Showing posts with label Managerial Function. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Managerial Function. Show all posts

Managerial Management Skills Study

Managerial Management Skills


Managerial Management skills 


The following are essential management skills that any manager must possess to perform his or her duties.
In an organization a manager, should have a broad set of managerial skills. Such as planning, delegation, communication and motivation. there are many others effective managerial skills include broad categories of skills, these managerial skills helps to accomplish goals effectively and efficiently. Managerial skills development is an ongoing process for career growth, which helps in decision-making challenges. When handling a team, it is necessary to know, how to handle a task properly, when getting things done with the help of others in the team. In such cases, people spend major time to managing the relationship between team members, rather than doing the actual work. Therefore, it is essential, to develope technical skills as well as managerial management skills. Communicating, motivating, understanding team dynamics and delegating are some of the important managerial skills. Who have these skills, can be an effective manager.
American social and organizational psychologist Robert Katz,
There are some important managerial management skills, which are essential for a successful managers. these are, 
Technical skills,
Conceptual skills,
Human or interpersonal management skills.


Technical Skills



Technical skills is a part of management skills, these skills provide knowledge and ability to manager, to use the various techniques for various process. Technical skills are not only the knowledge of the machines, production equipment and other equipment, but also needed to increase sales, different types of products design, market products and services, etc. For first level managers Technical skills are most important. When it comes to top managers, technical skills are not more important. As we move through the hierarchy from bottom to the higher levels, technical skills become less important.


Conceptual Skills 



Conceptual skills present the manager's knowledge or ability, for more innovative thinking. This means they can predict the future of the business or department. Why these skills are important for Managers?, a company includes more business elements or functions such as, selling, marketing, finance, production , e.t.c. All these business elements also have different goals. Think about different departments such as, marketing and production as a business function and their specific goals. Conceptual skills will help managers look beyond the goals of their department. Therefore, they will make decisions, that will meet overall business goals. Conceptual skills are important for top managers, less important for middle-level managers, and not necessary for first-level managers. The importance of these skills will increase as we move from the bottom to the top of the managerial hierarchy.


Human or Interpersonal Managerial Skills



Human or interpersonal management skills, are required for manager's knowledge and ability to work with people. One of the most important management tasks is working with people. Without people, the existence of management and managers would not be required. These skills would enable managers to become leaders, and motivate employees for better achievements. and make more effective use of human potential in the organization. Simply, these are essential skills for managers. Interpersonal management skills are essential, for all hierarchical levels in a company.

There are some others important management skills, which should be in a manager, these are following,

Planning,
Communication,
Decision Making,
Delegation,
Problem Solving,
Motivating,

Planning 


Planning is an important task, which is done by managers to start a new project or other activities, within the organization. Planning is the ability to use effectively and efficiently available resources such as money, and workers. It is a process of preparing a set of tasks or strategies, to achieve objectives and goals of organization, with the help of available resources. The planning process sets new goals and objectives, for the growth of the organization , developing the necessary strategies and scheduling tasks, and make plans how to achieve the set goals. Without a good planning, you can not achieved desired goals.

Communication


It is important for a manager, to have great communication skills. This will help how to proper information is shared across a team, good communication skill makes a group functions as a unified workforce. How well a manager communicates useful information with his team members, it will show how well he completed, outlined procedures, tasks and activities, good communication skills are the foundation of achieving successful task, goals and objectives within time frame, without wastage of resources. Communication involves the flow of useful information within the organization, whether formal or informal, oral or written, vertical or horizontal. good communication between the manager and with his team, prevent conflicts and resolve issues. A manager with good communication skills, can relate well with employees, and is able to easily achieve the set goals and objectives of the organization.

Decision-Making 


decision making is a important management skill. Managers take many decisions, and decision making is an important component in a manager's success. Making appropriate and correct decisions leads to the success of the organization, while poor or bad decisions can lead to, failure or poor performance of the team, department, and the organization. To run the organization effectively, efficiently and smoothly, clear and correct decisions should be taken. A manager should be accountable for every decision he takes, and should be responsibile for the consequences of his decisions. A good manager should have great decision-making skills, as this often determines his or her success in achieving organizational objectives and goals.

Delegation


Delegation is another part of management skill. Delegation is the process of passing work related tasks, among the officers, subordinates and other employees. A manager with good representative skill is able, to effectively and efficiently reassign tasks, and delegate authority to the right employees. When delegation is done effectively, it helps to provide quick and easy results. The delegation helps avoid wastage of time, and ensures optimize productivity, responsibility, accountability on behalf of employees. Each manager must have good delegation capability, to achieve optimal results, and to meet the required productivity results.

Problem-solving 


Problem-solving is important skill for a good manager.  Managers should have the ability to deal with the persistent problems, that arise in a normal day to day work. Problem-solving involves find out the certain problem or situation, and then finding the best way to solve the problem, and getting the best solution. It is the ability to filter good things, from the current worst circumstances. When a manager has problem-solving skills, he convinces well to his team and subordinates to do right things, to achieve the best results.

Motivating


Motivation is the another important skill, which should be present in a good manager in an organization. Motivation helps to bring, desired behavior or feedback from employees or certain stakeholders. There are many motivation tips and techniques, that managers can use, and choosing the right motivation technique, can depend on characteristics of the company, team culture, team personality, and more. There are two primary types of motivation, internal and external motivation. that a manager can use.



Role Of Manager Management Study

Role And Responsibilities Of Manager


Role Of Manager In Organization


A manager is a person who holds management rights and authority over an organizational unit, such as a department, a business, company, or other organization. Managers have following responsibilities, such as direct associated project teams, ensuring organization's goals and objectives, align with the overall strategy and vision of the organization. In both traditional and modern organizations, control of resources Focuses on managers, Additionally, in such organizations, managers typically report to senior management. The main primary role and responsibilities of a manager is to ensure the smooth daily functioning of a department or group of employees. the functions of a manager are staffing interview, hire and train new employees. motivate staff as a leader, a manager creates healthy competition environment in a company, where employees are responsible for all aspects of a company. managers usually report to the companies board or top executives. manager's job is very crucial in an organization. He is a planner, coordinator, producer and a marketer. Managers perform different roles such as interpersonal role, informational role, decisional roles. a manager occupies different positions in an organisation. He plays different roles depending upon the situation.

Types of Managers


There are mainly following types of managers.

Functional and Project Manager 


Functional managers and project managers have following types of different, roles, responsibilities and duties within an organization. Functional managers are responsible for, meeting functional objectives as well as corporate objectives, within a department or section to manage people. Project managers have to bring specific skills people, to complete specific tasks within the required time. in some cases, both functional managers and project managers work together, to share resources and experience. This can help to improve, overall efficiency and performance of the department or organization.

Strategic Managers


The strategic manager focus on larger strategic mission of the organization. They help top leadership, to prioritize business objectives. They make strategies for capitalize on opportunities, minimize and avoid potential risks. Strategic managers have excellent analytical and problem solving skills. However, functional managers focus on, what is best for their specific field.

Line Managers 


The role of line manager is, to directly manages other employees, and responsible for the administrative management of individuals. If someone calls any manager to their boss, this means, that person is their line manager.

Managers Role and Responsibilities 



In the organizations there aremany hierarchies of management. according to Organizational or company structure top to bottom titles are, such as, CEO, vice-president, director, manager, they perform different role and important functions, to the smooth functioning of the organization, and turn into profit. as if you obtain higher position in the organization, you are far from day to day tasks and employees of the firm. CEOs and vice presidents focus their efforts more on making new strategy, investment, and overall coordination, while managers are directly involved with individuals serving customers, producing and selling the firm's goods or services, and Provides internal support to other groups. The challenging role of a manager is to report senior management, and accountable for performance, guidance, motivation, support to the employees. managers are the bridge between the top leaders and the working people of the firm. The role of a manager are many and varied, such as.

Hiring new employees and staffing.
Giving training to new employees.
Coaching and developing to the existing employees.
To Deal with performance problems and terminations.
Problem solving and decision making.
Conducting timely evolution of employees performance.
To achieve corporate goals and individual goals.
Expenses and budgets monitoring.
Reporting to senior management.
Timely Planning and goal setting for future.

There are following three common role of all managers.

Interpersonal Role


Interpersonal Role of Manager has following roles such as, social, formal, and legal responsibilities, Provides leadership and direction, Network and communicates with internal and external contacts.

Informational Role


Informational role of Manager has following roles such as, Seeks information related to organization and industry, and monitors internal teams, productivity and well being. Communicates useful information internally. present organization information and its goals to outside people.

Decisional Role


Decisional role of Manager has following roles such as, Creates change and control within the organization, generating problem Solving new ideas, and implementing them. Solves and manages unexpected obstacles. allocates funds, employees, and other organizational resources. directly involved in critical negotiations, within the team, department, and organization.

Managerial Management Functions Planning Control Decision Making

Management Functions Planning Control Decision Making Study


Management Functions Planning Control Decision Making Study


Management is that the method, to managing all the executive task of a corporation, it is a enterprise for profit, non profit organization, or a government body organization. Management involves many functions to meet, organization's goals and objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technical and human resources. basically managers do following functions.
Planning,
Controlling,
Organizing,
Decision Making,

Planning


Planning is the first and important process to achieve a desired goal. planning predicts and forecast the future scenarios. and how to react to them. Planning is the most important, project management and time management techniques. If a person does this effectively, they can reduce the time and effort to achieve some specific goals. A plan is like a map. While following a plan, a person can see how far they have been in the direction of their project goal, and how far they are from their destination. In organizations, planning is used for defining targets and goals for future. and direction to achieve those targets and goals. by using available resources within time. planning enhances the efficiency of an organization. reduces the risks. and utilized maximum efficiency of available resources.

Controlling


Controlling is one in every of the social control functions like, planning, organizing, staffing, and directional. This is an important task because, it helps to check the errors and take corrective action, so that deviations from standards can be minimized, and the desired goals of the organization can be achieved in the desired way. Control in management means that setting standards, activity actual performance, and taking corrective action.
In 1916, the first definitions of control is given by the henri fayol, according to him
"Control of degree enterprise consists of seeing that, everything is being disbursed in accordance with the set up, that has been adopted, the orders that are given, and the principles which have been laid down.
Its object is to signifies mistakes so as, that they may be rectified, and prevented from recurring." There are many others definition like, According to EFL Brech,
"Control is checking current performance, against pre determined standards contained within the plans, with a read to make sure adequate progress, and satisfactory performance."
According to Harold Koontz,
"Controlling is that the activity, and correction of performance so as to create positive, that enterprise objectives, and also the plans devised to achieve them, square measure accomplished."
According to Stafford Beer,
"Management is the profession of control."
Robert J. Mockler also given a more comprehensive definition of managerial control, according to him, "Management management is written, as a scientific effort by business management, to match performance, to planned standards, plans, or objectives, so as to work out, whether or not performance is in line with these standards, and presumptively so as to require any remedial action needed to visualize, that human and alternative company resources square measure being employed, within the handiest and economical
way, possible in achieving corporate objectives."

Characteristics Of Controlling


There are following characteristics of control,
Control is a continuous process.
Control is a management process.
Control is looking forward.
Control is closely connected with planning. Control reduces cost.
Control Achieves standard.
Controls saves time.
Control helps management monitoring. Control Compares performance against standards.

Elements Of Control


There are four badic elements of control.
The characteristic or condition to be controlled,
The sensor,
The comparator,
The activator,
The first element is the characteristic or condition to be controlled, During any stage of processing the characteristic may be the output of the system, or it may be a condition, that is the result of the system. For example, the heat energy produced by the furnace, or the temperature in the room, is the result heat generated by the furnace. In school system, an educator works characteristics, that may be live, or control. knowledge displayed by students in a national exam. The second element of control is the sensor, which is used for measuring characteristic or position. For example, thermostat in the heating system, to sense the temperature of the home, and in the quality control system, this measurement can be done, by visual inspection of the product. The third element of control, is the comparator, which determines the need for improvement, by comparing what is planned. Some deviations from the plan are normal and expected, but when the changes are beyond acceptance, corrective action is required. It involves many type of preventive action, which indicates that good control is being achieved. The fourth element of control is the activator, which is corrective action to return the system, to its expected output. The actual person, device, or method can be used to direct corrective input, to the operating system or the organization.
This may be a hydraulic controller, deployed by a magnet or motor, in response to Associate in Nursing electronic error signal, Associate in Nursing worker directed to transform elements, that did not
pass a quality inspection, or a school principal, Who decides to purchase additional books.

Organizing


Organizing could be a task elect for the cluster, to institution of effective authority relationships between people and work locations. Or it is a process of dividing work into segments and between different departments.

Characteristics of Organization:


These are the following important characteristics of organization.
Specialization and division of work:
The entire philosophy of the organization, focuses on the concepts of specialization, and division of work. The work division is the process, to assigning responsibility for each organizational component, to a specific individual or group. It becomes specific when the responsibility for a specific task, given to expert in that field.

Orientation towards goals


Every organization has its own purpose, objectives and goals. Organizing is the task to achieve the overall goals of the organization. The organization harmonizes the personal goals of the employees with the overall objectives of the organization.
Composition of individuals and groups:
In the Composition of individuals and groups, Individuals form a group and groups form an organization. Thus, organization is the structure of individual and groups. Individuals are divided into departments, and their work is to achieve organizational objectives and goals.

Continuity


An organization is a group of people, with a defined role and relationship in which they work together, for the achievement of the organization's goals. This relationship does not end after completing each task. Organization is a continuous never ending process.

Flexibility


Flexibility is the important part of organizing process, organizing process should be flexible so that any change can be easily implemented. This ensures the ability to adapt and adjust activities in response to, changes occurring in the external environment. If necessary, programs, policies and strategies can be provided with flexibility in the systematic process.

Purpose of Organiziing


Organizing helps to achieve organizational goals. The organization is the task to achieving the overall objectives of commercial firms. Optimum utilization of resources. To make optimal use of resources such as men, material, money, machine and method, it is necessary to properly design an organization. The work should be divided between the right people, to minimize wastage of resources in an organization. To do managerial work. Planning, staffing, direction and control should be implemented properly within organization. Facilitates development and diversification. The organization structure determines, the input resources required for the expansion of a business activity, in the same way that organization is required for product diversity, such as the establishment of a new product line. Which increases creativity in managers by organizing. Human treatment of employees, The organization must work for the betterment of the employees, and should not encourage monotony of work due to high level of expertise. Now, the organization has adapted the modern concept of systems approach, based on human relations, and it abandons the traditional productivity and expertise approach.

Decision-Making


Decision making may be a drawback determination activity, which is considered optimal, or at least satisfactory.
silent and explicit knowledge, are used simultaneously, in the decision making process. Human decision making performance based on following several perspectives.

Psychological: psychology plays an important role in Examining personal decisions in terms of a set of needs, preferences, and values that the person possesses or wants.
Cognitive: The decision making process is considered as a continuous process, integrated in interaction with the environment.
Normative: Analysis of individual decision-making logic concerned with their communicative rationality, and the invariant choice it leads to.
A major part of decision making involves the analysis of a limited set of options, described in terms of evaluation criteria. The task may then be to rank these choices, based on how attractive they are to the decision-maker, when all criteria are considered simultaneously. Another task may be to find the best option, or to determine the relative total priority of each option, when all criteria are considered simultaneously. Solving such problems is the based on multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA). This field of decision making is very old, which attract the interest of many researchers and practitioners, and is still highly debated. there are many MCDA methods available, which provides very different results, if applied to the same data. This heralds the irony of decision making. Logical decision making is used in all science-based professions, where experts apply their knowledge in a given field, to make informed decisions. For example, medical decision making often involves a diagnosis, and selection of appropriate treatment.
But natural decision-making analysis suggests, that in things with time pressures, high stakes or ambiguities, consultants might use spontaneous decision-making instead of structured approaches. They can follow a recognition primed decision, that based on their experience and arrive at a course of action, without giving importance to the options. The decision-maker's environment can play a role, in the decision-making process. For example, environmental complexity is a factor that affects cognitive function. A complex environment is an environment, with a large number of different possible states that come and go over time. Studies conducted at the University of Colorado, have shown that a lot of advanced environments correlate with higher psychological feature perform, that means that a choice is also influenced by location.
Cognitive operate was greatly laid low with high measures of environmental complexness, creating it easier to consider the case and build higher selections.

Evolution of Management Thoughts Management Study

Evolution of Management Thoughts Study


Evolution of Management Thoughts Study

The Evolution management is as old as when human started living in groups. In old time strong men organized the people into groups, by influenced their intelligence, physical and mental capabilities. in ancient Greece, we can see the example of Evolution of Management, the organization of the Roman Catholic Church and the organization of military forces.
Evolution of Management Thought:
The Evolution of management thoughts are four types.
Pre scientific management theory.
Classical management Theory.
Neo classical management Theory or Behaviour Approach.
Modern Management Theory or Systems Approach.

Pre scientific Management Theory:

The industrial revolution in the middle of the eighteenth century was the big impact on management. By the using of tools,  new machine, organization of labour increased the production and profit of the companies.
All these changes, in the field of Traditional, conventional or customary ideas of management, given new birth to scientific and modern management principles. L. F. Urwick said, "Modern management has thrown open a new branch of human knowledge, a fresh universe of discourse". industrial revolution, challenge the traditional character of management by introducing new ideas, approach and character of management.
The famous contributor of that time Professor Charles Babbage, we also know him as father of computer, was a Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University. He found that manufacturers applied use of science and mathematics, He give attention to taking business decisions on the use of accurate observations, measurement and precise knowledge. He influence the management of an enterprise, to use the accurate data obtained through rigid investigation, finding out the number of times each operation is repeated each hour, dividing of work according to mental and physical efforts, determining the precise cost for every process, and paying bonus to the workers in proportion to his own efficiency, and according to profit of enterprise.
James Watt Junior and Mathew Robinson Boulton contributed to the development of management thought by implementing certain management techniques in their engineering factory at Soho in Birmingham. Robert Owens, the promoter of co-operative and trade union movement in England, he urged to human intervention in industry, by influencing the working conditions and treatment of workers, for achieving better performance of the company. He give new ideas of human and industry relations, like shorter working hours, housing facilities, training of workers in hygiene, education of their children, provision of canteen etc. Robert Owen, relation was from a group of textile mills in Lanark, Scotland, where he implemented his ideas of human relations.  Robert Owen approach was paternalistic, so he is called as the father of Personnel Management.
Henry Robinson Towne was from USA, and he was the president of the famous lock manufacturing company "Yale and Town". He used the combination of engineers and economists as industrial managers.
Seebohm Rowntree from UK, created the need of labour welfare scheme and improvement in labour and industrial relations.

Classical Management Theory:

F.W. Taylor are known as father of scientific management, and Henry Fayol are founders of administrative management. They lay down the foundation of science and art of management.

Features of Classical Management Period:
The industrial revolution gave birth to the rise of large scale enterprise, and implemention of new management principles like, scientific management, Administrative management theory, bureaucratic model, and micro economics and public administration.
Frederick Winslow Taylor known as the founder of scientific management, Taylor suggested adopting scientific approach to managing employees and enterprise efficiency and growth. He suggested use of "scientific method" for achieving higher efficiency. These scientific method are,
Observation,
Measurement,
Experimentation and Inference.
He emphasized the necessity of perfect understanding and co-operation between the management and the workers, use of scientific investigation and knowledge in industrial work, for the enlargement of profits of the enterprise.
Taylor's Elements of Scientific Management are,
Scientific Task and Rate-setting,
work improvement,
Planning the Task,
Vocational Selection and Training,
Standardization of working conditions and material equipment,
Specialization,
Mental Revolution,
The objections raised in these techniques and principles, were later remedied by the other contributors to scientific management, like Henry L Gantt, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth and Harrington Emerson.
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth were husband and wife, They worked for wasted motions in work. Frank Gilbreth is regarded as the father of motion study. Gilbreth's main contributions are.
For doing a job or work, minimum motion should be included in an accessible area. and elimination of inefficient and wasteful motions involved in the work.
He emphasized on the workers training, so that they may achieve competence as early as possible. he considered to occupy three positions for employees.
First the job he held before promotion to his present position,
Second his present position,
and third the next higher position. The workers should be teaching the man below him and learning from the man above him. This would help for employees qualify for promotion and preparation a successor to his current job.
Gantt give a chart to compare actual to planned performance. Which is called Gantt chart, which shows graphically presented day-to-day production planning.
Task-and-bonus plan for remunerating workers indicating a more humanitarian approach.
Harrington Emerson was an American Engineer. He worked on efficiency in industry. first time he used the term 'efficiency engineering', he called his philosophy "The Gospel of Efficiency". According to him, "efficiency means that the right thing is done in the right manner, by the right man, at the right place, in the right time".
Emerson gave for management following principles of efficiency,
Ideals,
Common Sense,
Competent Counsel,
Discipline,
Fair Deal,
Proper Records,
Dispatching,
Standards and Schedules,
Standard Conditions,
Standardized Operations,
Standard practice instructions and
Efficiency Reward.

Neo classical management Theory or Behaviour Approach:

Neoclassical Theory is improved and extended version of the classical theory. The primarily focus of Classical theory on job content and management of physical resources whereas, neoclassical theory gave more focus on individual and group relationship in the workplace. The neoclassical theory plays the role of psychology and sociology, in the understanding of individual and group behaviour in an organization.

The Hawthorne Experiment:

George Elton Mayo was born in Australia, educated in Logic and Philosophy at St. Peter's College, Adelaide. He led a team of researchers on human problems at the Hawthorne Plant of Western Electrical Company at Chicago. They investigated informal groupings, informal relationships, patterns of communication, patterns of informal leadership etc. Elton Mayo is known as the father of Human Relations School. and his experiments known as Hawthorne Experiments, Other prominent contributors to this school include Roethlisberger, Dickson, Dewey, Lewinetc.
from 1927 up to 1932. The Hawthorne Experiments find out that the productivity of the employees is not the function of only physical conditions of work and money wages paid to them. but also Productivity of employees mainly depends upon the satisfaction of the employees in their work situation. Mayo told that logical factors were far less important, than emotional factors in determining productivity efficiency. Mayo concluded that to meeting the objective requirements of production, must also satisfy the employee's subjective requirement of social satisfaction at his work place.
The Hawthorne experiment consists of four parts.
Illumination Experiment.
Relay Assembly Test Room Experiment.
Mass Interviewing Programme.
Bank Wiring Test Room Experiment.

Illumination Experiment:

This experiment shows relationship between output and illumination. When the intensity of light was increased, the output also increased.  on the other hand when the light intensity was gradually brought down to the normal level. the output of the production was also high Therefore, it shows that there is no consistent relationship between output of workers and illumination in the company. There are some other factors which affect productivity.

Relay Assembly Test Room Experiment: 

This experiment consists not only the impact of illumination on production but also other factors, like length of the working day, rest hours, and other physical conditions. In this experiment, a small homogeneous work group of six girls, who were friendly to each other and, asked them to work in a very informal atmosphere under the supervision of a researcher. Productivity and morale was high during the period of the experiment. Productivity went on increasing and stabilized at a high level, even when all the improvements were taken away and the pretest conditions were applied. The researchers found the result that, socio psychological factors such as feeling of being important, recognition, attention, participation, cohesive work group, and non directive supervision held the key for the high productivity.

Mass Interview Programme:

This programme was started to, study of the employees' attitudes which would reveal the meaning which their "working situation" has for them. The researchers interviewed a many number of workers with regard to their opinions on work, working conditions and supervision. Initially interviews asked questions considered important by managers and researchers. The researchers found that the replies of the workers were guarded. Next time this approach was replaced by an indirect technique, where the interviewer simply listened to, what the workers had to say. The findings confirmed the importance of social factors at work in the total work environment.

Bank Wiring Test Room Experiment:

This experiment was conducted by Roethlisberger and Dixon, to observation of accurate information about social groups within a company. and to find reasons that impact on production. This experiment was done on a group consisted of 14 activists. After the experiment, the production records of this group were compared to their earlier production records. It was observed that, the group developed its own production criteria for each individual worker, which was lower than what was set by management. For this reason, workers will only produce the same, which can beat the stimulus system. Activists who tried to produce more than the norms of the group were isolated, tortured or punished by the group. The findings of the study are, Each individual was restricting output. Groups had their own "informal" standards of performance. Individual production remained fairly stable over a period of time. Informal groups play an important role in the work of an organization. features of hawthorn experiment are, A business organization is basically a social system. This is not just a technical economic system. Workers can be motivated by psychological and social desires, because its behavior is also influenced by emotions, economic incentives are not the only way to inspire people. Management should develop cooperative approach and not only the order. Participation in human relations is an important instrument. To gain participation, an effective two way communication network is essential. Productivity is linked to employee satisfaction in any business organization. Therefore, management should be more interested in employee satisfaction. Group psychology plays an important role in any business organization. Therefore, we should rely more on the efforts of the informal group. In Neo classical principles man is a living machine and is more important than a non living machine. Therefore, the key to high productivity is employee morale. Higher outputs have higher morale.
Elements of Behavioural Theory:
There are three elements of behavioural theory.

The Individual: 


Neoclassical theory emphasized that each individual have, different feelings, perception and attitude. Every person is unique. In determining productivity, the internal world of labor is more important than external reality. Thus human relations at work, determine the increase or decrease in productivity. Therefore, productivity can be increased by motivation, which is based on economic, personal and social factors.

Work Groups: 


Workers are not treated separately by management, they are social being. The existence of informal organization is natural. Management now welcomes the worker's involvement, in planning the job content and job management. Neoclassical theory focuses its attention on workers. Plant layouts, machinery, equipment etc. Modern management has thought to place equal emphasis on man and machine, and we can develop suitable human machine relationship, to secure both productivity and achievement of goals.

Limitations of Human Relations Approach:


Human psychological relations are more important then economic, structural and technical aspects. It is believed that all organizational problems can be resolve through human relationships. Human relations put more emphasis on making decisions for groups. But in practice, the groups can create problems, and it can not be possible to make collective decisions.

Modern Management Theory or System Approach:


The systems approach is a fourth major principle of management called modern management theory. Modern theory considers an organization, as an adaptive, defined structured process, in which the person communicates for achieving goals andobjectives. the word system is made up of Greek words, which means bring together or combine. A system is a set of mutual and inter related elements or component, to achieve certain goals. A system has three important parts, Each system should be goal oriented, and must have a purpose to achieve it. When the system approach is applied to the organization, we have the following characteristics in the organization, It should be subsystem of its wider environment, It should be goal oriented, people with a purpose. It should be technical subsystem, using knowledge, techniques, tools and facilities.
Characteristics of Modern Management Thought:
The Systems Approach or modern management thought has five basic parts,
Input,
Process,
Output,
Feedback,
Environment.
for inputs to produce certain desirable outputs. The success of these outputs can be judged by means of feedback. to meet the enviornment changing demands.
We have a dynamic process of interaction within the organization's structure. The systems approach indicates a complex multilevel and multidimensional character. 

Concept and Foundations of Management Study

Concept and Foundations of Management Notes In OB

The Concept Of Management Foundation


We will discuss in this article the concept of Management Meaning Types and Functions. The concepts of management functions and scope is given by many different management scholars time to time. The concepts of management foundation, nature and scope is described by different scholars. today we see around us many automobile, insurrence and mnc compnies high rise buildings. we also see Suited booted managers in these buildings and we thinks they have air-conditioned chamber and have luxurious lifestyle but in realty it is completely different. They have to do many task like planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Let's see what is Concept and Foundations of Management. Concept and foundations of management fundamental is the features study of management process, to enabling the companies both the immediate and near future operations, organize various resources against several constraints to accomplish predetermined objectives in effective and efficient way.

Definition And Meaning of Management


As there is no single definition of Management many people gives many definition.
George R. Terry gave the definition of management according to him, management is a process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.
According to father of scientific Management F.W. Taylor  says Management is to forecast to plan to organize to command to coordinate and control activities of others.
According to the father of Modern Management Henri Fayol says that Management is the process by which cooperative group directs actions towards common goals.

Process of Management


Management is a process by which managers manges human and material resources together and motivates  them for the achievement of the organization goal. Management is not a onetime process it is an on-going series of interrelated activities. The sum of these total activities is known as management process. The various Management activities is given below.

Goal oriented Process: The process of management by which the achievement of purpose of the organizational goals correctly and meaningfully is called a goal oriented process.
All Pervasive: all pervasive process is used by all departments of an organization to achieve it's goal, irrespective of size, nature and location. It is implemented at each level of an organization.
Multidimensional: multidimensional is the management process, which covers all aspects of an organization ranging from work, people and operations. we can use different mechanisms and systems are set up for each aspect.
Continuous Process: continuous process is a series of functions are performed in organization by all its managers simultaneously. It keeps running in a cycle that repeats itself again and again.
Group Activity: Management is never done in solidarity. It is a group activity that involves participation of all the people of an organization, including the managers and the workers, for the desired achievement of the organization goal.
 Intangible Force: Management in realty cannot be seen or touched,  hence it is called as intangible. But its effect can be felt and measured based on the results achieved by the organizational functions like increase in sales, customers satisfaction and growth of organisations.
Is management is a art or science, it has many aspects some thinks management is art and on the other hand some thinks management is science but in realty management has both art and science characteristics.

Lavel of Management:


There are three levels of Management they are

Top level management

Middle level management

Lower level management

Top Level Management:


In the top level management board of directors, chief executive or managing director comes. The top management has the highest authority and it manages goals and policies of an organization. The role of the top level management include.
Top management makes the objectives and policies of an organization.
It gives direction to making of department budgets, procedures and schedule.
They appoints executive and middle level management for all the departments.
They control and coordinate with all the departments.
Top level management give directions, guidelines, make shareholders benefits and make contact with outside world.

Middle Level of Management:


The branch managers and departmental managers are the part of middle level management. They are responsible to the top management. They manages organizational and directional functions. In small organization, there is only one layer of middle level of management but in big organisation, there may be senior and junior middle level management. Their role of middle level management is
They execute plans and policies of top level management.
They conduct employment training for lower level management.
They told and explain the plans, policy and goals of top management to lower management.
They send important reports and data to top level management.
They evaluate the performance of lower level management.
They also motivate lower level management to enhance their performance.

Lower Level of Management:


Lower level management consists of supervisors, foreman, section officers, superintendent etc. they are concerned with direction and controlling function of middle management. Their roles are
Tyey Assign jobs and tasks to various workers.
The lower level management guide and instruct to the workers for day to day activities.
They are responsible for the quantity and quality products production.
They are responsible for maintaining good relation in the organization.
They communicate workers problems, suggestions, and recommendatory appeals to the higher level management and explain higher level management goals and objectives to the workers.
They help to solve the worker's grievances
They supervise and guide the subordinates.
Theey provide training to the workers.
They arrange necessary materials, machines, tools etc. for getting the things done easily.
They prepare periodical performance reports  of the workers.
They maintain discipline in the enterprise.
They motivate workers.
They arrange all the production activities, because they are the image builders of the enterprise, because they are in direct contact with the workers.

Skills and Functions of a Manager:


The following functions of manager to runs smoothly of an organisations.

planning

organizing

staffing

coordinating

controlling

The basic skills needed for manager are

Calmness

Maturity

Friendliness

Tolerance

Appreciable

Tolerable

Adorable

Frank

Determined

Neutral towards means and end.