of the company's history. When entrepreneurs starts their own businesses. the organization's rules, the structure set up in the company, and the people hired to work with them, is depends on the way as the founders want to do business.

Industry Demands


The founders have a powerful influence on organizational cultures, industry demands also play a important role. The characteristics and demands of the industry act as a force for creating equality between organizational cultures. It is also important to know the impact of industry on organizational culture, it may not be possible to emulate the culture of one industry in another industry.

Maintain Organizational Culture


When an organization matures, its cultural values are refined and strengthened. The initial values of a organization's culture influence its future values. organizational culture protects itself from external forces. Organizational culture determines which types of people are hired by an organization and which types of people are left out. In addition, once new employees are hired, the company assimilates new employees and teaches them how things are done in the organization. We call these processes the attraction selection attention and onboarding process. We will also examine the role of leaders and reward systems in shaping and maintaining the culture of the organization. It is important to remember two points, the process of culture formation is actually more complex and less clear than the name. Additionally, the influence of each factor on culture formation is mutual. For example, as leaders can influence what type of values a company has, culture can also determine what types of behaviors leaders display. There are following process by which organizational culture can be maintained, these are.

Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA)


Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) is the process in any organizations, by this process first employees are attracted to organizations, where job applicants will find different cultures to attractive. who likes a competitive nature can feel comfortable to work in a company where mutual competition is the norm. Others may like to work in a team-oriented workplace. different personality traits employees attract to different organizational cultures. Companies use different techniques to differentiate candidates that do not fit with corporate values. the company attracts, selects, and retains those who share its core values. On the other hand, those who differ in core values will be excluded from naturally occurring turnover during or after the hiring process from the organization. Thus, organizational culture will act as a self-sustaining organism where intrusive elements are excluded.

New Employee Onboarding


An organization's values, norms, and patterns of behavior are transmitted to employees through the onboarding process. Onboarding is the process through which new employees learn the behaviors, knowledge, skills, and required behavior function effectively within an organization. If an organization onboarding new employees to become organizational insiders, new employees feel confident about their ability to perform, by understanding that they are accepted by their peers, who perform better and have higher satisfaction, stronger organizational commitment and longer work hours within the company. There are several factors that play a role in the successful adjustment of new employees. New employees can engage in many activities to help increase their chances of success in a new organization. Organizations also engage in various activities, such as implementing orientation programs or matching new employees, which may facilitate onboarding.

Employees Activities During Onboarding


New employees who are proactive, seek feedback, and build strong relationships are more successful. feedback helps to new employees, Especially at the first job, a new employee may make mistakes or it can be difficult to understand and explain the vague reactions of colleagues. New employees may not know if they are performing to standards, was it a good idea to mention a company's mistake to a customer, By actively seeking feedback, gain a better understanding of whether their behavior is in line with the company's culture and expectations. Many studies show the benefits of feedback sought for new employee adjustments. Relationship building, or networking, is another important behavior that new employees may exhibit. Especially when a company does not have a systematic approach to onboarding, it becomes more important for new employees to actively facilitate their own onboarding. According to an estimate, 35% of managers starting a new job fail in the new job and either leave voluntarily or are fired within 1.5 years. Of these, more than 60% report not having effective relationships with colleagues as the primary cause of their failure. Initially New employees try to build relationships and  interact with their new colleagues on lunch or coffee, participate in company functions, and try to build relationships with them.

Organization Action During Onboarding


organizations can help new employees adjust to company new job through organizational insiders supervisors, co-workers and mentors. Mentors can be instrumental in helping new employees adjust to the ins and outs of their jobs and how the company actually works. A mentor is a trusted person who provides to new employee advice and support regarding career related matters. Although a mentor can be any employee or manager who has insights valuable to the new employee.

Leadership


Leaders play an important role in creating and changing the culture of the organization. There is a direct correspondence between the style of a leader and the culture of an organization. leaders inspire employees through motivation, the corporate culture is more supportive and people-oriented. When leaders are motivated to create rewards on performance, the corporate culture becomes more performance oriented and competitive. which leaders directly influence the cultures of their organizations. The leader's own behavior will signal to employees what is acceptable behavior and what is unacceptable. An organization in which high-level managers try to involve others in decision-making and seek the opinions of others to develop a team-oriented culture. By acting as role models, leaders send signals about the organization's norms and values that are expected to guide the actions of the organizational members. leaders shape and sustain the organization's culture.

Reward Systems


Organizational culture can be shaped by the use of reward systems in the organization, Some companies have reward systems that emphasize intangible elements of performance as well as more easily observable metrics. In these companies, supervisors and coworkers can evaluate an employee's performance by assessing the individual's behavior as well as outcomes. In such companies, we can expect a culture that is relatively people or team oriented, On the other hand, reward system is based on goal attainment, companies focus is only on measuring the results without much regard to the process. Another classification of reward systems can be uses rankings or ratings.

Visual Elements Of Organization


How do you know about the company's culture? We first emphasized that culture affects by organization's member's think, behave, and interact with each other. Thus, one way to find out about the company's culture is to observe or interview employees. Organization culture manifests itself in some visible aspects of the organization's environment. In the following five ways culture shows itself to supervisors and employees. These are,

Mission Statement


A mission statement purpose is to tell about the company is and what it does. Many companies have mission statements, but they do not always reflect the values of the company and its purpose. An effective mission statement is well known by employees, dispatched to all employees starting on their first day at work, and influencing employee behavior. Not all mission statements are effective.

Rituals


Rituals reflect repetitive activities within an organization that have symbolic meaning. They create a sense of belonging between comrades and employees. They also work to teach employees corporate values and identify with the organization. During ritual, employees feel about the company's culture and its values, such as self-determination, will power, and enthusiasm.

Rules And Policies


Another way in which employees can find out about the, company's culture by examine its rules and policies. Companies make rules to determine acceptable and unacceptable behavior, and thus the rules that exist in a company will indicate values of company. Policies about issues such as decision making, human resources, and employee confidentiality state what the company believes in and emphasizes. Rules and policies care about its employees and shows concern for their well-being. By offering employees flexible working hours, rest, and telecommunications opportunities, the company can emphasize work-life balance.

Physical Layout


A company building, which includes the layout of employee offices and other work sites, gives important messages about the company's culture. Building architecture can indicate the core values of an organization's culture. The layout of the office space is also a strong indicator of the company's culture. A company that has an open layout where high-level managers interact with employees can have a culture of team orientation, company where higher-level managers have their own floor is a higher-level hierarchy.

Stories


the most colorful and effective way for organizations, to communicate their culture to new employees and members is through the efficient use of stories. A story can highlight the important event faced by an organization and the collective response to it, or emphasize the heroic effort of a single employee reflecting the values of the company. Stories usually combine employee emotions and generate employee identification with the company or the heroes of the story. A compelling story can be an important mechanism through which managers motivate to employees by giving direction to their behavior and moving towards a certain goal.

Change Organizational Culture


Organizational Culture is the DNA of a company and it resist to change efforts. many organizations don't realize that their current culture is a barrier against organizational productivity and performance. company culture can be the mismatch between the values of an organization and the demands of its environment. circumstances can help to change the culture, if an organization faces short-term failure or is in danger of bankruptcy or imminent loss of market share, managers and employees will find it easier to explain that culture change is necessary. Sometimes the external environment can force an organization to undergo a culture change. Mergers and acquisitions are another example of culture changes of the company. Research and case studies of companies successfully apply the following six steps for change the organizational culture.

Creating Sense Of Urgency


In order for the change of successful organizational culture, it is important to communicate the need for change in employees. One way to do this is to create a sense of urgency on the part of employees and explain to them why it is so important to change the fundamental way in which business is conducted. In successful culture change efforts, leaders communicate with employees and present a case as an essential element for culture change that will lead the company to ultimate success.

Changing Leaders And Major Players


A leader's vision is an important factor that influences things in an organization. Thus, culture change often follows change at the highest levels of the organization. Organizational culture change effort quickly and efficiently, first of all removing leaders, managers and other powerful employees who are acting as a barrier to change. For political reasons, selfishness, or habits, managers can create powerful resistance to change efforts. In such cases, replacing these positions with visible support staff and managers culture change effort will be successful.

Role Modeling


Role Model modeling is the process by which employees modify their own beliefs and behaviors to reflect the leader's views. CEOs can model employees behaviors that can change the organizational culture. When such behavior is kept at the top levels, it is likely to affect the company's culture.

Training


Well-crafted training programs can play an important role in bringing about culture change by teaching employees new norms and behavioral styles. decision made change efforts included training programs in team processes and cognitive bias awareness. International Corporation felt the need to change their culture to be more committed to customers, they developed a training program to let employees familiarize with customers and build better relationships with them.

Changing The Reward System


The norms by which employees are rewarded and punished have a powerful role in determining cultural values in their existence. Switching from a commission-based incentive structure directly to a pay system may be important in bringing customer attention among sales employees. In addition, by rewarding employees who embrace the company's new values and promote these employees, organizations can ensure that the change in culture has a lasting impact.

Creating New Symbols And Stories


Organizational culture change effort can be increased by developing new rituals, symbols, and stories. One of the first things management did was to show employees that they really meant to eliminate the many elaborate processes the company had and create a culture of empowerment. This action symbolized the coming changes in culture and served as a powerful story transmitted among employees. Replacing old symbols and stories, with new symbols and stories will help to change the Organizational culture.

Organizational Culture And Ethics


A recent study of 3,000 employees and managers in the United States has confirmed, that the extent to which employees behave ethically in an organization depends on the culture of the organization. Mandatory ethical training programs without a culture often fail without emphasizing the importance of honesty and trust. For ethical culture building, leadership can be the most influential. Leaders by demonstrating high levels of honesty and loyalty in their actions, can model the behaviors demanded in an organization. If his actions contradict his words, it will be extremely difficult to establish a culture of morality. When leaders create a highly performance-oriented culture, where there are only results and no tolerance for not missing one's goals, the culture can begin to reward unethical behavior.

Organizational Culture Characteristics In OB

Organizational Culture Characteristics


Organizational Culture


Organizational culture is described as a system of shared beliefs, values, and employees appropriate and inappropriate behavior. These values have a strong impact on employee behavior as well as organizational performance. organizational culture was popularized in the 1980s when best-selling book In Search of Excellence written by Peters and Waterman's, argued that the company's success could be attributed to an organizational culture that was decisive, Customer oriented, empowered people. Since then, organizational culture has become the subject of numerous research studies, However, organizational culture is still a relatively new concept. Unlike a subject such as leadership, whose history spans many centuries, organizational culture is a young but rapidly evolving field within organizational behavior. By culture and by and large it is invisible to individuals. Even though it affects all employee behavior, thinking and patterns of behavior, individuals become more aware of their organization's culture when they have the opportunity to compare themselves to other organizations. organizations have different cultures, and culture dictates what is right and what is wrong as well as acceptable and unacceptable.

Characteristics Of Organizational Culture


What values reflect the characteristics of organizational culture? There are following set values of culture, that can be used to describe the characteristics of organizational culture, which are,
Innovative Cultures.
Aggressive Cultures.
Outcome-Oriented Cultures.
Stable Culture.
People-Oriented Culture.
Team-Oriented Culture.
Detail-Oriented Culture.
Service Culture.
Safety Culture.

Innovative Culture


Which Organizations have innovative cultures, they are flexible and adaptable in nature and experiment with new ideas. These companies are characterized by a flat hierarchy in which the title and other position differences are minimized.

Aggressive Culture


Companies with aggressive competition culture value and competitive rivals, may fall short in the area of corporate social responsibility. In aggressive culture companies, the ceo or people of that companies may use language such as We will kill our competition. The aggressive culture is cited as a reason for new legal troubles for the companies before the old ones are resolved.

Outcome-Oriented Culture


The OCP Framework describes outcome-oriented cultures that emphasize achievement, outcome, and action as key values. the company implemented a results-oriented work environment (ROWE) program that allows employees to work anywhere and anytime, They are evaluated based on the results and clearly stated objectives. Outcome-oriented cultures hold employees as well as managers responsible for success, and use systems that reward employee and group output. In Outcome-oriented cultures  companies, rewards tied on performance indicators not to seniority or loyalty. Research indicates that organizations have performance-oriented culture tend to outperform companies. overtaking employee performance experienced well publicized business and ethical failures. performance pressures in individual generates unethical behaviors, people tend to view their peers as rivals and short-term consequences are rewarded, resulting unhealthy work environment acts as an obligation, Organizational crisis and the logic failure.

Stable Culture


Stable cultures are predictable, rule-oriented and bureaucratic. The goal of these organizations is to coordinate and align individual effort to the greatest levels of efficiency. When the environment is stable and fixed, these cultures can help make the organization effective by providing a stable and consistent level of output. Public sector institutions can be seen as stable cultures.

People-Oriented Culture


People-oriented cultures respect for fairness, support and personal rights. These organizations think that, people are their greatest asset. unbiased processes and management styles in these compnies create an environment, where work is fun. In these organizations, there is a greater emphasis on treating people with respect and dignity. These company is regularly ranked as one of the best places to work by world's best Newspapers and magazines.

Team-Oriented Culture


Organizations with team-oriented cultures are emphasize on collaboration among employees. Im team-oriented culture cross-training is provided to employees so that they are able to help each other when needed. The company emphasizes on team work. Employees participate in daily meetings, where they collaborate to understand the sources of problems and determine future actions. In team-oriented companies selection process, applicants who are not seen as team players are not hired as employees. In team-oriented organizations, members tend to have more positive relationships with their co-workers, and especially with their managers.

Detail-Oriented Culture


Organizations with detail-oriented cultures are characterized by attention to detail to be precise and emphasized in the OCP framework. Such a culture gives companies a competitive advantage in the hospitality industry, enabling them to distinguish themselves from others.

Service Culture


Service culture is importance for the retail industry in the overall economy, a service culture can make or break an organization. In service culture organizations, employees are trained to serve the customer well, and cross-training is the norm. Employees are empowered to solve the problems they see, Because employees is with direct customer contact to resolve any issue, employee empowerment is really valuable in these companies. employees come up with unique ways in which they better serve customers, In service culture organizations, employee service performance rewards through bonuses and incentives.

Safety Culture


Some jobs are sensitive to security like loggers, aircraft pilots, fishing workers, steel workers, and roofers are among the top ten most dangerous jobs in the United States. America's Most Dangerous Jobs are Loggers and fishermen with the highest risk. In which organizations safety sensitive tasks are undertaken, building and maintaining a safety culture provides a competitive advantage, and reduce accidents, maintain a high level of morale and employee retention, Some companies have to suffer severe consequences when they are unable to develop this kind of culture. Which organizations have a safety culture have a strong commitment to security at the management level and deceit to lower levels. Managers can play a key role in increasing the level of safe behavior in the workplace, by motivating employees to demonstrate safe behavior day-to-day and act as safety role models. safety culture organizations leaders allow employees to behave voluntarily for safety committees, make recommendations to increase safety, protect colleagues from threats, and secure their jobs.

Jobs Design In Organizational Behavior

Organizational Behavior Notes


Job Design


Job design has a major impact on employees motivation, job satisfaction, commitment to the organization, absenteeism and turnover of the company. The question is how to design jobs properly so that employees are more productive and more satisfied, Managers and researchers have gained attention since the early 20th century. We will review key approaches to job design, starting with our initial history.

Scientific Management Job Specialization


Probably the earliest effort to design jobs came during the era of scientific management. Scientific management is a philosophy given by Frederick Taylor in his book, Principles of Scientific Management in. 1911.  Taylor's book is one of the most influential books of the 20th century. Taylor was a mechanical engineer in the manufacturing industry. He saw that the work was being done only with the workers. He observed inefficiencies inherent in the methods of production of employees, and argued that a manager's job was to carefully plan the work to be performed by employees. He believed that scientific methods could be used to increase productivity. Scientific management proposed several ideas that have been influential in job design in the coming years. An important consideration was to minimize waste by identifying the most efficient method for doing the work. Using time-speed studies, management can determine how much time each task will require and plan tasks so that the job can be executed as efficiently as possible. Each task will be carefully planned beforehand, and employees will be paid to perform tasks in a manner specified by management. In addition, job specialization was one of the major advances of this approach. There are many advantages to gaining expertise. Breaking tasks into simple components and repeating them reduces the skill requirements of jobs and reduces the effort and cost of employees. Training time is also shorter for simple, repetitive tasks. On the other hand, from a motivational point of view, these jobs are boring and repetitive and are therefore associated with negative consequences such as absenteeism. job expertise is ineffective in a rapidly changing environment, where employees may need to modify their approach according to the demands of the position. when employees' social objectives were ignored. managers realized their role is influencing the production level of employees. The assembly line where each worker performs simple tasks in a repetitive manner is a direct result of job specialization efforts.

Job Rotation Enrichment


One of the early options for job specialization was job rotation. Job rotation involves employees working from job to job at regular intervals. When employees go to different jobs from time to time, monotonous aspects of job specialization can be get rid of. Job rotation has many advantages for organizations. It is an effective way for employees to acquire new skills and in return for organizations to increase the overall skill level of their employees. which increases the flexibility of hiring employees when needed in different parts of the organization. In addition, job rotation is a way of transferring knowledge between departments. Rotation can also have the benefit of reducing employee boredom, depending on how the employee is performing at a given time. From the employee's point of view, rotation is an advantage, as they acquire new skills that sustain them in marketing for a longer period of time. Is rotation only used at a lower level of an organization? companies also rotate high-level employees to train managers and increase innovation in the company.

Job Enlargement


Job Enlargement refers to expanding the work done by employees to add more diversity. As opposed to restricting their activities to a smaller number of tasks for employees to perform many different tasks, organizations expect to reduce boredom and monotony as well as use human resources more effectively . Job enlargement may have the same benefits as job rotation, as it may involve multiple tasks to teaching employees. the effect of enlargement on the job may depend on the type of enlargement by expansion adding tasks.

Job Design Characteristics


Characteristics of job design are one of the most influential efforts to design jobs, increasing the motivational dimensions for psychological states, resulting in work outcomes. Following are the characteristics of job design.
Skill Variety.
Task Identity.
Task Significance.
Autonomy.
Feedback.
Empowerment.

Skill Variety


Skill diversity refers to the number of high-level skills a person needs to use for a job. A car wash worker whose job is to direct customers to an automated car wash exhibits low levels of skill, while a car wash worker who acts as a cashier maintains carwash equipment, and chemicals The management of the list demonstrates high skill diversity.

Task Identity


Job identification refers to a person who has charge of completing an identifiable work from beginning to end. A web designer, who designs parts of a web site, has little work recognition, as this work is included in the work of other web designers; In the end it would be difficult for any one person to claim responsibility for the final output. The web master designing an entire web site will have a higher function identity.

Task Significance


Work importance refers to whether a person's work affects the work, health, or welfare of other people. A worker who cleans the floor in an office building may find the job less important, thinking it is not a very important job. However, floor sweepers in the hospital can play their part in helping patients improve. When they feel that their actions are important, employees feel that they are having an impact on their environment, and their self-feelings are boosted.

Autonomy


Autonomy is the degree by which a person has the freedom to decide how to perform his tasks. Autonomy increases motivation at work, but also has other advantages. Giving employees autonomy during work is key to the success of the company as well as the individual, as autonomous employees are free to choose the way they do their jobs and therefore they can be more effective. They are less likely to adopt this is not my job approach to their work environment and to be proactive and creative. Cornell University study shows that small businesses that give employees autonomy grew four times more than those who did not. the level of autonomy as an important task for the development of leadership talent.

Feedback


Feedback is the tool by which people learn how effective they are at work. Feedback at work may come from other people, such as supervisors, co-workers, subordinates and clients, or it may come from the job itself. We can not say that relationship between feedback and job performance is always right, but it is more controversial. In other words, mere presence of feedback is not enough to make employees feel motivated to perform. the feedback being present, the sign of the response positive or negative, whether the person is ready to receive the response, and the manner in which the response was given will all determine whether employees feel motivated or demoted as a result of the response According to the model of job characteristics, the presence of these five main work dimensions gives employees three attitudes Scientific states experience: they perceive their work as meaningful, they feel responsible for the results, and they gain knowledge of the results. These three psychological states, in turn, relate to positive outcomes such as overall job satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, high performance.

Empowerment


Empowerment is one of the contemporary approaches to motivate employees through the design of empowered jobs. The concept of empowerment expands the idea of autonomy. Empowerment can be defined as the ability to make decisions and do their work effectively, rather than assigning roles, companies should create an environment where employees are enthralled, feel inspired and have the discretion to make decisions about the content and context of their jobs. empowered employees believe that their work is meaningful. They feel that they are able to perform their jobs effectively, have the ability to influence how they affect the company and how they fit in any way, performing their jobs without any supervision and other interventions. These freedoms enable employees to feel powerful. If employees are not given the information to make decisions, empowerment efforts will fail. in any organizations the relationship between access to information and empowerment is well established, empowering individual employees may not be in a doubt, but creat an environment of empowerment throughout the organization.

Group Decision Making In Organizational Behavior

Group Decision Making In OB


Groups Decision Making


Groups decision making benefits are to find decisions from the experienced and perspective large number of individuals. Therefore, a group may have the ability to be more creative and make more effective decisions. In fact, groups can sometimes achieve results beyond what they could have done as individuals. Can make work more enjoyable for group members. Finally, when a decision is made by a group rather than a single one, the implementation of the decision will become easier, as the group members will be more invested in the decision. If the group is diverse, better decisions can be made, as different members of the group may have different views based on their backgrounds and experiences. Research shows that for top management teams, the various groups that debate make decisions that are more comprehensive and preferable to the bottom line. group decision suffers from many disadvantages. While groups have the ability to make an effective decision, groups may suffer from coordination problems. Anyone who has worked with a team of individuals on a project may have difficulty in coordinating the work of members or coordinating the attendance of everyone in a team meeting. group decision making takes longer than individual decision making, as all members need to discuss their ideas about different options. Decision making by groups may be more effective.

Groups Thinking


Group thinking is a tendency to avoid critical evaluation of the group's favoring views. Ewing Janis, author of the book Victims of Groupthink, states that groupthink is characterized by following traits. illusion of disqualification is shared by most group members, which creates excessive optimism and encourages them to take extreme risks. There are collective rationalizations, in which members reduce negative information or warnings. Due to which they may have to reconsider their beliefs. Confidence occurs, which may lead members to ignore the ethical or moral consequences of their actions. When groups' rivals discount the ability to make effective responses, stable views of outflows are seen. Direct pressure is put on the member who expresses strong arguments against any stereotypes, confusion or commitments of the group Occurs when group members have the illusion of being unanimous on the basis of direct pressure on their. Lack of dissatisfaction is seen as unanimous. Self-appointed more members protect the group from information that runs counter to the group's beliefs and course of action.

Techniques for Making Better Decisions


There are following Tools and Techniques for Making Better Decisions.
Nominal Group Technique (NGT).
Delphi Technique .
Majority rule.
Consensus.
Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS).
knowledge management systems.
Decision trees.

Nominal Group Technique (NGT)


In The nominal grouping technique (NGT), group decision making to ensure that all members participate fully. NGT is not a regularly used technique in all meetings. Rather, it is used to structure group meetings when members are struggling with problem resolution or idea generation. It follows four steps. First, each member of the group begins writing ideas independently and quietly. Second, the group goes around the room in order to gather all the ideas that were generated. This process continues until all ideas are shared. Third, there is a discussion around each idea, and members ask for clarification and evaluate. Finally, group members vote for their favorite ideas using ranking or rating techniques. Adhering to the four-step NGT helps ensure that all members participate fully, and that avoided group decision-making problems such as groupthinking.

Delphi Technique


The Delphi technique is unique because it is a group process, that uses the written responses of a series of questionnaires rather than physically bringing individuals together to make decisions. outlining objectives, or proposing a solution. Each subsequent questionnaire is constructed from the information gathered in the previous one. This process ceases when the group reaches a consensus. Facilitators can decide whether to keep responses anonymous. This process is often used to generate best practice from experts. For example, Professor Michael Campion of Purdue University used this process when he was the editor of the research journal Personnel Psychology and wanted to determine the qualities that distinguished a good research article. Using the Delphi technique, he was able to gather responses from hundreds of top researchers around the world and distribute them to a list of criteria he could use to evaluate articles submitted to his journal, all Without leaving his office.

Majority Rule


Majority rules refer to a decision-making rule in which each member of the group is given one vote and the option that receives the largest number of votes is selected. This technique remains popular, perhaps due to its simplicity, speed, ease of use, and representational objectivity. Research also supports majority governance as an effective decision-making technique. However, those who do not vote in favor of the decision will be less likely to support it.

Consensus


Consensus is another decision-making rule that groups can use, when the goal is to gain support for an idea or action plan. Although consensus requires more time, it makes sense when support is needed to implement the plan. The process works from discussing the issues at hand, preparing a proposal, calling for consensus, and discussing any concerns. If concerns still exist, the proposal has been revised to accommodate them. These steps are repeated until consensus is reached. Consensus decision-making technique is inclusive, participatory, cooperative, and democratic. consensus has better accuracy, and it helps members feel more satisfied with the decision. However, groups take longer time with this approach, if consensus is not reached, members become frustrated.

Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) 


Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) are interactive computer-based systems capable of combining communication and decision technologies to help groups make better decisions. Research suggests that Group Decision Support Systems can actually improve the production of collaborative actions of groups through higher information sharing. Improving group decisions by improved pooling information.

knowledge Management Systems


Knowledge management systems are important for information sharing, and their expense reflects this reality. Businesses invested $ 2.7 billion in new systems in 2002 and estimated the number to double every 5 years. As the popularity of these systems increases, they risk being reversed. Man can only process so many thoughts and information at one time. the system is probably becoming too complex. If the system develops to a point of uneasy complexity, it has re-created the problem. Those who understand the interface will control the plot of the discussion, while those who are less discerning will only be along for the ride.

Decision Tree


Decision trees are diagrams with yes or no questions to answer that helps decision makers to reach the end of the tree. Decision-making trees are helpful in guiding the decision-maker to a predefined choice and ensuring continuity of decision-making following a course of action unlike the others, Using a decision tree.

Ethics and Decision Making 


Many decisions involve an ethical component, to assess the morality of a decision, Is this decision fair? Will I feel better or worse about myself after making this decision? Does this decision break any organizational rules? Does this decision break any laws? How would I have felt if the decision had been aired on the news.

Decision Making Around The Globe


Decision-making styles and approaches around the globe vary depending on the context, and an important contextual factor to keep in mind is the culture in which decisions are being made. Research from Japanese and Dutch decision makers suggests that both cultures are unanimous-oriented, with Japanese managers seeking a much greater consensus than Dutch managers. American managers value quick decision making, while Chinese managers tend to be more reflective and take their time to make important decision, especially when they involve some type of potential conflict.

Decision Making In Organizational Behaviour

Decision Making In OB


Decision-Making


Decision-making refers to choosing between alternative courses of action, which may also include passivity. management work is to making decisions, half of the decisions made by managers is fail in any organizations. Why decisions fail Surprising but true, Half of the decisions in organizations fail. These decisions can affect the lives of others and change the course of an organization.

Types Of Decisions


Decision can be classified into three categories based on the type of at which they occur. Number one is Strategic decision which Set the course of an organization. Number two is a strategic decision which is made about how things will happen. Finally, third number is operational decisions, which refer to the decisions that employees make each day to run the organization. There are different decision-making models designed for understand and evaluate the effectiveness of the decisions. there are four decision-making models, which are,
Rational Decision-Making Model,
Bounded Decision-Making Model,
Intuitive Decision-Making Model,
Creative Decision-Making Model.

Rational Decision-Making Model


In the rational decision-making model a series of steps taken by decision makers to maximize the decisions outcomes results.  when making a rational decision-making model decision make sure that, you can establish your decision criteria before exploring options. This will prevent you from liking an option more and setting your criteria accordingly. advantage of the rational model is that it urges decision makers to generate all alternatives rather than just a few. By generating a large number of choices covering a wide range of possibilities, Despite all its benefits, there are many unrealistic assumptions involved in rational decision-model. that people fully understand their available options, they have no perceptual biases, and they want to make optimal decisions. Herbert Simon, a Nobel Prize-winning economist, observed that the rational decision-making model can be a helpful supporting tool for decision-makers it demonstrates how often decisions within organizations Are done. In fact, Simon argued that it might even come close.

Bounded Decision-Making Model


The bounded decision-making model limit the option for decision makers. In this decision-making processes the individuals have limit their choices to accept option without conducting an exhaustive search for alternatives. the first option that meets your minimum criteria. In bounded decision-making model, the decision maker saves cognitive time and effort by accepting the first option that meets the minimum threshold.

Intuitive Decision-Making Model


In intuitive decision-making model processes a decision is without conscious reasoning. A total of 89% of managers use intuition for decision-making due to, time pressures constraints, a great deal of uncertainty, changing situations, highly visible and high-stakes outcomes. Because they do not have time to use rational decision-making models. they rarely attribute luck to success. To the outside observer, they are guessing during the course of action to make an estimate, They do not decide between two or three options and choose the best one.

Creative Decision-Making Model


In creative decisions model an effective decision maker creat new imaginative ideas, flattening of intense competition among organizations and companies, individuals are motivated by creative in decisions ranging from cost cutting to creating new ways of doing business. In innovation process creativity is the first step, creativity and innovation are not the same thing. Innovation starts with creative ideas, but also includes realistic planning and follow. which may or may not work to solve real-world problems.

Faulty Decision Making Factors


To avoid faulty decision-making Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahnemann and Amos Tversky spent decades for studying, how people make decisions and They found faulty decisions making factors. which are influenced by following factors, Overconfidence Bias,
Hindsight Bias,
Anchoring Bias,
Framing Bias,
Escalation Of Commitment,

Overconfidence Bias


Overconfidence bias occurs when individuals reduce their ability to predict future events. Many people display signs of overconfidence. To avoid the effects of misleading and overconfident  bias, take time to stop and ask yourself if you are being realistic in your decisions.

Hindsight Bias


Hindsight bias is the opposite of overconfidence bias, when times seem backward and mistakes are apparent because they have already occurred. In other words, when surprising event has occurred, many people are likely to think that they already knew that this event was going to happen. This bias may occur because they are selectively reconstructing events. Hinds bias becomes a problem when looking at another's decisions. so depending on the information available at the time, it may be a reasonable option to continue with a regular routine. Therefore, it is important for decision makers to remember this bias before passing judgment on other people's actions.

Anchoring Bias


Anchoring Bias refers to the tendency of individuals to rely too heavily on one information. Job seekers often fall into this trap by focusing on a desired salary, ignoring other aspects of the job offer, such as fit with the job, and the work environment.

Framing Bias


Framing bias affects the tendency of decision makers to change the way a situation or problem is presented. Framing bias is important because depending on, how a problem is presented to us, we can choose an option that is harmful because of the way it is made.

Escalation Of Commitment


Escalation of commitment happens when
increase in commitment occurs, individuals continue on an unsuccessful course of action after the information can be a poor route to find out. This is sometimes called "sunk cost impurity", because continuity is often based on the idea that someone has already invested in the course of the action. Effective decision-makers avoid escalation of commitment.

Leadership Definition Styles Process In OB

Leadership Definition Styles In Organizational Behaviour


Definition Of Leadership


The definition of Leadership is to act of influencing others to do work towards their goal. In every organizations Leaders are present at all levels. Some leaders at higher positions of authority, and use their power that comes from their positions in the organization, as well as their personal power to influence others. This types of leaders are called a formal leaders. In the other hands, informal leaders don't have formal position of authority within the organization but they demonstrate leadership by influencing others through their individual forms of power. A caveat is important here: Leaders do not rely on the use of force to influence people. Instead, people voluntarily adopt the leader's goal as their goal. If a person is relying on force and punishment, then the person is a dictator, not a leader.

Characteristics Of Leaders


leadership characterstics that differentiate leaders from non-leaders, is the personality, physical and psychological characteristics of people who are seen as leaders. characteristics which showing a relatively strong relationship with leadership are discussed below.

Leaders Intelligence


General mental ability, referred to as psychological "G" and often referred to as "IQ" in everyday language, has been related to a person's emergence as a leader within a group. In particular, people who have high mental capacity are more likely to be seen as leaders in their environments. In addition to having a high IQ, effective leaders have high emotional intelligence (EQ). People with high EQ exhibit high levels of self-awareness, motivation, empathy, and social skills. The psychologist, who coined the term emotional intelligence, Daniel Goleman, believes that IQ is a threshold quality: it counts for entry- to high-level management jobs, but once you get there, It no longer helps leaders, because most leaders already have a high intelligence. effective leaders control their own emotions and understand other people's feelings, their intrinsic motivation, and their social skills.

Leaders Personality Traits


Leadership personality traits Psychologists have proposed various systems to classify the characteristics that make up an individual's unique personality; The most widely accepted are the "Big Five" models, which are Openness, Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. Openness to experience People who demonstrate originality, creativity, and try new things open to doing. they begin to emerge as leaders and are also quite effective. Honest people are organized, take initiative, and demonstrate perseverance in their efforts. Honest people are more likely to emerge as leaders and be effective in that role. Extraverts are sociable, assertive and energetic people. They enjoy interacting with others in their environment and demonstrate confidence. Because they are effective and sociable in their environment, they become leaders in a wide range of situations. extraversion is the most important relationship with both leader emergence and leader effectiveness. This is not to say that all effective leaders are Extravert, but you are likely to be Extraverted in Leadership positions.

Leaders Self-Esteem


Self-esteem is an important aspect of leaders  personality. The person who has peace with oneself and an overall positive assessment of one's own values and abilities seems relevant to being a leader. Leaders with high self-esteem tend to support their subordinates more and, when punished, punish them more effectively. high self-esteem people have high confidence levels and this shows their image in the eyes of their followers. Self-esteem may also explain the relationship between certain physical characteristics and the emergence of a leader.

Leaders Integrity


Integrity shows that those who are effective leaders have moral compassion and demonstrate honesty and loyalty. Leaders whose integrity is questioned lose their credibility, and they hurt their company's business along the way. Low integrity leaders actions were heavily criticized.

Leadership Styles


Four types of leadership styles, which are found in the leaders, they are,
Directive Leaders.
Supportive Leaders.
Participative Leaders.
Achievement-Oriented Leaders.

Directive Leaders


Directive leaders provide specific directions to their employees. They lead employees to clarify role expectations, set schedules, and ensure what employees want to do on a given work day. instruction style will work well when employees are experiencing role ambiguity at work. If people are unclear about how their work is known, giving them specific instructions will motivate them. if employees already known their roles, and they are performing boring, routine and highly structured tasks, then giving them direction does not help. In fact, it can hurt them by creating an even more restricted environment. When staff capacity is high, directing leadership is also considered less effective.

Supportive Leaders


Supportive leaders provide emotional support to employees. They treat employees well, take care of them on a personal level and are encouraging. Supportive leadership is predicted to be effective when employees are under great stress or perform boring, repetitive tasks. Supportive leadership can be more effective when employees really know how to do their jobs, but their jobs are unpleasant.

Participative Leaders


Participative leaders ensure that employees are involved in making important decisions. Participative leadership can be more effective when employees have a higher level of competence, and when decisions are made for them to be personally relevant. For employees with high internal control, whose believe are that, they control their fate, in this situation participative leadership is very important here to indirectly controlling organizational decisions that are very important for organizations growth.

Achievement-Oriented Leaders


Achievement oriented leaders style is to set goals for their employees, and encourage them to reach their goals. His style challenges employees and keeps them focused on work-related goals. This style is likely to be effective when employees have both a high level of competence and a high level of achievement motivation.

Decision Making Styles Of Leaders


Decide Style


Leaders make decisions alone using available information.

Consult Individually Style 


Leaders obtain additional information from group members before making decisions alone.

Consult In Group Style


Leaders share the problem with the group members and discuss the solution in the group, and at last makes the final decision alone.

Facilitate Style 


Leaders collectively share the information about the problem between group members and acts as a facilitator, and leader sets the decision parameters for the solution.

Delegate Style 


In delegate style The leader give chance to the team make decisions.

Negotiation Stages In Organizational Behaviour

Negotiation In Organizational Behaviour

Negotiation Stages


Negotiation is a process where two or more parties work towards an agreement. There are five stages of negotiation in organizational behavior. Which are,
Negotiation Stage 1 Investigation.
Negotiation Stage 2 Determine Your BATNA.
Negotiation Stage 3 Presentation.
Negotiation Stage 4 Bargaining.
Negotiation Stage 5 Closure.

Negotiation Stage 1 Investigation


The first stage in negotiation is to  investigate and collect Informations. This is an important phase, first start with yourself, what are your goals for the negotiation? What do you want to achieve? What would you accept and What won't you accept at all? You need the clearest approach to your goals. And you should be honest with yourself about your priorities. During the negotiation, you will inevitably be faced with making choices. It is best to know what you want, so that in the heat of the moment you can make the best decision.

Negotiation Stage 2 Determine Your BATNA


An important part of the negotiation is to determine your BATNA, BATNA full form is Best Alternative To Negotiated Agreement. You need to know what your options are, If you have various options, you can look at the proposed deal more critically. Your BATNA will help you to take right negotiation agreement and will reject an unfavorable deal. There are following main points for your BATNA,
Brainstorm the list of options that you can accept to negotiate if the conversation does not bring favorable results for you. Improve some of the more promising ideas and convert them into actionable options. Identify the most beneficial option to be kept in reserve. Remember that your BATNA can grow over time, so it is safe to modify it to knock it still accurate off your BATNA not disclose the other party. If your BATNA turns out to be worse than the other party expected, their offer may go down.

Negotiation Stage 3 Presentation


The third stage of negotiation is the presentation, In this phase, you collect and gathers the information in that way, which will supports your position best. which in turn reflects your value, Perhaps you have created a blog that will get your company's attention or receive donations or money for charity. Perhaps you are a team player who performs best in a group.

Negotiation Stage 4 Bargaining


During the bargaining stage, each party should discuss their goals and come to an agreement. In bargaining most important part is making concessions, that is, giving up one thing to get something else in return. Giving concessions is not a sign of weakness. giving concessions is particularly important in tense management disputes, Giving concession shows further speed and process, and it removes the concerns of rigor or closed minds. Concessions often occur in areas of money, time, resources, responsibilities, or autonomy. When negotiating the purchase of products, you may agree to pay a higher price in exchange for receiving the products sooner. Alternatively, you can ask the manufacturer to pay a lower price for giving products in more time or flexibility in delivery.

Negotiation Stage 5 Closure


Closure is an important part at the end of a negotiation, you and the other party have either come to an agreement on the terms, or one party has decided that the final proposal is unacceptable and therefore should walk away from it. Most negotiators recognize that if their best offer is rejected, then nothing is left to do. Make your offer best as you can make. see rejection as an opportunity to learn. if you are confused about why the deal did not happen, consider making a follow-up call. Even if you cannot win the deal back in the end, You can learn something useful for future negotiations.

Strategies for Negotiation Success


Notice the agreement first. the best way is to agree that, you disagree on those topics and then focus only on those, you can reach an agreement on. Briefly state what you have agreed to, so that everyone feels as if they agree, and leave points on which you do not agree. Then raise those issues again in a different context, such as at dinner or coffee. Dealing with those issues separately can help in the negotiation process. Be patient. If you do not have a deadline by which an agreement needs to be reached, then use that flexibility to your advantage. The other party may be forced by circumstances to agree to your terms, if you can be patient then you may be able to get the best deal. During the conversation, each party is presenting their case, their version of reality. conversation brings the relevant facts to the forefront and argues their merit. negotiators are more likely to strike a compromise by offering more concessions and thinking creatively at any other time in the negotiation process. Be comfortable with the mood. After you make an offer, Allow the other side to react.

Concept Of Conflict Management In Organizational Behaviour

Conflict Management In Organizational Behaviour

Conflict In Organizational Behaviour


Conflict is a process that involves people who disagree. understanding the conflict causes and how to treat it is described by, wall J.A. and Callister, R.R. In 1995 Conflict and its management in the Journal of Management. conflict can range from minor disagreements to workplace violence, there are three types of conflicts that can arise within organizations, which are,
Intrapersonal Conflict.
Interpersonal Conflict.
Intergroup Conflict.

Intrapersonal Conflict


Interpersonal Conflict arises within the person. If you are uncertain about what is expected or desired, or you have a feeling of being inadequate to act, you are facing conflicts. Interpersonal conflicts may arise due to differences in roles. Role conflict is also intrapersonal conflict, If you are not the head of any one team, but a member of another team, this type of opposition can arise. The third type of intrapersonal conflict involves role ambiguity. Perhaps you have been given the job of finding a trainer for a company's business writing training program. You may feel unsure about what kind of person, a well-known but expensive trainer or a local, unknown, but low-priced trainer can hire. If you are not given directions on what you want, you can conflict  with many options.

Interpersonal Conflict


Interpersonal conflict is between colleagues, a manager and an employee, or individuals such as the CEO and their employees. For example, in 2006 Airbus SAS CEO Christian Streef resigned due to his conflict with the of directors over the issue of restructuring the company. due to differences in personality or values. one person's style may be to go with the gut over decisions, while the other person may have facts. Wants to make decisions based on facts. If individuals come to different conclusions then those differences will cause interpersonal conflict. Mutual conflict leads to loss to many companies. Conflict should be for creating new ideas.

Intergroup Conflict


Inter group conflict is the conflict between different groups in the organization and corporate world. There are different types of groups can be found in different departments or divisions in an organization or company, and employee unions and management, or competing companies that supply the same customer. Departments may struggle over budget allocation, Unions and management may disagree on work rules, Suppliers may conflict with each other over the quality of the parts. In corporate world or organization consensus of two or more groups together can create friction between groups, especially if there are scarce resources that divide between groups.

Causes Of Conflicts


There are many possible root causes of conflict at workplaces. whatever leads to disagreement can be a cause of conflict. conflict is common part for organizations, some organizations have less conflicts compare to others organizations. There are following types of conflicts in an organizations which are,
Limited Resources.
Task Interdependence.
Incompatible Goals.
Personality Differences.
Communication Problems.

Limited Resources


Organization's limited resources such as money, time and equipment are causes for conflicts. Competition between people or departments for limited resources are the main cause of conflict. For example, state-of-the-art laptops and gadgets which are expensive resources, that can be allocated to employees based on need in some organizations. When one group of employees get these resources while others do not, then conflict may arise between employees or between employees and management in the company. Although technical employees feel that these devices are important to their productivity, employees with customer interaction such as sales person give reasons that, these devices are important to making a good impression for customers. Because critical resources are often limited, so that it is a source of conflict in many companies.

Task Interdependence


Another cause of conflict is dependence on work, That is, when one needs to perform his tasks to rely on others to accomplish his work. For example, if you are given tasked to creating advertisements for your product, you are dependent on the creative team to create visuals, photographers or videographers to create visuals, media shoppers to purchase advertising space, and so on. The completion of your goal airing or publishing your ads is up to others work.

Incompatible Goals


Conflict sometimes arises when two parties think their goals are mutually exclusive. In a company, inconsistent goals sometimes arise due to department managers are compensated in various ways. For example, the sales manager's bonus can be tied to how much sales are made for the company. As a result, the customer may be tempted to offer "freebies", such as prompt delivery to make a sale. Conversely, the compensation of the transportation manager can be based on how much money the company saves on transit. In this case, the goal may be to eliminate early delivery as it adds expense. The two will bow their heads until the company resolves the conflict by changing the compensation plan. For example, if the company provides a bonus based on the profitability of a sale, not just the dollar amount, the cost of the expeding will be deducted from the sale price. It can also happen that if the sale is large enough, both parties will support it in order to speed up the order. On the other hand, if the campaign ignores the selling price, neither party will be in favor of additional spending.

Personality Differences


Personality differences between peers are common. By understanding some of the fundamental differences in how people think and act, we can better understand how other people view the world. For example, Type A individuals have been found to have more conflict with their peers than Type B individuals. Personality, behavior patterns and self-monitoring create conflict in organizational behavior and Human Decision Processes.

Communication Problems


Sometimes conflict arises due to unintentional communication problem, such as dealing with lost e-mail or people who do not return phone calls. Quick and proper communication response is the best solution for these types of communication problems to escalate a conflict situation. When communicating, be sure to pay attention to behavior and its effects, not the person. For example, if a employee always comes late to all your meetings. You think his attitude is bad, but you don't really know what his attitude is. However, you know what effect of that employee behavior has on you. You can say, when you come late to the meeting, I feel like my time is wasted. Employee cannot argue with that statement, as it is a fact of his influence on you. It is undeniable, because it is your reality.

Outcomes Of Conflict


One of the most common outcomes  of conflict is that it upset an employee or individual in the short term. Bergman T. J. and Volkema R.J.  In 1989,  told about managing the interpersonal conflict at workplace, causes of conflicts, interactive processes and consequences. By D. M. Kolb & J. M. Kolb, book Hidden conflict in organizations. They found that conflict have both positive and negative consequences. On the positive side, conflict may result in greater creativity or better decisions.

Positive Outcomes


Positive outcome consider a wider range of ideas, which gives better results and strong ideas. Positive Outcome recognize that, what can go wrong, Increase participation and creativity. Explain or reduce conflict among excessive involves personal, diminishing tactics, conflict and dilemma.

Negative outcomes


Increases stress and anxiety in individuals, which decreases productivity and satisfaction. Increase anxiousness, frustration and emotions, which lowers the morale of individuals, and can downgrade the business and trust, which hinders teamwork and collaboration to get the job done.