Showing posts with label Organisational Behaviour and Design. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Organisational Behaviour and Design. Show all posts

Group Decision Making In Organizational Behavior

Group Decision Making In OB

Groups Decision Making

Groups decision making benefits are to find decisions from the experienced and perspective large number of individuals. Therefore, a group may have the ability to be more creative and make more effective decisions. In fact, groups can sometimes achieve results beyond what they could have done as individuals. Can make work more enjoyable for group members. Finally, when a decision is made by a group rather than a single one, the implementation of the decision will become easier, as the group members will be more invested in the decision. If the group is diverse, better decisions can be made, as different members of the group may have different views based on their backgrounds and experiences. Research shows that for top management teams, the various groups that debate make decisions that are more comprehensive and preferable to the bottom line. group decision suffers from many disadvantages. While groups have the ability to make an effective decision, groups may suffer from coordination problems. Anyone who has worked with a team of individuals on a project may have difficulty in coordinating the work of members or coordinating the attendance of everyone in a team meeting. group decision making takes longer than individual decision making, as all members need to discuss their ideas about different options. Decision making by groups may be more effective.

Groups Thinking

Group thinking is a tendency to avoid critical evaluation of the group's favoring views. Ewing Janis, author of the book Victims of Groupthink, states that groupthink is characterized by following traits. illusion of disqualification is shared by most group members, which creates excessive optimism and encourages them to take extreme risks. There are collective rationalizations, in which members reduce negative information or warnings. Due to which they may have to reconsider their beliefs. Confidence occurs, which may lead members to ignore the ethical or moral consequences of their actions. When groups' rivals discount the ability to make effective responses, stable views of outflows are seen. Direct pressure is put on the member who expresses strong arguments against any stereotypes, confusion or commitments of the group Occurs when group members have the illusion of being unanimous on the basis of direct pressure on their. Lack of dissatisfaction is seen as unanimous. Self-appointed more members protect the group from information that runs counter to the group's beliefs and course of action.

Techniques for Making Better Decisions

There are following Tools and Techniques for Making Better Decisions.
Nominal Group Technique (NGT).
Delphi Technique .
Majority rule.
Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS).
knowledge management systems.
Decision trees.

Nominal Group Technique (NGT)

In The nominal grouping technique (NGT), group decision making to ensure that all members participate fully. NGT is not a regularly used technique in all meetings. Rather, it is used to structure group meetings when members are struggling with problem resolution or idea generation. It follows four steps. First, each member of the group begins writing ideas independently and quietly. Second, the group goes around the room in order to gather all the ideas that were generated. This process continues until all ideas are shared. Third, there is a discussion around each idea, and members ask for clarification and evaluate. Finally, group members vote for their favorite ideas using ranking or rating techniques. Adhering to the four-step NGT helps ensure that all members participate fully, and that avoided group decision-making problems such as groupthinking.

Delphi Technique

The Delphi technique is unique because it is a group process, that uses the written responses of a series of questionnaires rather than physically bringing individuals together to make decisions. outlining objectives, or proposing a solution. Each subsequent questionnaire is constructed from the information gathered in the previous one. This process ceases when the group reaches a consensus. Facilitators can decide whether to keep responses anonymous. This process is often used to generate best practice from experts. For example, Professor Michael Campion of Purdue University used this process when he was the editor of the research journal Personnel Psychology and wanted to determine the qualities that distinguished a good research article. Using the Delphi technique, he was able to gather responses from hundreds of top researchers around the world and distribute them to a list of criteria he could use to evaluate articles submitted to his journal, all Without leaving his office.

Majority Rule

Majority rules refer to a decision-making rule in which each member of the group is given one vote and the option that receives the largest number of votes is selected. This technique remains popular, perhaps due to its simplicity, speed, ease of use, and representational objectivity. Research also supports majority governance as an effective decision-making technique. However, those who do not vote in favor of the decision will be less likely to support it.


Consensus is another decision-making rule that groups can use, when the goal is to gain support for an idea or action plan. Although consensus requires more time, it makes sense when support is needed to implement the plan. The process works from discussing the issues at hand, preparing a proposal, calling for consensus, and discussing any concerns. If concerns still exist, the proposal has been revised to accommodate them. These steps are repeated until consensus is reached. Consensus decision-making technique is inclusive, participatory, cooperative, and democratic. consensus has better accuracy, and it helps members feel more satisfied with the decision. However, groups take longer time with this approach, if consensus is not reached, members become frustrated.

Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) 

Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) are interactive computer-based systems capable of combining communication and decision technologies to help groups make better decisions. Research suggests that Group Decision Support Systems can actually improve the production of collaborative actions of groups through higher information sharing. Improving group decisions by improved pooling information.

knowledge Management Systems

Knowledge management systems are important for information sharing, and their expense reflects this reality. Businesses invested $ 2.7 billion in new systems in 2002 and estimated the number to double every 5 years. As the popularity of these systems increases, they risk being reversed. Man can only process so many thoughts and information at one time. the system is probably becoming too complex. If the system develops to a point of uneasy complexity, it has re-created the problem. Those who understand the interface will control the plot of the discussion, while those who are less discerning will only be along for the ride.

Decision Tree

Decision trees are diagrams with yes or no questions to answer that helps decision makers to reach the end of the tree. Decision-making trees are helpful in guiding the decision-maker to a predefined choice and ensuring continuity of decision-making following a course of action unlike the others, Using a decision tree.

Ethics and Decision Making 

Many decisions involve an ethical component, to assess the morality of a decision, Is this decision fair? Will I feel better or worse about myself after making this decision? Does this decision break any organizational rules? Does this decision break any laws? How would I have felt if the decision had been aired on the news.

Decision Making Around The Globe

Decision-making styles and approaches around the globe vary depending on the context, and an important contextual factor to keep in mind is the culture in which decisions are being made. Research from Japanese and Dutch decision makers suggests that both cultures are unanimous-oriented, with Japanese managers seeking a much greater consensus than Dutch managers. American managers value quick decision making, while Chinese managers tend to be more reflective and take their time to make important decision, especially when they involve some type of potential conflict.

Decision Making In Organizational Behaviour

Decision Making In OB


Decision-making refers to choosing between alternative courses of action, which may also include passivity. management work is to making decisions, half of the decisions made by managers is fail in any organizations. Why decisions fail Surprising but true, Half of the decisions in organizations fail. These decisions can affect the lives of others and change the course of an organization.

Types Of Decisions

Decision can be classified into three categories based on the type of at which they occur. Number one is Strategic decision which Set the course of an organization. Number two is a strategic decision which is made about how things will happen. Finally, third number is operational decisions, which refer to the decisions that employees make each day to run the organization. There are different decision-making models designed for understand and evaluate the effectiveness of the decisions. there are four decision-making models, which are,
Rational Decision-Making Model,
Bounded Decision-Making Model,
Intuitive Decision-Making Model,
Creative Decision-Making Model.

Rational Decision-Making Model

In the rational decision-making model a series of steps taken by decision makers to maximize the decisions outcomes results.  when making a rational decision-making model decision make sure that, you can establish your decision criteria before exploring options. This will prevent you from liking an option more and setting your criteria accordingly. advantage of the rational model is that it urges decision makers to generate all alternatives rather than just a few. By generating a large number of choices covering a wide range of possibilities, Despite all its benefits, there are many unrealistic assumptions involved in rational decision-model. that people fully understand their available options, they have no perceptual biases, and they want to make optimal decisions. Herbert Simon, a Nobel Prize-winning economist, observed that the rational decision-making model can be a helpful supporting tool for decision-makers it demonstrates how often decisions within organizations Are done. In fact, Simon argued that it might even come close.

Bounded Decision-Making Model

The bounded decision-making model limit the option for decision makers. In this decision-making processes the individuals have limit their choices to accept option without conducting an exhaustive search for alternatives. the first option that meets your minimum criteria. In bounded decision-making model, the decision maker saves cognitive time and effort by accepting the first option that meets the minimum threshold.

Intuitive Decision-Making Model

In intuitive decision-making model processes a decision is without conscious reasoning. A total of 89% of managers use intuition for decision-making due to, time pressures constraints, a great deal of uncertainty, changing situations, highly visible and high-stakes outcomes. Because they do not have time to use rational decision-making models. they rarely attribute luck to success. To the outside observer, they are guessing during the course of action to make an estimate, They do not decide between two or three options and choose the best one.

Creative Decision-Making Model

In creative decisions model an effective decision maker creat new imaginative ideas, flattening of intense competition among organizations and companies, individuals are motivated by creative in decisions ranging from cost cutting to creating new ways of doing business. In innovation process creativity is the first step, creativity and innovation are not the same thing. Innovation starts with creative ideas, but also includes realistic planning and follow. which may or may not work to solve real-world problems.

Faulty Decision Making Factors

To avoid faulty decision-making Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahnemann and Amos Tversky spent decades for studying, how people make decisions and They found faulty decisions making factors. which are influenced by following factors, Overconfidence Bias,
Hindsight Bias,
Anchoring Bias,
Framing Bias,
Escalation Of Commitment,

Overconfidence Bias

Overconfidence bias occurs when individuals reduce their ability to predict future events. Many people display signs of overconfidence. To avoid the effects of misleading and overconfident  bias, take time to stop and ask yourself if you are being realistic in your decisions.

Hindsight Bias

Hindsight bias is the opposite of overconfidence bias, when times seem backward and mistakes are apparent because they have already occurred. In other words, when surprising event has occurred, many people are likely to think that they already knew that this event was going to happen. This bias may occur because they are selectively reconstructing events. Hinds bias becomes a problem when looking at another's decisions. so depending on the information available at the time, it may be a reasonable option to continue with a regular routine. Therefore, it is important for decision makers to remember this bias before passing judgment on other people's actions.

Anchoring Bias

Anchoring Bias refers to the tendency of individuals to rely too heavily on one information. Job seekers often fall into this trap by focusing on a desired salary, ignoring other aspects of the job offer, such as fit with the job, and the work environment.

Framing Bias

Framing bias affects the tendency of decision makers to change the way a situation or problem is presented. Framing bias is important because depending on, how a problem is presented to us, we can choose an option that is harmful because of the way it is made.

Escalation Of Commitment

Escalation of commitment happens when
increase in commitment occurs, individuals continue on an unsuccessful course of action after the information can be a poor route to find out. This is sometimes called "sunk cost impurity", because continuity is often based on the idea that someone has already invested in the course of the action. Effective decision-makers avoid escalation of commitment.

Leadership Definition Styles Process In OB

Leadership Definition Styles In Organizational Behaviour

Definition Of Leadership

The definition of Leadership is to act of influencing others to do work towards their goal. In every organizations Leaders are present at all levels. Some leaders at higher positions of authority, and use their power that comes from their positions in the organization, as well as their personal power to influence others. This types of leaders are called a formal leaders. In the other hands, informal leaders don't have formal position of authority within the organization but they demonstrate leadership by influencing others through their individual forms of power. A caveat is important here: Leaders do not rely on the use of force to influence people. Instead, people voluntarily adopt the leader's goal as their goal. If a person is relying on force and punishment, then the person is a dictator, not a leader.

Characteristics Of Leaders

leadership characterstics that differentiate leaders from non-leaders, is the personality, physical and psychological characteristics of people who are seen as leaders. characteristics which showing a relatively strong relationship with leadership are discussed below.

Leaders Intelligence

General mental ability, referred to as psychological "G" and often referred to as "IQ" in everyday language, has been related to a person's emergence as a leader within a group. In particular, people who have high mental capacity are more likely to be seen as leaders in their environments. In addition to having a high IQ, effective leaders have high emotional intelligence (EQ). People with high EQ exhibit high levels of self-awareness, motivation, empathy, and social skills. The psychologist, who coined the term emotional intelligence, Daniel Goleman, believes that IQ is a threshold quality: it counts for entry- to high-level management jobs, but once you get there, It no longer helps leaders, because most leaders already have a high intelligence. effective leaders control their own emotions and understand other people's feelings, their intrinsic motivation, and their social skills.

Leaders Personality Traits

Leadership personality traits Psychologists have proposed various systems to classify the characteristics that make up an individual's unique personality; The most widely accepted are the "Big Five" models, which are Openness, Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. Openness to experience People who demonstrate originality, creativity, and try new things open to doing. they begin to emerge as leaders and are also quite effective. Honest people are organized, take initiative, and demonstrate perseverance in their efforts. Honest people are more likely to emerge as leaders and be effective in that role. Extraverts are sociable, assertive and energetic people. They enjoy interacting with others in their environment and demonstrate confidence. Because they are effective and sociable in their environment, they become leaders in a wide range of situations. extraversion is the most important relationship with both leader emergence and leader effectiveness. This is not to say that all effective leaders are Extravert, but you are likely to be Extraverted in Leadership positions.

Leaders Self-Esteem

Self-esteem is an important aspect of leaders  personality. The person who has peace with oneself and an overall positive assessment of one's own values and abilities seems relevant to being a leader. Leaders with high self-esteem tend to support their subordinates more and, when punished, punish them more effectively. high self-esteem people have high confidence levels and this shows their image in the eyes of their followers. Self-esteem may also explain the relationship between certain physical characteristics and the emergence of a leader.

Leaders Integrity

Integrity shows that those who are effective leaders have moral compassion and demonstrate honesty and loyalty. Leaders whose integrity is questioned lose their credibility, and they hurt their company's business along the way. Low integrity leaders actions were heavily criticized.

Leadership Styles

Four types of leadership styles, which are found in the leaders, they are,
Directive Leaders.
Supportive Leaders.
Participative Leaders.
Achievement-Oriented Leaders.

Directive Leaders

Directive leaders provide specific directions to their employees. They lead employees to clarify role expectations, set schedules, and ensure what employees want to do on a given work day. instruction style will work well when employees are experiencing role ambiguity at work. If people are unclear about how their work is known, giving them specific instructions will motivate them. if employees already known their roles, and they are performing boring, routine and highly structured tasks, then giving them direction does not help. In fact, it can hurt them by creating an even more restricted environment. When staff capacity is high, directing leadership is also considered less effective.

Supportive Leaders

Supportive leaders provide emotional support to employees. They treat employees well, take care of them on a personal level and are encouraging. Supportive leadership is predicted to be effective when employees are under great stress or perform boring, repetitive tasks. Supportive leadership can be more effective when employees really know how to do their jobs, but their jobs are unpleasant.

Participative Leaders

Participative leaders ensure that employees are involved in making important decisions. Participative leadership can be more effective when employees have a higher level of competence, and when decisions are made for them to be personally relevant. For employees with high internal control, whose believe are that, they control their fate, in this situation participative leadership is very important here to indirectly controlling organizational decisions that are very important for organizations growth.

Achievement-Oriented Leaders

Achievement oriented leaders style is to set goals for their employees, and encourage them to reach their goals. His style challenges employees and keeps them focused on work-related goals. This style is likely to be effective when employees have both a high level of competence and a high level of achievement motivation.

Decision Making Styles Of Leaders

Decide Style

Leaders make decisions alone using available information.

Consult Individually Style 

Leaders obtain additional information from group members before making decisions alone.

Consult In Group Style

Leaders share the problem with the group members and discuss the solution in the group, and at last makes the final decision alone.

Facilitate Style 

Leaders collectively share the information about the problem between group members and acts as a facilitator, and leader sets the decision parameters for the solution.

Delegate Style 

In delegate style The leader give chance to the team make decisions.

Negotiation Stages In Organizational Behaviour

Negotiation In Organizational Behaviour

Negotiation Stages

Negotiation is a process where two or more parties work towards an agreement. There are five stages of negotiation in organizational behavior. Which are,
Negotiation Stage 1 Investigation.
Negotiation Stage 2 Determine Your BATNA.
Negotiation Stage 3 Presentation.
Negotiation Stage 4 Bargaining.
Negotiation Stage 5 Closure.

Negotiation Stage 1 Investigation

The first stage in negotiation is to  investigate and collect Informations. This is an important phase, first start with yourself, what are your goals for the negotiation? What do you want to achieve? What would you accept and What won't you accept at all? You need the clearest approach to your goals. And you should be honest with yourself about your priorities. During the negotiation, you will inevitably be faced with making choices. It is best to know what you want, so that in the heat of the moment you can make the best decision.

Negotiation Stage 2 Determine Your BATNA

An important part of the negotiation is to determine your BATNA, BATNA full form is Best Alternative To Negotiated Agreement. You need to know what your options are, If you have various options, you can look at the proposed deal more critically. Your BATNA will help you to take right negotiation agreement and will reject an unfavorable deal. There are following main points for your BATNA,
Brainstorm the list of options that you can accept to negotiate if the conversation does not bring favorable results for you. Improve some of the more promising ideas and convert them into actionable options. Identify the most beneficial option to be kept in reserve. Remember that your BATNA can grow over time, so it is safe to modify it to knock it still accurate off your BATNA not disclose the other party. If your BATNA turns out to be worse than the other party expected, their offer may go down.

Negotiation Stage 3 Presentation

The third stage of negotiation is the presentation, In this phase, you collect and gathers the information in that way, which will supports your position best. which in turn reflects your value, Perhaps you have created a blog that will get your company's attention or receive donations or money for charity. Perhaps you are a team player who performs best in a group.

Negotiation Stage 4 Bargaining

During the bargaining stage, each party should discuss their goals and come to an agreement. In bargaining most important part is making concessions, that is, giving up one thing to get something else in return. Giving concessions is not a sign of weakness. giving concessions is particularly important in tense management disputes, Giving concession shows further speed and process, and it removes the concerns of rigor or closed minds. Concessions often occur in areas of money, time, resources, responsibilities, or autonomy. When negotiating the purchase of products, you may agree to pay a higher price in exchange for receiving the products sooner. Alternatively, you can ask the manufacturer to pay a lower price for giving products in more time or flexibility in delivery.

Negotiation Stage 5 Closure

Closure is an important part at the end of a negotiation, you and the other party have either come to an agreement on the terms, or one party has decided that the final proposal is unacceptable and therefore should walk away from it. Most negotiators recognize that if their best offer is rejected, then nothing is left to do. Make your offer best as you can make. see rejection as an opportunity to learn. if you are confused about why the deal did not happen, consider making a follow-up call. Even if you cannot win the deal back in the end, You can learn something useful for future negotiations.

Strategies for Negotiation Success

Notice the agreement first. the best way is to agree that, you disagree on those topics and then focus only on those, you can reach an agreement on. Briefly state what you have agreed to, so that everyone feels as if they agree, and leave points on which you do not agree. Then raise those issues again in a different context, such as at dinner or coffee. Dealing with those issues separately can help in the negotiation process. Be patient. If you do not have a deadline by which an agreement needs to be reached, then use that flexibility to your advantage. The other party may be forced by circumstances to agree to your terms, if you can be patient then you may be able to get the best deal. During the conversation, each party is presenting their case, their version of reality. conversation brings the relevant facts to the forefront and argues their merit. negotiators are more likely to strike a compromise by offering more concessions and thinking creatively at any other time in the negotiation process. Be comfortable with the mood. After you make an offer, Allow the other side to react.

Concept Of Conflict Management In Organizational Behaviour

Conflict Management In Organizational Behaviour

Conflict In Organizational Behaviour

Conflict is a process that involves people who disagree. understanding the conflict causes and how to treat it is described by, wall J.A. and Callister, R.R. In 1995 Conflict and its management in the Journal of Management. conflict can range from minor disagreements to workplace violence, there are three types of conflicts that can arise within organizations, which are,
Intrapersonal Conflict.
Interpersonal Conflict.
Intergroup Conflict.

Intrapersonal Conflict

Interpersonal Conflict arises within the person. If you are uncertain about what is expected or desired, or you have a feeling of being inadequate to act, you are facing conflicts. Interpersonal conflicts may arise due to differences in roles. Role conflict is also intrapersonal conflict, If you are not the head of any one team, but a member of another team, this type of opposition can arise. The third type of intrapersonal conflict involves role ambiguity. Perhaps you have been given the job of finding a trainer for a company's business writing training program. You may feel unsure about what kind of person, a well-known but expensive trainer or a local, unknown, but low-priced trainer can hire. If you are not given directions on what you want, you can conflict  with many options.

Interpersonal Conflict

Interpersonal conflict is between colleagues, a manager and an employee, or individuals such as the CEO and their employees. For example, in 2006 Airbus SAS CEO Christian Streef resigned due to his conflict with the board of directors over the issue of restructuring the company. due to differences in personality or values. one person's style may be to go with the gut over decisions, while the other person may have facts. Wants to make decisions based on facts. If individuals come to different conclusions then those differences will cause interpersonal conflict. Mutual conflict leads to loss to many companies. Conflict should be for creating new ideas.

Intergroup Conflict

Inter group conflict is the conflict between different groups in the organization and corporate world. There are different types of groups can be found in different departments or divisions in an organization or company, and employee unions and management, or competing companies that supply the same customer. Departments may struggle over budget allocation, Unions and management may disagree on work rules, Suppliers may conflict with each other over the quality of the parts. In corporate world or organization consensus of two or more groups together can create friction between groups, especially if there are scarce resources that divide between groups.

Causes Of Conflicts

There are many possible root causes of conflict at workplaces. whatever leads to disagreement can be a cause of conflict. conflict is common part for organizations, some organizations have less conflicts compare to others organizations. There are following types of conflicts in an organizations which are,
Limited Resources.
Task Interdependence.
Incompatible Goals.
Personality Differences.
Communication Problems.

Limited Resources

Organization's limited resources such as money, time and equipment are causes for conflicts. Competition between people or departments for limited resources are the main cause of conflict. For example, state-of-the-art laptops and gadgets which are expensive resources, that can be allocated to employees based on need in some organizations. When one group of employees get these resources while others do not, then conflict may arise between employees or between employees and management in the company. Although technical employees feel that these devices are important to their productivity, employees with customer interaction such as sales person give reasons that, these devices are important to making a good impression for customers. Because critical resources are often limited, so that it is a source of conflict in many companies.

Task Interdependence

Another cause of conflict is dependence on work, That is, when one needs to perform his tasks to rely on others to accomplish his work. For example, if you are given tasked to creating advertisements for your product, you are dependent on the creative team to create visuals, photographers or videographers to create visuals, media shoppers to purchase advertising space, and so on. The completion of your goal airing or publishing your ads is up to others work.

Incompatible Goals

Conflict sometimes arises when two parties think their goals are mutually exclusive. In a company, inconsistent goals sometimes arise due to department managers are compensated in various ways. For example, the sales manager's bonus can be tied to how much sales are made for the company. As a result, the customer may be tempted to offer "freebies", such as prompt delivery to make a sale. Conversely, the compensation of the transportation manager can be based on how much money the company saves on transit. In this case, the goal may be to eliminate early delivery as it adds expense. The two will bow their heads until the company resolves the conflict by changing the compensation plan. For example, if the company provides a bonus based on the profitability of a sale, not just the dollar amount, the cost of the expeding will be deducted from the sale price. It can also happen that if the sale is large enough, both parties will support it in order to speed up the order. On the other hand, if the campaign ignores the selling price, neither party will be in favor of additional spending.

Personality Differences

Personality differences between peers are common. By understanding some of the fundamental differences in how people think and act, we can better understand how other people view the world. For example, Type A individuals have been found to have more conflict with their peers than Type B individuals. Personality, behavior patterns and self-monitoring create conflict in organizational behavior and Human Decision Processes.

Communication Problems

Sometimes conflict arises due to unintentional communication problem, such as dealing with lost e-mail or people who do not return phone calls. Quick and proper communication response is the best solution for these types of communication problems to escalate a conflict situation. When communicating, be sure to pay attention to behavior and its effects, not the person. For example, if a employee always comes late to all your meetings. You think his attitude is bad, but you don't really know what his attitude is. However, you know what effect of that employee behavior has on you. You can say, when you come late to the meeting, I feel like my time is wasted. Employee cannot argue with that statement, as it is a fact of his influence on you. It is undeniable, because it is your reality.

Outcomes Of Conflict

One of the most common outcomes  of conflict is that it upset an employee or individual in the short term. Bergman T. J. and Volkema R.J.  In 1989,  told about managing the interpersonal conflict at workplace, causes of conflicts, interactive processes and consequences. By D. M. Kolb & J. M. Kolb, book Hidden conflict in organizations. They found that conflict have both positive and negative consequences. On the positive side, conflict may result in greater creativity or better decisions.

Positive Outcomes

Positive outcome consider a wider range of ideas, which gives better results and strong ideas. Positive Outcome recognize that, what can go wrong, Increase participation and creativity. Explain or reduce conflict among excessive involves personal, diminishing tactics, conflict and dilemma.

Negative outcomes

Increases stress and anxiety in individuals, which decreases productivity and satisfaction. Increase anxiousness, frustration and emotions, which lowers the morale of individuals, and can downgrade the business and trust, which hinders teamwork and collaboration to get the job done.

Power And Politics In Organizational Behaviour Study

Power And Politics Study Organizational Behaviour Notes

Power And Politics Influenced In Organizational Behaviour

Power and politics are very crucial for organizational behavioural actions of individuals and groups. Individuals in organization use their power to satisfy their common needs or get what they want. While Groups or organizations use power and politics to control their members and employees for obtain and maintain to achieve their goals. power and politics influence team processes and organizational leadership in Organisational Behaviour. power and political in organizational behavior can be unethical and destructive for any organization.
Organizations are organized bodies of individuals or systems. Existence of political act in any organization is normal act. Thus, organizational life dominates by political relations. The strategic use of political power in organizations involves taking or gaining control of real symbolic resources. A political view of organizations, pointed out by Max Weber in1947. In 1978, Bacharach believes that an organization is a composite entity, in which interest and coalitions groups are important for the development of political perspectives in intra-organizational behaviors. From Dehrender's work in 1959 it is clear that, there are three groups which are important for the political analysis of any organizations, they are
Work groups.
Interest groups.
Coalition groups.

Work Groups

This groups may be based on the differences determined by departmental work activity, or organizational hierarchy.

Interest Groups

These groups can be defined as a group of actors who have similar goals and their Equality of Interdependence to achieve goals relation to the operation of their work.

Alliance Groups

An alliance is formed by groups of interested groups. Which Can be defined as to achieve common goals. They are based on joint action of two or more interest groups against another interest groups.

Definition Of Power

Gbadamosi in 1996 give the definition of power that, Power is the ability to employ force and mobilize resources, energy and information on behalf of a preferred goal.

Max Weber given powe definition in 1947 which is that, Power is the possibility that a person can do their will despite resist

Power is to impose individual will on group of individuals in spite of others Resistance. Which can be regular supply stop, rewards And punishment, as well as the effect is made in negative approval given by Blan in 1964.

Mechanic given the definition of power in1962 that, Power is defined as a force that results change in behavior, if power is not present that does not exist.

Kaplan in 1964 told that, Power] is the ability of one person or group of individuals to influence others behavior, that is, to change the possibilities that others have in some ways Replies.

Types Of Power

In 1961 Etzioni identifies three forms of power which are,
Coercive Power.
Remunerative Power.
Normative Power.

Coercive Power

It rests on the ability to exert the threat of physical sanction.

Remunerative Power

It is based on the control of material resources and rewards.

Normative Power

This power is based on the control of symbolic rewards.

Sources Of Power

After identifying the primary source of power, There are four main sources of power they are
Office or structural position Power
Individual Characteristics Power
Expertise power
Opportunity power

Office or Structural Position Power

The office or structural position can provide a access to various bases of power. Some positions may provide less information but sufficient powerful resources, while others positions may provide capacity to manipulate symbols or mobilize internal commitments to certain criteria

Individual Characteristics

The most marked personal attribute that is a source of this is Shakti Charisma. As Weber (1947) states, the charismatic leader possesses the power of unusual and often mysterious characteristics. However, relevant personal characteristics may include verbal skills, the ability to reason effectively for positions, or even physical features for example, the physical disability of a supporter's loyalty or the opposing position.

Expertise Power

Expertise refers to specific information. It is usually based on activities outside the organization, for example, education. It is regarded in French as a source of power rather than a basis for power, as it appears to be a means by which a party comes under control rather than control specific information.

Opportunity Power

This special source of power is embedded in informal structure of organization. This idea came from an analysis of the power of by the mechanic in 1962. at the lower level in an organization example regional employees. Informal aspects of formal positions or informal positions that are not officially recognized can provide an important source of organizational power

The flow of power

Usually power flows from upwards to downwards from higher levels management to lower level. it applies to the better subordinate relations as a whole and relates to the power of superiors over subordinates. However, the treatment of power means that subordinates can also exercise power, and that power is truly multidimensional. The effect of the multidimensional aspect of power is the method of power that, gives subordinates ability to manipulate the senior and the superiors to gain the most from their subordinates as specified in formal role obligations. Thus, a political approach to organizations implies a multidimensional image of power, and means a distinctly different, as well as, influence in terms of structure.

Organizational Politics

The word politics is derived from the Greek word "politics" which means a city or state. Originally Aristotle in 384 to 322 used this word in his book Politics refers to Greek city or state affairs. according to Aristotle view, man is a political human being that interacts with other or more persons, creating a relationship called politics. in 1951 lasswell told about the politics that politics is essentially a struggle for positions or power and influence by which such monopolies enabling society to make decisions that, affect the lives of every citizen of the country. politics can be practice in both governments and organizations for the purpose of fighting for power and influence, conflict, bargaining. Conciliation, resolution and consensus. there are two types of politics, which are, state politics and organizational politics. Here, we will mainly focus on organizational politics. Organizational politics deals with behaviors that are excluded from those in which one has taken a specific position for or against organization, the behavior intended to achieve selfish and personal ends which Others are opposed to the end of the organization. They seem impracticable but at the same time there are wide shifts from organization to organization. Ethical issues often come up and bargaining is an important consideration in Organizational politics. Organizational politics creates very reactionary reactions because people look at the whole. The way both negative and positive process depends on the particular viewpoint. However, those who succeed in organizational politics are seen to be positive, perhaps they are also successful competitors in other respects.

Organizational Politics Tactics

There are following organizational politics tactics proposed to gain a competitive advantage. Experts influence the timing and location of your bargaining efforts so that situations are chosen to support your goals. In many cases, it is advisable to bargain in your home area. this is a desirable bargaining strategy to hide your true interests for as long as possible. Service Being overly eager can leave you with a loss of district. Regarding other related ideas. Initially shoot for the moon so that you can settle for less but do not use this tactic for the same person. Identify any weaknesses that may be counterproductive and work continuously on. Promote them. Bind assemblies are alliances that try to indicate the difference between the alliance and any of your common interests with each member, thus attempting to divide and conquer. Establish alliances with superiors, peers, and subordinates so that when needed Be counted on your behalf. Select subordinates who are not only competent but reliable, and loyal. You do not get in a position to rely on the expertise of an opponent. if you are not knowledgeable in an area, secure your own expert and take steps to establish that credibility. Do not injure any other person in a position so that he couldn't take revenge. Do nothing to isolate or anger former allies when you step down. Unexpected burnt bridges As may be required. If the proposal developed by an adversary is unattractive, but cannot be rejected immediately, an attempt was made to refer to a committee to reduce it and widen the bargaining area. If the outcome is uncertain, It is often desirable to support aggressive efforts rather than someone else to get themselves ahead. That way, it can be easier to get on if you are in a hurry to sink. Steer the ship. In dealing with an opponent, try to leave the door open so that there is no communication is closed, if necessary differences can still be resolved. Avoid dealing with personality, never personally attack the adversary and focus on real facts and issues. Solve an issue when and under what circumstances a vote should be used. When you know how to let matters go to vote for a resolution. These were the importance organization politics tactics.

The Dynamics Of Organization Behaviour

Key elements of Dynamics Organization Behaviour

Organizational Dynamics

The dynamics of organization behaviour reaches far beyond an organization's product or service and its processes. The study of the dynamics of organization behaviour focuses on aspects of human resources and includes the firm's cultural structure, how to motivate employees in the organization, how to handle  conflict and how to lead change. Thus organizational dynamics affects the necessary business functions, which can cause changes in organizational dynamics. You need a positive environment in order to work truly and profitably in your business. However, many business functions can affect the dynamics of your business and bring out behaviors in employees that can be counter-productive. You cannot end these tasks, but you can be aware of their potential effects on your company, and see signs of change in your organization so that you can move quickly to re-establish positive morale. Organizational dynamics is a central focus on people in major organizations and applies to almost every industry. Employees gain marketing skills ranging from analysis of personal relationships to overreaching management of the organization. Some key concepts include in organization dynamics, which are  understanding the key organizational principles, team dynamics, effective communication, interaction conflict management, cultural competence, and data analytics. There are following organizational dynamics functions.

Organizational Foundations

Organizational Foundations focus on understanding the characteristics and qualities of human behavior and how they interact to make organizations work. This will include analysis of historical perspective as well as review of contemporary theories. The successful organization's case studies will be used to demonstrate the application of theoretical concepts of case studies for practical situations.

Organizational Theory And Practice

Organizational Theory and Practice gives an overview of how organizations work, including theory, research, and applications. Employee will get understanding of organizational structure, culture, communication, and strategic planning processes within internal and external business environments. Current trends and cases will be discussed and students will engage in experiential exercises to facilitate critical thinking and then apply the course content to an organizational setting.

Team Dynamics

The focus of the Team Dynamics is to use of team spirit behavior in organizations. Employees will gain a deep understanding of team structure, processes and performance reviews, team roles, leadership and decision making. And create a self-directed work environment by using the concepts and processes of team dynamics.


This negotiation conflict skill focuses on managing disputes within organization. The negotiation skills is used to analyze complex conflict and dispute situations, shape appropriate processes to engage the right parties, creatively compromise, select arbitrators and facilitators, and It emphasizes conflict management and resolution leadership.

Cultural Competence

Cultural Competence is designed to develop decision-making methods to solve problems and to facilitate effective and appropriate cultural competence. Employees need human resource management, supervision and staff development, team building, motivation for performance, inter-organizational collaboration, organizational learning strategy, cultural competence is a tool to effectively serving diverse and multicultural people in the organization. And by this skills employee will learn aspects of program planning, strategic management and planning, and strategies for major change efforts.

Organizational Leadership

The Organizational Leadership introduces leadership and management principles concepts. It offers opportunity for the employees to apply these principles through case analysis and to enhance personal skills development through self-assessment exercises. The organizational leadership identifies present and as well as contemporary perspectives on ethics, networking management, organizational culture, diversity, strategic learning leadership, and crisis leadership.

Quality Control

You need quality control measures to ensure that your employees can produce the best work. A quality control supervisor is required to investigate the work and identify problems with the employees working. While quality-control measures can improve quality, but they can also cause employees to become dissatisfied. Some may even get annoyed with checking their work. Dynamics in your organization can change a climate of collaboration and teamwork.

Cost Controls

You have to control your expenses. One of those expenses is payroll. In fact, payroll may be your biggest expense. If you start reducing overtime and cut the amount you are paying in wages, these cost-control measures can create fear and anger through your organization. Anger and fear can promote unproductive behavior such as rebellion and low productivity.

Productivity Improvements

If you want to maintaining maximum production, which can be big challenge for you as a business owner. You can initiate a series of small production, then measures and closely monitor production to detect the development of problems. Employees and supervisors can resist your efforts and introduce a dynamic to your organization, which we find "versus them". You should improve productivity as a way to work together as a team to avoid battling reluctant employees.

Data Analytics

This data analysis examines the ways in which organizations can use data to gain insights and make better decisions. Data analytics are implemented in operations, marketing, finance, and strategic planning, among other functions. The ability to use data effectively to make rapid, accurate, and profitable decisions has been an important strategic advantage for organizations.

Staff And Professional Development

If you provide specialized training to improve skills in your workforce, you can think of the effort as a positive step. However, employees may see additional skills as a burden that they are not being paid to take. You should try to make it clear that skill-improvement is a necessity to maintain profitability and current salary levels. You should also recognize that many employee resistance can be based on fear of not being able to master new skills. Assure your workforce that you are initiating employee development to make employee functions more appropriate to the needs of the new company. To avoid the inefficiency, new development is necessary.

Stress Management Stress Coping Up Strategies For Reducing Managing Stress

Stress Coping Up Strategies For Reducing And Managing Stress

Strategies For Reducing And Managing Stress

In this tough volatile competitive and computerized world, the challenges faced by a jobber can be harder than ever. Therefore, it is very important to manage and reduce stress at workplaces.
For workers everywhere, the work situation become very harsh. Today's uncertain competitive work environment increased fear, uncertainty, and a high level of stress. The effects of stress are multifaceted, but one must try to very important to defeat stress. This is stress management. How better you deal  and manage your stress, the more you will positively affect the stress around you and the less others will affect you. Stress control is a leadership responsibility. Those who ignore the prevailing stress level are negligent in their duties. One must be diligent in combating stress. There are following strategies for dealing with stresses in stress management, which are discussed below.

Implications For The Individuals

Employees or workers productivity is the most deciding factor for the success of an organization. Productivity is depends on the psychological well-being of employees. In this highly dynamic and competitive world, human beings are exposed to all kinds of stress, due to stress human all life affect. While it is impossible to scrap it completely, there are certain ways and means of dealing with the brutal effects of stress. In stress management we control and maintain the situations, people and events.

Recognize Stress

Initially the existence of stress should be recognized. Stress observations include mental, social, and physical manifestations. When stress is interfering with your ability to work, take care of yourself and find what is bothering you. Once you identify the presence of stress, start by countering it.

Acquiring Knowledge About The Job

Job-related stress arises when the worker is not able to meet the inherent challenges in the job. The employee may lack some skills. The best way to reduce this type of stress is to acquire knowledge and skills in one's job according to their abilities.

Prioritize The Tasks

A list should be made of the tasks that should be done, and they should be arranged in order of importance. Start with high priority task. If something is unpleasant to do, quickly done it fast so that the rest of the day's work will be completed more peacefully. This kind of priority can help put things in order, and make tasks easier. Plan your day and stick to it for the schedule. You will feel less stress.

Plan The Work

Any employee working in the organization should plan their work clearly. When, what, how and why all such questions should be answered before starting the work. A well-planned job will end well without any chaos. This will not create any unnecessary stress or anxiety. Therefore, plan the work to be done. Planning ahead will improve the quality of work and prevent unnecessary confusion.

Managing The Time

Analyze your schedule, responsibilities and daily tasks. You have to manage a balance between work and family life, social activities and daily responsibilities. Avoid too much scheduling in single day. put tasks at the bottom of the list or eliminate them altogether if they are of minimal importance. Try to get to the office 15 minutes early and don't add to your stress levels by walking late. Do take a short breath. End the day work on time and moving away from work site to rest and recharge, which  keeps an employee more productive.

Ambiguous Work Situations

If people are uncertain about their jobs and careers, there is a feeling of helplessness and out of control. When the role is unclear due to lack of communication or the difference between assignment the role, it is better to clarify and receive roles with management as properly defined. There is a need for clear communication between personal and management.

Activities Vs Results

Simply engaging in various activities does not ensure that the desired results are being achieved. This reduces the quality of work and exhaustion. Therefore, one should not showing constantly busy, without showing results. First of all you should finish your first job, then taken others works in hand.

Delegate Responsibilities

If it is possible for the role occupant to share and divide the work, so that the necessary work must be done without much stress. If other people can take care of the work, you should have to give chance to them. So it will be possible to let go of unnecessary stress in the work process.

Stress Symptoms In The Workplace

Stress In The Workplace

Stress In The Workplace

A good and healthy job is, where the pressure on employees is justified in relation to their abilities and resources, the amount of control they have over their work, and the support they receive from employer and organizations. a positive state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being at healthy workplace environment. people giving continuous assessment of risks to health, appropriate information on health issues and training. A healthy work environment in the organization is in which employees make health and promotion in their working lives. In this tough volatile competitive and computerized world, the challenges facing by the employee can be harder than ever. Both personal and occupational tensions increase human pulse and pressure. Everyone has special abilities, if these abilities are not used properly and recognized properly, they may feel reluctant or frustrated. Some low level of stress is a normal part of life, excessive stress interferes with productivity and reduces physical and emotional health. Therefore, it is very important to manage and reduce stress at work places. Ability to manage stress in the workplace can differentiate between success and failure at work. Stress is contagious and has an impact on the quality of life. Interacting with others as it transfers its bad characters to others. When an individual and organization experience role stress, adopt a variety of ways to deal with weight loss. This is stress management. The better you are managing your stress, the more you will positively affect the stress around you and the less others will affect you. Stress control is a leadership responsibility. Those who ignore the prevailing stress level are negligent in their duties. One must be diligent in combating stress. Understanding the concept of stress and reducing stress, one step at a time, can have a wonderful effect on controlling bad effects of stress.

Symptoms Of Stress

Due to these stresses or pressures, employees develop various stress symptoms that can damage their job performance. Often people who are under stress can panic and develop chronic anxiety. He is easily angry and unable to rest. They can be un-co-operative and in some cases excessive use of alcohol, drugs. Stress also gives rise to physical disorders due to physical changes to combat stress. This causes short distances disorders such as upset stomach, poor sleepiness, etc. such as stomach ulcers, diseases associated with the heart, kidneys, blood vessels, and parts of the body. The following figure specifies various symptoms of stress.

Physical Symptoms Of Stress

Physical symptoms of stress are associated with physical illnesses and increased blood pressure, increased heart and breathing rates, ulcers, headaches, convulsions and mild strokes.

Psychological Symptoms Of Stress

Not only physically affected, but will suffer personally due to the presence of mental stress. This causes job dissatisfaction, which is the most obvious psychological effect. In this state the person becomes mentally weak and unable to think further. Anxiety, aggression, boredom, depression, fatigue, frustration, guilt, hyper sensitivity, mental inhibition, danger and stress surround a person and imprison a worker in his or her cruel arms.

Behavioral Symptoms Of Stress

Behavioral Symptoms due to stress are related to changes in productivity, as well as changes in eating habits, increased alcohol consumption, rapid speech and sleep disorders, impaired speech, loss of appetite, impulsive behavior, emotional fit etc. arising from different job dimensions The occupational stress worsens the mental and physical health of the worker. It makes the employee stressed, depressed, anxious and emotionally unstable, Since the symptoms are just a siren blown against the threat, proper attention must be given to carrying it to work without any obstruction and dissatisfaction.

Stress Impact On Organizations

Stress Impact On Organizations shows Absenteeism, poor industrial relations and poor productivity, labor turnover rates, poor organizational climate, job and job conflicts, etc. will severely affect the running of an organization. With the advancement of technology, globalization and liberalization, stress has also increased. Therefore, stress management has become the need for the organization. Stress can inspire risky body-mind disorders. Therefore, it is important to keep this in mind to manage stress, before it takes a very bad effects on productivity and health of an employee.

Stress Affect And Factors On Employee Job Performance

Stress Effects And Factors On Job Performance

Stress Management Stress Effects On Job Performance

Stress in job performance is an important process, which enhances the improvement of production and profit. The performance of an employee will be good by applying low stress, since there are no serious problems and disruptions in the smooth functioning of the organization. If employees are squeezed without any need and facilities by high stress, then their performance will reduce. and if employees do not do their work, the mild stress is in such unpleasant situations, stress can either be 'helpful' or 'harmful' depending on the amount of tension. When there is no stress, job challenges are absent and performance is reduced. As stress increases, performance increases because stress helps the person to call. Resources to meet job requirements. At this point there is additional stress. Not much improvement. Finally, if the stress becomes too high, the performance of the employee starts to decline because the stress interferes with it. At this stage, one loses the ability to cope and is unable to make decisions and there uncertainty in the behavior. The logic underlying at low to medium level stress stimulates the body and increases its ability to react. At this stage, an employee's performance becomes better and deeper. Too much stress places unattainable demands on a person which leads to poor performance.

Organizational Stressors

Stress can arise due to difficulties encountered in one's own job. If the working condition is not fully utilized, if the job terminates a person completely. One who calls a person a serious person, his role is suppressed under the evils of stress in such situations. Stress affects a person on his right path and gets involved in destructive activities. The four commonly used terms in the literature are stress, tension, conflict, and pressure. Stress reduces the role of the occupant in the role. Occupational stress arising from different job dimensions worsens the mental and physical health of the employee. It makes the employee stressed, depressed, anxious and emotionally unstable.

Levels Of Stress

The nature of stress consists of high, medium or low stages. High and low levels of stress are not suited to a person and organization. But there is an optimal 'level' or moderate level of stress for each individual, under which he / she will work to perform the full potential. If the stress is reached below this optimal level, the person is bored,  then motivation is required to work, If someone works in a very low stress environment and experiences frequent boredom, the person is likely to be psychologically or physically carefree from work. Psychological will result in carefree mistakes being made frequently, forgetting things, etc. and physical will lead to decreased turnover.

Duration And Intensity Of Stress

Period of stress is very important for job performance and satisfaction. Stress can be either temporary or long-term, mild or severe, mostly depending on how long it causes, how strong they are, and how strong the employee's recovery powers are. If stress is temporary and mild, most people can handle it or at least recover from it rather quickly. the optimal stress levels are different for different individuals, each person can understand and determine how functional stress is for him or her to operate in a productive way. at low levels of stress, performance is reduced to the lowest level, then gradually the stress starts to rise and reaches the optimum level, the performance is also increased, And high levels of stress, performance start reducing and reaches a very low level.

Determinants Of Stress

Conditions that are responsible for causing stress are Typically combine to create stressful pressures. An employee takes action in several ways until stress develops and counteracts the strategy. Employees may react to these stresses by either positive or negative stress, which can result in personal as well as constructive or disastrous results. The determinants of stress are discussed below.

Personality Characteristics

An important factor contributing to the stress level of an employee is the personality of the person himself. It builds stress to such a level that someone can attempt suicide. A very competitive man would be in a situation, in which he threatened the most, by someone who is not competitive. This competitive person lives under time pressure and worry about lack of time. But there are those who capture some personality ambiguity, predict high tolerance for self-esteem, etc. and handle high levels of stress effectively. A high degree of tolerance ambiguity allows individuals to experience much less suffering, while having insufficient information or working in an uncertain condition.

Role Conflict

It is the simultaneous occurrence of two or more sets of pressures that would be more difficult compliance. Role conflict is more for employees who are not given proper work space, work instructions by higher officials. It is quite likely that those in the role experience some inconsistency between the two who have expectations from their role. Although conditions may not be antagonistic, the person may perceive them as incompatible and may suffer from ambiguous conditions.

Role Ambiguity

Due to lack of information, a role holder experiences this situation due to lack of understanding of the clues available to him or her. In some organizations, role holders do not have enough information about what they are expected to do, and specifically how they will have to do a task. As a result, they are subjugated by the role. Role occupants have no choice but are left to ponder what should be done next. Too much role ambiguity may be the cause of psychological and physical complaints. Therefore, role ambiguity is the most powerful stress.

Role Overload

At this stage, role occupants are faced with a set of obligations that require them to do more, than they are able to do within the available time. The employer's expectations can be bombarded, which he ultimately cannot cope with. People suffer from lack of time and many activities, called qualitative and quantitative stress. When workers understand job responsibilities beyond their capabilities, so that there is less time left for their friends and families. they are exhausted completely after finishing work, in this situation the employee is both physically and mentally disturbed.

Role Erosion

The act of removing sand particles by the river is called the river erosion. In the same way, when employees feel that something is being done that should really have been related to them, it can be overcome with stress and tension. If there are some tasks and role feels stressful to the person he or she wants to perform,

 Role Stagnation

The most dangerous aspect in the workplace is the lack of dull work, due to which Some people develop a strong contradiction to their jobs in the organization, but the secondary working conditions are sometimes so favorable that people stick to them involuntarily with satisfaction from their jobs. There is promotion here which automatically creates stress.

Role Incompatibility

This creates an agreement between a person and a job environment. It depends on personal abilities and possibilities presented by the jobber. If there is no coordination between the person and the environment (job), then the stress and tension of the employee will be cause for physical and emotional harm.

Self Role Distance

People experience tension between the role and the self, indicating how far the role is integrated with itself. When a person living in a role does not enjoy a particular role or does not join it, the distance between the self and the role is increased. Self-role distance indicates conflict between the self-concept and the predictable role-play from the actual role.

Scientific Developments

The mechanized system has developed rapidly in all areas, so many employees were fired from their jobs. Not only due to this mechanized system, but also the operation of such technical development is very difficult to understand. and it requires fresh training. Some level of adaptation will be necessary and may involve stress responses.

Inter Personal And Group Factors

However, the role of the personal suffers from any of the above stresses, is also not free from this stress. This includes factors such as conflicts, unpleasant relationships and poor communication with the group. Working between the attentive eyes of the seniors or keeping pace with them that no one supports can be a source of stress. Although some people, however, have tolerance for such conflicts and misunderstandings, the majority find it difficult to cope with such situations and create internal tensions. When faced with an environment of poor communication and unpleasant relationships, individuals try to avoid the stresses of being absent as often as possible or start working for other organizations that can leave the organization or even take voluntary retirement.

Nature Of The Job

The nature of the work performed by the person can often cause stress. If a job is too routine, sluggish and bored or may be demanding in the context of continuous travel, frequent transfers on attainment goals, that may limit the time spent together with the family, the person is likely to experience stress. Some jobs can also be dangerous or if morally conflicting for the person. People working in an explosive or bomb deactivating factory or if people feel there is a lack of cordial relations exist, or if the work calls for heavy work load and exhaust. An employee may become stressed after working in such a case . Workers in this area may be forced to live, which can be a constant source of severe stress and suffering.

Organizational Structural Factors

However, the above stresses can be avoided in one way or another, this condition will have to be spared with the occupant in the role. Environmental factors such as noise, heat, malfunction, light, radiation and smoke are the inducing agents. Poor light causes headaches and poor eyesight leads to mistakes. Sometimes a person may be forced to work with a noisy environment, which can not only cause obstruction, but may also interfere with the hearing of the occupant. Insufficient resources such as time-space, space, human-power, money, material, can lead to further stress.

Pay Scale And Promotion

Salary and promotions are considered important factors. Passion not only helps people to meet their basic needs but also plays an important role in the need to provide upper level satisfaction. Fringe benefits are also necessary but they are not as effective. In addition, many numbers of promotions take place, Promotions are past performance and recognition awards. Promotion will definitely move towards a positive change in work in which responsibility can be increased for people. When these benefits are denied, and an employee is deprived of all the blessings that may come from the work site, then automatically it disturbs the employee and creates tension, frustration, fatigue, and anxiety.

Inter Personal Relations

Stress may be unacceptable or as a result of feelings of discrimination by friends, co-workers are the most modest source of peaceful support, comfort, advise and assist the individual worker. Makes a "good" work group Do more enjoyable work. On the other hand, if reverse conditions exist, people are difficult to associate with. So an effective working group is needed, where is no fear, tension and confusion, which affects the performance of the worker.

Decreased Motivation

If workers are less motivated or not motivated through their monetary or non-monetary base, they lack the enthusiasm towards the work and become sleepy and inactive. and they don't give their best for their organization. In this situation worker will feel neglected, lose interest, become aggressive and engage in all kinds of unwanted activities.

Physiological Needs

Man lives by bread, if a man who is extremely and dangerously hungry, no other interest exists except food for a hungry man. He dreams for food, he don't remembers housing facilities, he didn't thinks of clothes, don't wants to meet the needs like freedom, love, community, feelings, respect, philosophy, sexual behavior etc. He only want food, a person who lacks food, he will be Too stressed with clothes, social, personal and material benefits, safety, love and respect anything else, when he will be not hungry.

Absence of social support

Relationships with others, both at home and at work, are often important for the well-being of a worker. It places high demands on social skills. There should be good relations between the employee and the family, employee and the people around his / her and management. When the individual is placed in an awkward, irritable position, he / she should receive the support of the society along with the collaborators. Social support can be monetary and non-monetary support. When the person grapples with the severe effects of stress, he or she must required the social support to manage the stress.

Stress Management Stress Definition Characteristics And Types

Stress Management Stress Definition Types

Stress Definition

Stress is defined in terms of its physical and physiological effects on a person, and it can be mental, physical or emotional stress. Stress is defined as how it affects physical and psychological health, It includes mental, physical and emotional stress. Stress occurs when a demand exceeds a person's ability to imitate and disrupts his or her psychological balance.
Hanselye ‘The Father of Stress’, defined stress as “The force pressure or strain exerted upon a material object or a person which resist the exerted forces and try to maintain its original state is called stress”. Stress is a major problem in our society. 75% of bodily diseases causes are stress related. due to severe and prolonged stress lead to suppression of the body’s immune system,

Stress at Work

It is generally agreed that stress occurs at work, views differ on the importance of worker characteristics vs. working conditions as its primary cause. Different approaches and different ways suggest to prevent stress at work. Various personal characteristics, such as personality and copulation skills, can cause stress as a result of certain critical situations. In other words we can say that, stress for one person may not be a problem for someone else. Stress related disorders are psychological disorders example, depression, anxiety, traumatic stress disorder and other types of emotional stress such as, dissatisfied, fatigue, Stress and encompassing a wide array of situations, including malicious behavior like, aggression, Substance abuse, and cognitive impairment, concentration and memory problems. Job stress is also associated with various biological reactions, that can eventually lead to physical health, such as heart disease.

Characteristics Of Stress

Symptoms of stress The following are the salient features of stress. The word stress refers to the idea of a 'system'. This will be true for those who possess strong moral values of good and bad deep meanings of personal and organizational responsibility. Stress can be caused by excessive work load provided to worker or employees, within deadlines that undesirable work force consequences of stress for employees, which have to be stopped against the sense of duty. There are following Characteristics of stress, which are,

Stress Is Intangible In Nature

Stress is intangible in nature that can neither be seen nor touched, but its presence can be felt through its loss but sometimes it takes a turn for the better.

Stress Is Highly Individualistic And Impulsive

Stress in the form of stress or pressure on employee's inclination towards highly individualistic and impulsive labor. and thus enables one's to achieve organizational goals.

Stress Is A Strong Predictor

Stress can be used to predict of various personal and work-related results. In Encyclopedia of Stress, Flick defines stress as real or as a threat to one's physical or psychological integrity that results in a physical or behavioral response.  It is a reaction to challenging events.

Stress Taxes A Person’s Physical And Psychological Resources

'Stress taxes a person's physical and psychological resources'. A person for whom no success is satisfactory, who gets angry and enmity towards the people on, who constantly worries about future risks and even more complex tasks about the next project, Puts oneself under an unfair degree of stress.

The Outcomes Of Stress Are Not Always Negative But Also Positive

The consequences of stress are not always negative but also positive. It has a positive effect on a person. However, too much excessive and frequent stress is unfavorable for employees.

Types Of Stress

Stress has often been misunderstood to be negative with some people, recognizing the importance and usefulness of positive stress. In our daily lives, stress is everywhere and certainly inevitable; Therefore our emphasis should be on differentiating between what is good stress and what is bad. Negative stress can cause many physical and psychological problems, while positive stress can be very helpful for everyone. There are four main types of stress. They are as follows,


This is a positive type of stress. It prepares a person to be ready for the allotted work, to complete the work on time without delay and it provides the motivation and strength necessary to complete the work. "Eustress" is the enjoyable when Possible events happen.


It is a negative form of stress. It occurs when the mind and body are unable to cope with the changes, and this type of stress usually occurs when deviations occur from ideals. This type of stress can be acute or chronic, which can be either acute or permanent. This is unpleasant stress with negative events.


This is another form of negative stress that mostly occurs when the person is unable to cope with the workload. This happens when work is extremely stressful or may require work more than one hour of work to be handled by the person. If a person is suffering from hyper-stress, then he or she can get an emotional break down on extraterrestrial issues.

Hypo Stress

Finally, hypo stress occurs when a person has no connection with him / her and is constantly bored and unmotivated. This is due to insufficient volume of tension. Therefore, some stress is unavoidable and some are useful to us.

10 Most Efficient Effective Ways To Overcome Learning Barriers

Overcome Learning Barriers

Top Ten Effective Methods To Overcome Learning Barriers 

Learning is the process by which a person receives, ingests and stores or accepts information. Our experiences with the information learned form our knowledge. Learning can change our behavior. Knowledge or skills acquired through schooling or study is also called learning. In learning, every learner has to face some hurdles or barriers. the learner should overcome on these barriers by himself. There are ten Ways to Overcome Learning Obstacles or barriers. Which are,

1 - Environment.
2 - Routine.
3 - Verbal Instructions.
4 - Respect.
5 - Non-curricular Activities.
6 - Improving Communication Skills.
7 - ICT and Presentation Facilities.
8 - Give Concentration.
9 - Learn New Culture
10 - Effective and Timely Feedback.


Environment is a big factor for the organization. Because of noisy environment, learning should be difficult for the learner. The organizational environment should be noiseless. In addition to these, the organization should use visual cues, gestures and / or a signature system that reinforce spoken and written language, creating a visual timetable, and as far as possible, eliminate outside noise.


This is important to reduce confusion and give people a sense of security. When routines have to be broken, make sure that people are prepared and talks to them about what is going to happen.

Verbal Instructions

Verbal instructions should be brief and precise. The instructor should make sure that the learner knows that he is addressing them, not someone else. The teacher should make sure that the learner knows that he is addressing them, not someone else. Instructions should be given. He must speak clearly and naturally to ensure that the learner can see the face of the trainer.


If Young people don't want to work in pairs or groups, then you should not be forced to work in pairs or groups if they are uncomfortable in that situation. Honor should be shown for differences and be aware of the social network of the room, where the teaching session Will be held.

Non-curricular Activities

Problems often arise when the session is going on. After session times, in breaking time Non-curricular Activities should be organized for learners. Like, computer clubs, organized games and patrons, provide valuable support and Some training in social skills. which will help the students to deal with new situations.

Improving Communication Skills

Good communication skills can be better for learning anything. In this case, the instructor must use language that can be understood by the learners. In order to learn better, we have to improve our communication skills as soon as possible.

ICT and Presentation Facilities

To successfully conduct a teaching session, the instructor or organization must use ICT and visual presentation facilities. This affects the learner in a short period of time.

Give Concentration

All learners should focus on learning sessions. the organization should arranges training session to improve the skills of the employees, but it should focus on concentration of employee learning to succeed in the career. Sometimes it helps the employees. organization clearly concentrate to tell employees their work. Therefore, if they do not listen to these things properly, they will not perform their duties properly.

Learn New Culture

Although different countries have different cultures in the same country, the learner must learn about the new culture and learn to adjust there before moving to a new culture.

Effective and Timely Feedback

This is important for any kind of learning. Know in advance the presence of the instructor in a discussion forum and ask the questions that keep the discussion going. The learners should be aware of their progress throughout the course. It has already been made clear that the barriers are in the learner's, within the center of education, within the education system and in the wider social, economic and political context. These barriers may be exposed in different ways. And are only apparent when the urge to learning is broken. when the learner is out of the system or when it appears outside. Sometimes it is possible to identify permanent barriers in the learner or system that enable obstacles during the learning process and are seen as metamorphic goes. Different interventions or strategies may be required to prevent these. If the Effective and Timely Feedback have to be considered at the time of arranging a separate session, the organization will be successful.