Showing posts with label Managerial Function. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Managerial Function. Show all posts

Managerial Processes Direct Indirect Value Chain Study Notes

Managerial Processes Direct Indirect Value Chain Meaning


Managerial Processes Meaning Definition


To create a value organization is very important in this era, for better performance and prestige of the organization. How you can convert your business with more value in less cost. What is the fundamentals for organization to stand in the first place. the main important rule is that, Manufacturing companies create value by acquiring raw materials and produce value added something useful. For example Retailers bring multiple products together and offer them in a convenient way to customers. Online services such as shopping, home services, fitting rooms, or other services, provide to customers in a customer-friendly manner, and distributing them to the mass audience. The profit margin created and captured by a company is depend on value created for the customer. The more value an organization creates, the more profit gets. when you provide more value to your customers, you build a competitive advantage and more profit. how your company creates more ways to add more value, is the key element in developing a competitive strategy. Huh. Michael Porter in 1985 wrote in his influential book "Competitive Advantage", that the concept of value chains for the first time. A value chain is a set of activities that an organization undertakes, to create value for its customers. Porter proposed a general-purpose value chain  activities, which increase performance determines costs and affects profits, so this tool can help you for your organization performance and value.
Porter's Value Chain Strategy Skills Training is the process, how human resource management adds value to inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, and so on. look for direct, indirect, and quality assurance subactivities Again, look for direct, indirect, and quality assurance activities. How do you use Porter's value chain? What is operations in value chain?
What is value chain in strategic management? What are support activities in Concept of Value Chain, Value Chain Analysis, Value Chain Management. you will learn more about Porter's Value Chain Strategy and Implementation of Value Chain Analysis in this article. Primary activities are the processes directly involved in transforming materials into finished goods, Porter's Value Chain Analysis by Michael Porter also known as Porter's Value Chain Analysis. Which is a great business management concept that was developed by Michael Porter.

Elements In Value Chain


Value Chain does not depends on departments or types of accounting costs, but Porter's value chain focuses on the system, and also focuses to convert inputs into outputs purchased by consumers. Using this approach, Porter described a series of activities for all businesses, and he divided them into primary and supportive activities, which is given below.

Primary Activities


Primary activities are directly related to the physical manufacture, sales, maintenance, and support of a product or service. They include the following activities.

Inbound Logistics Activities


Inbound logistics are all processes related to receiving, storing and distributing inputs internally. Your supplier relationships are an important factor in creating value here.

Operations Activities


Operations are the change activities, which convert inputs into outputs that are sold to customers. Raw input material is given to operation system that converts it into value output product, so operational systems create value.

Outbound Logistics Activities


Outbound logistics activities take your product or service to your customer. These are the things like collection, storage and distribution systems, and they can be internal or external for your organization.

Marketing and Sales Activities


Marketing and sales are the processes you use to convince customers to buy from you rather than from your competitors. This will depend on you, how much benefits you provide, and how well you communicate them, Marketing and Sales Activities are sources of value here.

Service Activities


Service are the activities related to maintaining the value of your product or service to your customers, once they are purchased your products or. Services.

Support Activities


Supporting activities are those activities, which support the primary functions. each support, or secondary, activity play a important role in each primary activity. For example, procurement supports operations, but it also supports marketing and sales with other activities. below are giving Support Activities.

Procurement or Purchasing


Procurement or purchase is the support activities for the organization, that makes the resources necessary to operate. This includes finding vendors and negotiating the best prices.

Human esource management


Human Resource Management main task in a company, to recruits, hires, trains, motivates, rewards, and retains its employees. People are an important source of value for a company, so businesses can make a clear profit with good HR practices.

Technological Development


Technological development activities are related to the management and processing of information, as well as protecting the company's knowledge base. We should focus on cost effective information technology, staying updated with current technological progress and maintaining technological excellence are sources of value creation.

Infrastructure


Infrastructure are a company's support systems tasks that allow it to maintain daily operations, such as Accounting, legal, administrative, and general management are examples of essential infrastructure tasks, that businesses can use for their advantage. Now Companies adopt these  primary and support activities as "building blocks" to create valuable products or services.


USA Top MBA Colleges Best Business Schools Ranking List

Top MBA Colleges Best Business Schools Ranking In USA


USA Top MBA Colleges Business Schools


USA Best Top MBA Business Schools Ranked in 2021, US Top MBA Colleges in USA, Ranking 2021, Fees, Courses, according to US News. You want to know Best Executive MBA Programs and Best International MBA Programs, Here are the top MBA programs Colleges in the USA, Best Business Schools in the USA.
Stanford University
Stanford, CA
Best Business Schools
$74,706 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
University of Pennsylvania (Wharton) 1
Philadelphia, PA
Best Business Schools
$80,432 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
University of Chicago (Booth)
Chicago, IL
Best Business Schools
$73,440 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
Northwestern University (Kellogg)
Evanston, IL
Best Business Schools
$74,871 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
Harvard University
Boston, MA
Best Business Schools (tie)
$73,440 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Sloan) 1
Cambridge, MA
Best Business Schools
$77,168 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
Columbia University
New York, NY
Best Business Schools (tie)
$77,376 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
University of California--Berkeley (Haas)
Berkeley, CA
Best Business Schools (tie)
$68,444 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
Yale University
New Haven, CT
Best Business Schools
$72,350 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
Dartmouth College (Tuck)
Hanover, NH
Best Business Schools (tie)
$77,520 per year (full-time) TUITION FEE
Find the best Business School MBA program to fit your goals. Which MBA is best in USA? Is USA good for MBA? What are the top MBA programs in The United States? Top 100 Best Business Schools (MBA) Ranked in 2021, Rankings of top business schools MBA in America. U.S. Most Popular MBA Programs Universities Business School in United States, want to Pursue Most Popular American MBA Programs, Here are Top 100 Ranked MBA Programs Universities and Colleges Names In the United States (USA).


MBA
Harvard University
Cambridge, USA


Master of Business Administration
Stanford University
Stanford, USA


Full-Time MBA
The University of Chicago
Chicago, USA


Master of Business Administration
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, USA


MBA
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, USA


One Year MBA
Northwestern University
Evanston, USA


MBA
Columbia University
New York, USA


MBA
Princeton University
Princeton, USA


Master in Finance
University of California - Berkeley Campus
Berkeley, USA


Full Time MBA
University Of Michigan
Ann Arbor, USA


Full Time MBA
New York University
New York, USA


MBA
Duke University
Durham, USA
Global Executive


MBA
University of California - Los Angeles Campus
Los Angeles, USA


Full-Time MBA
Yale University
New Haven, USA


MBA
Dartmouth College
Hanover, USA


MBA
Carnegie Mellon University - USA
Pittsburgh, USA


Master of Business Administration
Cornell University
Ithaca, USA


Two-Year MBA
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Chapel Hill, USA


MBA
The University of Texas at Austin
Austin, USA


Full-Time MBA
Indiana University
Bloomington, USA


Master of Business Administration
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, USA


MBA
Emory University
Atlanta, USA


Two-Year MBA
Texas A & M University
College Station, USA


Full-Time MBA
Georgetown University
Washington DC, USA


Master of Business Administration
University of Southern California
Los Angeles, USA


IBEAR MBA
The Ohio State University
Columbus, USA


MBA
Hult International Business School - USA
Cambridge, USA


One Year MBA
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Champaign, USA


Master of Business Administration
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Minneapolis, USA


Master of Business Administration
Florida International University
Miami, USA


International MBA
University of Washington
Seattle, USA


Full Time MBA Program
Arizona State University
Tempe, USA


Full Time MBA
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison, USA


Full Time MBA
Boston University
Boston, USA


Full Time MBA
Washington University in St Louis
St Louis, USA


MBA
Vanderbilt University
Nashville, USA


Master of business Administration
Michigan State University
East Lansing, USA


Full Time MBA
Pennsylvania State University-University Park
State College, USA


MBA Program
Brigham Young University
Provo, USA


MBA
University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, USA


One Year MBA
University of Maryland
College Park, USA


Full Time MBA
Rice University
Houston, USA


Masters of Business Administration
University of California - Irvine Campus
Irvine, USA


Full Time MBA
Purdue University
West Lafayette, USA


MS Marketing
Boston College
Boston, USA


Master of Business Administration
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, USA


Full Time MBA
University of California, Davis
Davis, USA


MBA
Brown University
Providence, USA


Executive MBA
University of South Carolina
Columbia, USA


One-Year MBA
Temple University - USA
Philadelphia, USA


Global MBA
Johns Hopkins University
Baltimore, USA


MBA
University of San Francisco
San Francisco, USA


Full Time MBA
George Mason University
Fairfax, USA


MBA
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, USA


Master of Business Administration
Southern Methodist University
Dallas, USA


Full Time MBA
University of Rochester
Rochester, USA


Full Time MBA
University of Denver
Denver, USA


Master of Science in Management
University of Colorado Boulder
Boulder, USA


Leeds MBA
University of California, Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara, USA


MA in Economics
California Lutheran University
Thousand Oaks, USA


Master of Business Administration
University of California - San Diego Campus
San Diego, USA


Full- Time MBA
The University of Texas at Dallas
Richardson, USA


Full-Time MBA Program
University of Miami
Coral Gables, USA


Full Time MBA
University of Arizona
Tucson, USA


Full Time MBA
University of Iowa
Iowa City, USA


Professional MBA Program
University at Buffalo
Buffalo, USA


Full Time MBA
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, USA


MBA
University of Georgia
Athens, USA


MBA
University of Florida
Gainesville, USA


Full-Time MBA
Northeastern University
Boston, USA


Full Time MBA
Auburn University
Auburn, USA


Master of Business Administration
University of Connecticut
Mansfield, USA


Full-time MBA Program
University of Massachusetts Boston
Boston, USA


MBA
Rutgers University
Newark, USA


MBA
University of Missouri
Columbia, USA


Master of Business Administration
The University of Utah
Salt Lake, USA


Full Time MBA
Babson College
Boston, USA


Two year MBA
Pepperdine University
Malibu, USA


Full-Time MBA
The George Washington University
Washington DC, USA


Global MBA
Tulane University
New Orleans, USA


Master of Business Administration
Thunderbird School of Global Management
Glendale, USA


Master of Global Management (MGM)
University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Lincoln, USA


MBA
University of Alabama
Tuscaloosa, USA


Master of Business Administration
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State university
Blacksburg, USA


Professional MBA
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, USA


MBA
Clemson University
Alexander City, USA


MBA in Entrepreneurship & Innovation
Colorado State University
Alexander City, USA


Master of Business Administration
Drexel University
Philadelphia, USA


Full-Time MBA
University of Hawaii at Manoa
Honolulu, USA


Master of Human Resource Management
Florida State University
Tallahassee, USA


Accelerated Master of Business Administration
Miami University-Oxford
Oxford, USA


MBA Programme
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, USA


MBA Full-Time
Oregon State University
Corvallis, USA


Master of Business Administration in Marketing
Baruch College
New York, USA


MBA - Marketing
Baylor University
Waco, USA


Full Time MBA
The University of Memphis
Memphis, USA


International MBA
San Diego State University
San Diego, USA


Master of Business Administration
Claremont Graduate University
Claremont, USA


The Drucker MBA Program
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, USA


Full-Time MBA
Iowa State University
Ames, USA


Master of Business Administration
University of South Florida
Tampa, USA


Master of Business Administration (MBA)
DePaul University
Chicago, USA
The DePaul


MBA
American University
Washington DC, USA


Full-time MBA
University of Oklahoma
Norman, USA


MBA Full-Time
University of Houston
Houston, USA


Full-Time MBA
Texas Christian University
Fort Worth, USA


Full Time MBA
University of Tennessee
Knoxville, USA


Full-Time MBA
Binghamton University
Binghamton, USA


MBA
University of Delaware
Newark, USA


MBA
Syracuse University
Syracuse, USA


MBA
The University of Illinois at Chicago
Chicago, USA


Full-time MBA Program
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Troy, USA


MBA
University of Kansas
Lawrence, USA


Masters of Business Administration
University at Albany-SUNY
Albany, USA


Full Time MBA
Texas Tech University
Lubbock, USA


Stem MBA
Fordham University
Bronx, USA


Full - Time MBA
West Virginia University
Morgantown, USA


MBA
Bentley University
Waltham, USA


Emerging Leaders MBA
University of Oregon
Eugene, USA


Master of Business Administration
University of Tulsa
Tulsa, USA


MBA
Mississippi State University
Starkville, USA


MBA
University of Kentucky
Lexington, USA


One Year MBA
Northern Arizona University
Flagstaff, USA.


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Business Process Customers Orientation Study Notes

Business Types Activities Process


Business Process Customers Orientation Study


The concept of business process orientation (BPO) is the continuous efforts work done by the Deming Walton, Porter Davenport Short, Hammer, Grover et al, Coombs and Hull. by using This BPO process firms can enhance their overall performance by adopting a process approach. McCormack conducted an empirical study to explore the relationship between BPO and enhanced business performance. The result showed that BPO is important in reducing conflict and encouraging greater connectivity within organization, improving business performance. Another empirical study done by Kohlbacher, showed that BPO is positively associated with customer satisfaction, product quality, delivery speed and time-to-market speed. The follwing persons Deming, Porter, Davenport, Short, Hammer, Byron, Imai, Drucker, Rummler-Breche and Mellon suggested to have requires a new approach and a new way of thinking about the organization, that will result in improvement dramatic business performance. This "new way of thinking" is commonly described as a business process orientation. A business process culture is a culture that is cross-functional, customer oriented, process and system thinking. This can be expanded by combining elements of Davenport's process orientation, Davenport emphasized the commitment to process improvement, which directly benefits customer and business process information-oriented systems. Finally, Hammer described "process Thinking "as cross-functional and result oriented. They used four categories to describe the components of an organization. Here are: Business Processes and Structures: Management and Measurement System Values and Beliefs

Customers Orientation Definition


For run a good and successful business you have to develop a reputation with your customers. your business understands and acts on the importance of customer orientation, as an ethical business that cares for and delivers value. Customer orientation is the belief, when your customers are happy and their needs are met, then customer retention increases, this means what your target customer wants from you. customer-oriented small business focusing on your customer's desires and anticipating their needs, customer orientation shopping with you provides stress relief rather than stress-inducing.


Customer Orientation Importance



To find a new customers can be expensive, for small business owners who don't have  extra capital to invest in marketing. If you provide very small budget services, it is less expensive to find new customer and hold back a satisfied customer. When you offer exceptional high budget customer service like Apple or incredible knowledge like Best Buy, you retain your customers coming back and continuing in what you offer. This means protecting your bottom line, growing it and strengthening your reputation, all without spending more than justified on customer acquisition.


Customer Orientation Strategies



The best way to follow customer orientation strategies into your business is to offer best quality of customer services and care, so that your customers don't want to go anywhere else. For example Apple started as a small business, but their focus on customer orientation inspired them to set up unique iPhones with marketing and customer care services unlike anything in the industry. Twin Cities began as a Best Buy "Sound of Music" in the suburb and retains their customers by knowledgeable and trained supportive sales person. You have to always think about your's customers at every level of your company, and with every decision, your company can be flexible and meet customer needs in an equal way.


Customer Orientation Skills



Customer orientation skills are very. Important at every level of business, your team members should have customer orientation skills, which will play key role in your success. While a large corporation of 25,000 employees can overcome some employees with being behind the curve, but for small businesses every employee should deliver excellence customer orientation skills and they really feel it. Here are some ways to incorporate customer orientation skills in your employees.

treat your employees the way you want them to treat their customers.

Your mission to include promise and values for your customers.

Arranged customer training on product knowledge, troubleshooting and customer care.

Give best training to your employees, Equipment and empower your employees to resolve customer concerns and problems in coordination with others.

Give customers a best and easy platform to share feedback, offer loyalty programs and individualized care.

Keep your standards high and hire high quality efficient trained staff who believe in those standards.

Social Responsibility Management Ethics Study Notes

Social Responsibility Management Ethics Meaning


Social Responsibility Management Ethics Meaning


Social responsibility is an ethical framework, to act at large for the benefit of society, by an organization or an individual.  Social responsibility is a duty for each person, to maintain Balance between economy and ecosystem. although it has been challenged by several reports over the past decade. This is not only for business organizations but also for all those whose actions affect the environment. Social responsibility aims to ensure safe health care for people living in rural areas and eliminate all obstacles such as distance, financial status, etc. Social responsibility should be intergenerational that is one generation protect environmental resources for next generation. Businesses can use ethical decision making to secure social responsibility. companies should follow the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines, for emissions on hazardous pollutants and to join the community and address those concerns, Which may be for the public benefit. According to some experts, the creation of most rules and regulations is caused by public outrage, which threatens profit maximization and therefore shareholder well-being, and if there is not an outrage, there will often be limited regulation.

Corporate Social Responsibility


Corporate Social Responsibility or CSR is defined by Lord Holme and Richard Watts, according to them "Making Good Business Sense", Improving Business Ethically and Economically Quality Continued commitment to contribute to economic development. Which is published in publication by the World Social Business Council for Sustainable Development. CSR is one of the latest management strategies, where companies try to create a positive impact on society, lives of the workers and their families as well as the local community and society at large. while doing. business. Evidence suggests that CSR taken voluntarily by companies will be more effective and efficient than CSR mandated by governments. There is no clear definition of corporate social responsibility, Every company has different CSR objectives, although the main objective is the same that is to improve qualitatively management of people and processes and, quantitatively impact on society. The second is as important as the first for every stake holders of  company. how they are affecting the environment and society. behind the second it's motive is that companies should only be profitable. While many corporations have incorporated social responsibility in their operations, it is still important for those purchasing products and services to ensure that products are socially sustainable. There are Various Verification tools are available internationally from many institutions, such as Underwriter Laboratories Environmental Standards, BIFMA, Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association, is a non-profit organization that works for creating voluntary standards that would promote safe working environments. BioPreferred and Green Seal. These resources help corporations and their consumers identify potential risks associated with a product's lifecycle and enable end-users to confirm that the corporation's behavior comply to social responsibility ideals. scientists and engineers should be morally responsible for the negative consequences, that result from various applications of their knowledge and inventions. scientists and engineer should have ethical guidelines for the conduct of scientific research. scientists and engineers, both individually and collectively, have a special and much greater responsibility than average citizens regarding the generation and use of scientific knowledge. The International Organization for Standardization "will encourage voluntary commitment to social responsibility and provide general guidance on concepts, definitions and methods of upcoming technical knowledge.

Management Ethics


Management Ethics' deals with social accountability of a company. It is a discipline dealing with good and bad, right and wrong,  moral and obligation.It is a standard of behavior that guides individual or managers in their actions. It is a set of ethical principles that govern the actions of an individual or group, social responsibility, ethically, what is right and what is wrong.

Types of Management Ethics 


Archie B. Carroll find out three types of management ethics and standards of conduct. Which is given below,

Immoral Management Ethics 


Immoral management means the actions and practices followed by managers is lack of ethical practices. Managers want to get the maximum benefit and profit, even if it is at the cost of legal standards or is a concern for employees.

Moral Management Ethics 


According to moral management ethics, managers aim to earn maximum profit within the limits of ethical values and principles. They follow and conform to professional and legal standards of conduct. Guiding Principles in Ethical Management Ethics "Is this action, decision, or behavior appropriate for us and all parties.?

Amoral Management Ethics 


This type of management ethics is between ethical and unethical management ethics. Managers respond to personal and legal ethics only when they are required to do so, Otherwise there is a lack of moral understanding and awareness. There are two types of amoral management ethics intentional and unintentionally. In Intentional Managers intentionally avoid ethical practices in business decisions because they feel that ethics should be followed in non-business activities. and in unintentionally Managers do not deliberately avoid ethical practices but make decisions spontaneously Whose moral implications are ignored.

Approaches to Management Ethics


There are three approaches to management ethics.
Utilitarian approach,
Moral rights approach,
Social justice approach,

Utilitarian Approach


In utilitarian approach, managers analyze the effects of decisions on the people, affected by these decisions taken by the managers. Action is the focus of this approach rather than the motive behind the action. Positive and negative outcomes are weighed and managerial actions are justified, if positive effects outweigh negative effects. Analyzing pollution standards and the impact of pollution on society is a management ethics, code under a utilitarian approach.

Moral Rights Approach


In moral Rights approach, managers follow an ethical code that takes care of the fundamental and moral rights of a man. Such as, Right to speech, right to life and security, right to express feelings, etc. In the context of business organizations, managers disclose information in relevant annual reports that are necessary for the welfare of the people concerned. The nature,amount of information, timing and validity of the information is taken into account while giving information in the annual report.

Social Justice Approach


According to social justice approach, managers' actions are fair, impartial and equal for all individuals and groups. Employees are not treated on the basis of race, religion, race or gender, although a distinction based on skills abilities or production is appropriate. For example, all employees, men or women with similar skills, should be treated equally, but it is appropriate to treat employees with less production and less skills.

Flexible Systems Management Study Notes

Flexible Systems Management


Flexible Systems Management Development


All disciplines which are available in the world, including management. For the development of any science,  technology, business, management discipline, uses the previous available research knowledge as background, The trend of integration in different systems is emerging very rapidly, in the field of both system methodology and decision making in the field of support systems and artificial intelligence. Flexible Systems Management, will serve as a research method for management in the developments of new paradigm, trends and flexibility. Flexibility in system management means the ability to deal with slightly or the variation in the process sequence. Flexibility is used as a characteristic of a wide variety of systems. In the field of engineering systems design, it refers to a system designs that can adapt external changes when external changes occur. Flexibility is defined differently in many areas such as engineering, architecture, biology, economics, and more. Engineering can define flexibility in terms of design as the ability of a system to respond to potential internal or external changes that affect its value, in a timely and cost-effective manner. Thus, flexibility for a system is to respond uncertainty in order to maintain or enhance its value distribution. Uncertainty is the main key element in the definition of flexibility. Uncertainty is responsible for create both risk and opportunity in a system, existence of uncertainty that flexibility becomes valuable. John Atkinson's Flexible-Firm Model) is a managerial and organizational technique used to optimize the allocation of human resources according to market volatility and workforce flexibility. It defines two distinct groups of workers, the core and peripheral groups, which are organized within the company based on three types of flexibility: functional, financial and numerical. There are different types of flexibility which are given below.

Machine flexibility


Machine flexibility is the ability of a given machine to produce a wide range of production operations and different products design and styles. The greater the range of operation process and part styles of the machine, the greater the flexibility of that machine. The various factors on which a machine's flexibility depends are the setup or turnaround time, various programs can be downloaded to machines, the equipment storage capacity of machines, and the efficiency of the machines.

Production flexibility


Production flexibility is the range of producing products that can be built on the system. The range of products styles that can be produced by a manufacturing system at reasonable cost and time is determined by the process evolved into production. Production flexibility depends on many factors including the machine flexibility, range of machine in the system.

Mix flexibility


Mix flexibility is the process of changing the product mix while maintaining the same total production volume, which produces the same parts only in different ratio. This is called process flexibility. Mix flexibility is used, for provides protection from market volatility by changing product mix by the use of shared resources. However, higher mixing variations are required for greater numbers of equipment, fixtures, and other resources. Depending on factors such as composite ductility, uniformity of parts in the mixture, machine flexibility, and relative work material time of the produced parts.

Product Flexibility


Product Flexibility. is an ability to change new requirements of products economically and rapidly according to market requirements. The change over time is required for designing, planning, tooling, and fixturing of new products in the manufacturing line-up. Product Flexibility depends upon new part design with the existing part family. Off-line part program preparation and machine flexibility

Routing Flexibility


Routing Flexibility is defined as the ability to produce parts at an alternative workstation in case of equipment breakdown, equipment failure and other disruption at a particular station. This helps to increase output in the presence of external changes such as product mix, engineering changes, or new product introductions. Factors that determine routing flexibility include uniformity of parts in the mix, uniformity of workstations, and general tooling.

Volume flexibility


Volume flexibility is the ability of the system, to vary production volumes of different products to accommodate changes in demand while remaining attractive. It can also be called capacity flexibility. Factors affecting volume flexibility are the level of manual labor performance output, the amount invested in capital equipment,

Extension flexibility


Extension flexibility is the process by which the system can be expanded to increase the total production volume. Expansion flexibility depends on many factors including the cost of adding new workstations and trained workers, expansion of the layout, type of part handling system used.

Flexible Systems Management Advantages 


Reduced Manufacturing Costs Per Unit,
Lower Production Cost,
Higher Labor Productivity,
Greater Machine Efficiency,
Better Quality,
Increased System Reliability,
Better Efficiency Increase Production Rate.

Flexible Systems Management Disadvantages 


Initial set-up cost is high,
adequate pre-planning skilled labor required,
complex system maintenance.

Managing in a Global Environment Management Study Notes

Managing Global Environment Management


Managing Global Environment Management Study 


The analysis of the company on the basis of global environment is called global environmental analysis. This analysis also includes various other analysis such as, industry analysis, market analysis, analysis of companies, customers and competitors. There are two types of analysis in a company, macro level and micro level analysis. Except for global environmental analysis, all other analysis are the microscopic level analysis. However, global environmental analysis is company's macro environment analysis. Many environmental factors, affect the companies decisions, opportunities and risks for the company's business. The company follow different tools for analyzing the global environment.
These tools are called PESTLE analysis. Managing in Global Environment, meaning is managing a business or firm globally. Managers deal both global and  home country issues in foreign work facilities globally. global environment economy creates both opportunities and threats for managers. Every organization is affected and becoming more diverse and complex for  managing in a global environment.

PESTLE Analysis


PESTLE analysis is a tool for analyzing the company's external environment PEST refers to political, economic, social and technological factors. Two further factors, legal and environmental, are defined within the PESTLE analysis. these environmental factors are interdependent and they change over the years consequently, when one factor changes it affects the others as well. These environmental factors should remain in equality for every company. There are Various environmental factors, which are covered below.

Political And Legal Factors


Political and legal factors are considered here as a single entity. They refer to Existing regulatory or legal frameworks, which regulated on regions, nations or international grounds. For example let's deal with issues related to the labor market. Which falls under the category of economic issues. According to the degree of assistance, a country may be more or less attractive to a company, In relation to the labor law of a country. The company location can greatly influence decisions. If Dismissal protection is very good in a country, a company choose a country with a more flexible hire-and-fire-system and the stability of a political system in that country. Political stability is a most important aspect for most of the companies. a social market economy with rights for co-determination, regulations for patents, the company's investment and environment protection are main characteristics for a company, for which the political stability is very important in which country the company has established.

Economical Factors 


Affordable economical factors have a direct impact on supplier and consumer markets for national or international economic development. economic factors that play a big role in GDP, inflation rate, interest change rate, employment or money market situation. These economical factors affect demand, intensity of competition, cost pressures and willingness to invest. For example, if a country's gross domestic product is lower, then that country demand will be lower, compair to that countries which GDP is higher.

Social Factors


Social factors is very important for dealing with social issues such as social values, ideas, opinions, and the culture of market participants. Market partners can be employees, customers or suppliers. Through their contact with the company, they influence company by their opinions. The company needs to follow the changes in the value, according to the market partner and adapt their strategies. Nowadays, a change of values related to environmental protection is going on.

Technological environmental factors


Technological environmental factors are a very important factors for industrial companies, which are undergoing day to day very fast technological change. The increasing and very fast technological changes in industrial work, such as microelectronics or robotics, shows the very high potential risk for the company. Particularly for manufacturing production companies, that are affected by rapid growth in Technological environmental factors.

Environmental Factors


Finally now days environmental factors are becoming more and more important. These factors form the basis of natural resources and human life. Among them, availability of raw materials and energy is the main concern. As the availability of fossil fuels such as oil or coal are decreasing over the decades, availability of those fuels becomes quite risky. Furthermore, to show an ecological responsibility, companies must use less raw materials and should develop new technology to prevent increasing pollution, environmentally friendly management gets more and more, environmentally friendly products or technologies to take the competitive advantage.

Methods For Global Environmental Analysis


According to six presented factors of PESTLE analysis, Segmentation is the starting point of global environmental analysis. The analysis can be done with the help of a checklist that evaluates each criteria of a section. In general, each section needs to work systematically to identify changes, so that the factors and its effects can be properly interpreted. After segmentation, the analysis consists of four steps these are, 
Environmental Scanning,
Environmental Monitoring,
Environmental Forecasting,
Environmental Assessment,

Environmental Scanning 


The first phase is called environmental scanning. Through environmental scanning, every section is analyzed to find trend indicators. after examining the section, indicators of its development are defined. According to Fahey and Narayanan, scanning reveals real or imminent change because it clearly focuses on that areas, which may have previously neglected by the organization. Scanning is also used to detect weak signals in the environment before they become entangled in a recognizable pattern that can affect the organization's competitive environment. Content such as television, newspapers and magazines may be included, This method of scanning is called media-scanning. Product-scanning involves the scanning of products that announce consumer behavior to re-emerge. The search for global trends on the Internet can be defined as online-scanning. Francis Joseph Aguilar in 1967s distinguishes between indirect viewing, conditioned viewing, informal search, and formal search. 'Indirect viewing' means reading a variety of publications for a specific purpose without the possible exception of exploration. This mode is the most cost effective, but also provides the most benefits. There are lots of diverse sources and information, which means that the potential data are unlimited. The data are imprecise and unclear, and there are no guidelines that determine where the search should be focused. By applying 'conditioned view', the viewer pays attention to particular types of data and assesses their importance to the organization. The field of information is more or less clearly identified. informal search can be actively defined to obtain specific information in a relatively unstructured way. The opposite of informal search is called 'formal search'. This active mode of scanning includes methods of obtaining information for specific purposes. 

Environmental Monitoring 


Environmental monitoring is a 'process of repeating for one or more elements or indicators of the environment, according to a pre-determined schedule in space and time, for defined purposes using comparable methodologies for environmental monitoring and data collection. data about environmental development are recorded, followed, evoluted and interpreted, For historical development changes that are important to the company.

Environmental Forecasting


Forecasting of environmental trends is necessary to get a picture of the future. This is done by adequate methods, such as strategic foresight or scenario analysis. The following are several other methods of forecasting, such as guessing, rule of thumb, expert judgment, extrapolation, leading indicators, surveys, time-series models and econometric systems. The 'guessing' and related methods depend entirely on luck. generally this is not a useful method. Furthermore, it is almost impossible to evaluate the uncertainty of an estimate in advance. Valid expert judgment lacks validation as being the only component of the forecast. It is difficult to guess which 'oracle' is successful. 'Extrapolation' is effective when it occurs. Forecasts are most effective when changes are predicted in trend. 'Forecasting based on leading indicators' requires a stable relationship between the variables that lead. Indicators can give misleading information if the reasons for leads are not clear. 'Surveys' of businesses can give information about the future. They rely on planning that should be realized. Changes in business lead to changes in planning. 'Time-series models' are popular forecasting methods. They describe historical patterns of data and they focus on measurable uncertainty. The econometric system of analyzes is the main tool of economic forecasting. They consist of equations that attempt to "model" the behavior of economic groups such as consumers, producers, workers, investors, driven by historical experience. 

Environmental Assessment


The results of the last three stages scanning, monitoring, forecasting discovered environmental trends, that are reviewed to estimate their probability to evaluate whether they represent a chance or a risk to the company. opportunities or risks is also important for the company.  a response strategy needs to be defined for the risks or opportunities that occur. This is done with the help of the points-effect-matrix, which is an adequate tool for evaluating and prioritizing trends. According to their classification, they display Factors with a high incidence probability and a high, significant impact on the company. High priority, rapid response is needed to avoid risks and to benefit from opportunities. Environmental assessment represents the final stage of global environmental analysis.

Innovation Management Study Notes

Innovation, Management, Study


Innovation Management Complete Study 


Innovation management is the process and concepts of innovation. Which characteristics describe innovative models of innovation process, dimensions of creating innovations capability potential to succesfully create innovations outcome.
Innovation management is the process of combination of innovation and change management. It includes product, business process, marketing and organizational innovation. Innovation management is the subject of the ISO 56000 series, developed by ISO TC 279. Innovation Management is based on the ideas of Austrian economist Joseph Schumpeter, who Identified in 1930s, an important factor in economic development. in his book "Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy" first time fully developed the concept of creative destruction. Innovation management provide opportunity to develop new ideas, processes or products in industry. Creativity is the basis of innovation management, to change in services or business process, Innovative ideas are the result of two consecutive stages, imitation and invention. innovation management tools, trigger and deploy the creative capabilities of the work force. Common innovation management tools are brainstorming, prototyping, product life cycle management, facilitation, TRIZ, phase-gate models, project management, product line planning, and portfolio management. The goal of innovation management is to create a suitable encouraging innovation environment within organization. Innovation management allows an organization, to create external or internal opportunities, for creativity to introduce new ideas, processes, or products.

Managing Complex Innovation


Innovation is a technological change that improves previous process and practices, To lead or sustain innovations. Innovation managers need to focus too much on innovation networks, to deeper understanding of the complexity of innovation. Collaboration with a network of organizations is an important source of innovation, and take comparative advantage, and operating in a coordinated manner. When a new technology undergoes a major transformation and achieves a successful innovation, Then it becomes more useful and great learning experience, not only for the parent industry but also for other industries. Large innovations are carried out by combination of implication and explicit knowledge, as well as inter-interdisciplinary networking between technical areas. Networking is very important for innovation, but network integration is the key to success for complex innovation. there are several ways to encourage organizational networking and cross-functional innovations, such as Socioeconomic zones, technology corridors, free trade agreements and technology groups.

Innovation Management Tools


Antonio Hidalgo and Jose Elbor proposed use of innovation management tools. The study at European level found 10 typologies for knowledge-driven innovation management tools. These typologies have 32 features that classify innovation management tools. The benefit of using typology is the easy integration of new methods, and the availability of a wider scope of tools.
There are following innovation management typologies and tools.

Knowledge Management Tools,

Knowledge Audit, Knowledge Mapping, Document Management, Intellectual Property Rights Management.

Market Intelligence Tools, 

Technology Watch, Search, Patent Analysis, Business Intelligence, CRM, Geo-Marketing.

Cooperative & Networking Tools,

Groupware, Team Building, Supply Chain Management, industrial clustering, agile

Human Resource Management Techniques, 

telecommunications, corporate The approach of intranet, online recruitment, e-learning, capability management, flat organization.

Interface Management Tools,

research and development, marketing interface management, brainstorming, concurrent engineering.

Creative Development Techniques,

lateral views, TRIZ, SCAMPER method, mind mapping.

Process Improvement Techniques,

benchmarking, Workflow, Business Process Re-engineering, Just-in-Time.

Innovation Project Management Techniques,

Project management, project evaluation, project portfolio management.

Design and Product Development Management Tools,

computer-aided design, rapid prototyping, usability standpoint, quality function deployment, value analysis.

Business Creation Tools, 

business simulations, business planning, to research the market spin-off

Innovation Management Economic Theory


Management of innovation economic theory has been studied by Philippe Aghion and Jean Tirole. the theory is based on the Grossman Hart Moore property rights approach to the theory of the firm. this theory tells about, optimal allocation of property rights, that helps reduce the hold-up problem.

Entrepreneurship Management Study Notes

Entrepreneurship Management Study


Entrepreneurship Management Study


Entrepreneurship is the terms, which is used for designing, launching and running a new business, initially who create a small business, are called entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship is the process  to translate inventions or technologies into products or services, to develop, organize and manage a business venture, with high risks involved in launching a start-up, to make profit. The Entrepreneurship Management is the most important part of management and business, especially for enthusiastic people. management entrepreneurship and its importance meaning, Nature, Scope, Functions depend upon market surveys and research. Therefore entrepreneurship Management becomes an essential part of  of management curriculum studies.

Elements Of Entrepreneurship


The French economist Jean-Baptiste in the early 19th century given a broad definition of entrepreneurship, according to him entrepreneurship "transfers lower economic resources to higher productivity and higher yields products or resources". Entrepreneurship largely ignored theoretically, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, In the 20th century the work of economists Joseph Schumpeter in the 1930s, and other Austrian economists such as Karl Menger, Ludwig von Miesz and Friedrich von Hayek. give more emphasis on the entrepreneurship, According to Schumpeter, Entrepreneurship employment is called, the thunderstorm of creative destruction, creating new products, or business models, replace whole or partially inferior products or business in markets. creative destruction is largely responsible for the mobility of industries and economic growth.

There are following entrepreneurial's exploitation opportunities, which include,

developing a business plan,
hiring human resources,
providing financial and material resources, providing leadership,
being responsible for both the success or failure of the enterprise,
avoiding risk.

Entrepreneurship types that can operate within an ecosystem includes,
government programs and services that promote entrepreneurship and support entrepreneurs, and start-ups non-governmental organizations such as small business associations and organizations, that support entrepreneurs.
governments should increase support for small business, by making friendly laws and regulations. Entrepreneurship education and training programs provided by schools, colleges, and universities, financing Loans, venture capital financing, private angel investment and government grants.

Types of Entrepreneurs


There are following types of entrepreneurs.
Ethnic,
Institutional,
Cultural,
Feminist,
Social,
Nascent,
Project Based,
Millennial,

Ethnic


In the United States and Europe, self-employed business owners who belong to racial or ethnic minority groups, was ethnic entrepreneurship. academic research find  the experiences and strategies of ethnic entrepreneurs, as they attempt to integrate economically, American or European mainstream society. in the 19th and early 20th centuries, Chinese and Japanese small business owners, restaurants, farmers, shop owners on the West Coast are ethnic entrepreneurship. In the 2010s, ethnic entrepreneurship has been studied in the case of Cuban business owners in Miami, China, Indian motel owners in the United States, and Chinese business owners in Chinatown in the United States. entrepreneurship provides these groups many opportunities for economic advancement, self-employment, and business ownership in the United States.

Institutional


American born British economist Edith Penrose has described the modern organizations, and collective nature of entrepreneurship. to combine human resources to capture better opportunities and create business opportunities. Sociologist Paul DiMaggio has expanded this view to say that, "when organized artists are born with sufficient resources institutional entrepreneur, they give high importance to opportunity to realize the interests that they have". The notion has been widely applied.

Cultural


Christopher Rea and Nicolai Wolland explain cultural entrepreneurship, according to them, it is the practices of individual and collective agency, characterized by the cultural businesses and cultural production", which refers to creative  industry.

Feminist 


Who applies feminist values and attitudes, in entrepreneurship, is called feminist entrepreneur, their goal is to improving the quality of life and well-being of girls and women. Many are doing this by creating enterprises, for women, by women. Feminist entrepreneurs are motivated for enter into commercial markets, with a desire for wealth and social change, on the ethics of cooperation, and mutual respect.

Social 


Social entrepreneurship companies and entrepreneurs deal with, fund and implement of solutions to social, cultural or environmental issues. This concept can be applied to different organizations with different shapes, objectives and beliefs. social entrepreneurs are nonprofitable or benefit to produce a positive change to society". Social entrepreneurship generally works on broader social, cultural and environmental issues. such as poverty alleviation, health care and community development. Sometimes, profit making social enterprises can be established, to support for the social or cultural goals of the organization, For example, an organization that aims to provide housing and employment to the homeless, they can operate a restaurant to raise funds, and to provide employment for the homeless.

Nascent 


A newborn entrepreneur or nascent entrepreneur can be seen as pursuing an opportunity, possibility to introducing new services or products, for serving new markets or developing more efficient products for making profit. Its precedence and value cannot be pre-confirmed, but nascent entrepreneur undertakes actions towards setting up an enterprise, Finally these actions can lead to a path, that makes the nascent entrepreneur more attractive viable, to emerge business. over time, the nascent enterprise may move toward closure or successfully emerge an operating entity. behavior-based classification is The difference between newcomers, serial and portfolio entrepreneurs. newborn entrepreneurs often seek and purchase facilities and equipment, receiving financial support, forming legal institutions, organizing teams, and dedicate all your time and energy to your business.

Project Based 


Project entrepreneurs are temporary organizations. they are repeatedly engaged in assemblies or building the organizations, with limited lifetimes till the creation of a singular project or goal, and dissolve rapidly upon project completion. Project Based Industries are widespread include, sound recording, film production, software development, television production, new media and production. To make project-based entrepreneurs must reestablish these temporary ventures, and modify them to suit the needs of new project opportunities. A project entrepreneur who used a certain approach and team for a project, face two important challenges, which are the creation of a new venture, and finding the right team to take advantage. Solving the first challenge requires the extensive information needed to seize new investment opportunities. Solving the second challenge requires, to make collaborative team that has to fit in to reduce the risk and best performance.

Millennial 


The term "millennial entrepreneur" refers to a business owner, who were born in the 1980s and early 1990s called Y generation. these business owners are well equipped with new technology like digital technology, mass media, and knowledge of new business models with strong hold on his business. There are many strong businesses for centuries, such as Mark Zuckerberg, who created Facebook. in Millennial business, who start latter is higher. The reason for this is because they grew up in a different generation and outlook, than their elders. Some barriers to entry for Millennial entrepreneurs are the challenges of the economy, loans from Bank, and governments regulatory compliance.

Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurial Behaviors


Innovation, a designer of new ideas business processes, management skills, strong team building capabilities and leadership qualities are very essential for a successful entrepreneurs. There are following entrepreneurial behaviors should be in a good entrepreneurs.

Uncertainty Perception And Risk Taking


Theorists Frank Knight and Peter Drucker defined entrepreneurship is a risk taking process. The entrepreneur take risk for his new idea, and willing to put his career and financial security in line, and spend time as well as capital on an uncertain venture.

Coachability And Advice Taking


The advice from early investors and other partners is an important factor for entrepreneurial success. This research also suggests that older and older founding teams, perhaps with greater subject expertise, are less restrained than younger and younger founding teams.

Strategies


There are following Strategies that entrepreneurs use.
Innovation of new products, services, or processes,
Continuous process improvement (CPI),
Exploring new business models using technology,
Using business intelligence to use cost-effective strategic,
Future Development of products and services,
Customized talent management

Designing Individual Opportunity Nexus


According to Shane and Venkataraman, entrepreneurship includes both entrepreneurial individuals, and entrepreneurial opportunities. There is a nexus between individuals and opportunities, Reynolds et al, argue that individuals are motivated to engage in entrepreneurial endeavors, by need or opportunity, individual pursues entrepreneurship primarily because of commercial opportunities, that meet their need for achievement of high economic growth.

Opportunity Perception And Biases


According to Joseph Schumpeter, Entrepreneurs characteristics are, to introduce new technologies, products, services, increase efficiency and productivity, or generate new products or services. The entrepreneur has the ability to see the needs of the market, and find out what others are thinking, mass media plays an important role in shaping ideas and demand.

Communication


Entrepreneurs should have effective communication within their firm, external partners, and investors to start and develop an enterprise. Entrepreneurs should be charismatic leaders, so that they can effectively communicate a vision for their team, to build a strong team. According to Bom et al. and Cause and Pozner, vision should be communicated to team or others, through written statements and in-person communication. leaders communication is very important, to convince potential investors, shareholders, partners, and employees about the potential of an enterprise. Nonverbal elements in speech such as tone of voice, appearance, eyes contac, body language, gestures of the hand, and state of emotion are also important communication tools.  entrepreneurs effective communication should be able, to reduce the losses, accelerate the benefits of their new product or service, and persuade others to support their venture.

World's Top Website Name You Have To Know

U.S. Top Websites In The United States

World's Top Website Name


Here is a sampling of the most popular websites in the United States. the most popular website by a margin of nearly 8 billion monthly views most popular websites in the United States. See the top most popular websites in United States by ranking, traffic and engagement stats, top 100 most visited websites by search traffic as Ahrefs most popular websites in the United States and Worldwide. We pulled out the top 100 most visited websites in the US. World Top 500 Most Popular Visited Websites List for All Categories in The United States.

U.S. Top 500 Most Popular Websites In United States

Google.com



Youtube.com



Facebook.com



businesswire.com


boston.com


thoughtco.com


twitter.com


instagram.com


reddit.com


bing.com


craigslist.org


xhamster.com


netflix.com


zillow.com


walmart.com


ampproject.org


pinterest.com


chase.com


linkedin.com


foxnews.com


office.com


paypal.com


chaturbate.com


indeed.com


imdb.com


duckduckgo.com


imgur.com


fandom.com


espn.com


accuweather.com


yelp.com


mlb.com


wellsfargo.com


xfinity.com


drudgereport.com


bankofamerica.com


dailymail.co.uk


twitch.tv


finance.yahoo.com


weather.com


Thehill.com


NJ.com


Masslive.com


Wsj.com


Usatoday.com


Nytimes.com


ibtimes.com


arstechnica.com


utexas.edu


ask.fm


sakura.ne.jp


theglobeandmail.com


sina.com.cn


allrecipes.com


dropboxusercontent.com


seesaa.net


eff.org


storage.canalblog.com


mixcloud.com


calendar.google.com


ca.gov


etsy.com


mlb.com


ieee.org


dan.com


behance.net


seattletimes.com


imgur.com


dictionary.com


connect.over-blog.com


symantec.com


web.fc.com


excite.co.jp


standard.co.uk


www.livejournal.com


slate.com


oup.com


flickr.com


mail.yahoo.com


wattpad.com


interia.pl


variety.com


home.pl


prezi.com


tmz.com


orange.fr


usa.gov


dribbble.com


vkontakte.ru


dreniq.com


prestashop.com


wiley.com


joomla.org


trustpilot.com


nicovideo.jp


biglobe.ne.jp


venturebeat.com


mercurynews.com


wiktionary.org


alexa.com


inc.com


bp.blogger.com


archives.gov


livescience.com


nyu.edu


disney.go.com


daum.net


apachefriends.org


launchpad.net


lonelyplanet.com


weather.com


newyorker.com


kinja.com


asahi.com


geocities.jp


discovery.com


thestar.com


sfgate.com


www.baidu.com


teamviewer.com


answers.yahoo.com


history.com


usgs.gov


indiegogo.com


people.com


one.com


debian.org


biblegateway.com


eonline.com


amazon.ca


foodnetwork.com


stores.jp


uspto.gov


steamcommunity.com


thedailybeast.com


detik.com


xing.com


t-online.de


corriere.it


ebay.co.uk


fifa.com


fda.gov


arxiv.org


ehow.com


researchgate.net


nifty.com


apple.com


www.google.com


microsoft.com


youtube.com


play.google.com


support.google.com


www.blogger.com


docs.google.com


accounts.google.com


mozilla.org


wordpress.org


sites.google.com


en.wikipedia.org


adobe.com


plus.google.com


youtu.be


drive.google.com


vimeo.com


creativecommons.org


github.com


linkedin.com


googleusercontent.com


maps.google.com


uol.com.br


bp.blogspot.com


europa.eu


vk.com


live.com


dailymotion.com


cloudflare.com


bbc.co.uk


istockphoto.com


amazon.com


hugedomains.com


msn.com


amazon.co.jp


myspace.com


nih.gov


opera.com


reuters.com


news.google.com


facebook.com


google.co.uk


nytimes.com


paypal.com


forbes.com


google.co.jp


mail.ru


medium.com


photos.google.com


gstatic.com


dropbox.com


imdb.com


wikimedia.org


mediafire.com


cnet.com


feedburner.com


google.es


google.de


mail.google.com


globo.com


pt.wikipedia.org


line.me


fr.wikipedia.org


www.yahoo.com


slideshare.net


bbc.com


cnn.com


developers.google.com


scribd.com


usatoday.com


google.fr


google.com.br


theguardian.com


networkadvertising.org


es.wikipedia.org


whatsapp.com


w.org


fandom.com


google.it


mega.nz


lefigaro.fr


ted.com


apache.org


aol.com


yelp.com


engadget.com


issuu.com


fb.com


abril.com.br


playstation.com


books.google.com


draft.blogger.com


techcrunch.com


ebay.com


businessinsider.com


terra.com.br


android.com


un.org


dailymail.co.uk


wired.com


bing.com


telegram.me


disqus.com


ft.com


oracle.com


amazon.co.uk


rakuten.co.jp


de.wikipedia.org


youronlinechoices.com


washingtonpost.com


stanford.edu


groups.google.com


tools.google.com


t.me


foxnews.com


ipv.google.com


files.wordpress.com


buydomains.com


news.yahoo.com


google.ru


myaccount.google.com


pinterest.com


code.google.com


tinyurl.com


cdc.gov


telegraph.co.uk


wikia.com


hatena.ne.jp


aliexpress.com


bit.ly


about.com


www.gov.uk


cpanel.net


surveymonkey.com


steampowered.com


nypost.com


www.wix.com


amazon.de


goodreads.com


harvard.edu


samsung.com


get.google.com


elpais.com


ok.ru


translate.google.com


bloomberg.com


booking.com


cbsnews.com


gnu.org


id.wikipedia.org


marketingplatform.google.com


nasa.gov


aboutads.info


policies.google.com


rt.com


hp.com


archive.org


goo.gl


huffingtonpost.com


wsj.com


change.org


picasaweb.google.com


marketwatch.com


huffpost.com


spotify.com


cbc.ca


xbox.com


dell.com


windowsphone.com


intel.com


sedo.com


a.net


sapo.pt


google.co.in


iubenda.com


vice.com


sciencedaily.com


www.wikipedia.org


target.com


bp.blogger.com


wpfr.net


indiatimes.com


webmd.com


ovh.co.uk


wa.me


espn.go.com


stuff.co.nz


noaa.gov


adssettings.google.com


undeveloped.com


fortune.com


channel.com


theatlantic.com


mozilla.com


worldbank.org


foursquare.com


rottentomatoes.com


thesun.co.uk


zdnet.com


xinhuanet.com


nationalgeographic.com


weibo.com


asus.com


gizmodo.com


quora.com


academia.edu


addtoany.com


spiegel.de


dw.com


lemonde.fr


ameblo.jp


photobucket.com


parallels.com


twitch.tv


espn.com


lycos.com


yandex.ru


rambler.ru


doubleclick.net


imageshack.us


qq.com


ikea.com


ea.com


yale.edu


cambridge.org


thetimes.co.uk


allaboutcookies.org


wikihow.com


gmail.com


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eventbrite.com


naver.com


viglink.com


metro.co.uk


shopify.com


disney.com


pixabay.com


cornell.edu


ox.ac.uk


welt.de


gofundme.com


cpanel.com


skype.com


independent.co.uk


ytimg.com


abc.es


vox.com


gooyaabitemplates.com


shared.com


ggpht.com


privacyshield.gov


t.co


shutterstock.com


mit.edu


howstuffworks.com


unesco.org


pl.wikipedia.org


bund.de


twitter.com


sciencedirect.com


chicagotribune.com


ig.com.br


sky.com


psychologytoday.com


goo.ne.jp


webhost.com


ucoz.ru


instagram.com


about.me


alibaba.com


umich.edu


smh.com.au


usnews.com


abcnews.go.com


picasa.google.com


list-manage.com


fastcompany.com


rapidshare.com


it.wikipedia.org


entrepreneur.com


themeforest.net


e-recht.de


netflix.com


php.net


loc.gov


berkeley.edu


news.com.au


urbandictionary.com


www.weebly.com


finance.yahoo.com


ovh.com


repubblica.it


blackberry.com


nokia.com


my.yahoo.com


google.pl


google.nl


elmundo.es


instructables.com


akamaihd.net


soundcloud.com


columbia.edu


kickstarter.com


sciencemag.org


latimes.com


pbs.org


plesk.com


bitly.com


whitehouse.gov


npr.org


netvibes.com


hollywoodreporter.com


who.int


economist.com


ovh.net


newsweek.com


clickbank.net


search.google.com


mirror.co.uk


nydailynews.com


ibm.com


mysql.com


abc.net.au


ru.wikipedia.org


rtve.es


time.com


hm.com


ign.com


walmart.com


mashable.com


addthis.com


princeton.edu


nature.com


cnbc.com


nvidia.com


godaddy.com


bp.blogger.com


gravatar.com


www.over-blog.com


sendspace.com


nginx.org


guardian.co.uk


yadi.sk


ria.ru


bandcamp.com


yahoo.co.jp


bp.blogger.com


tripadvisor.com


theverge.com


britannica.com


m.wikipedia.org


depositfiles.com


buzzfeed.com


bt.com


wp.com


nhk.or.jp


stackoverflow.com


amazon.fr


search.yahoo.com


amazon.es


office.com


googleblog.com


photos.blogger.com


naver.jp


secureserver.net


ietf.org


cisco.com


google.ca


so-net.ne.jp


box.com


express.co.uk


ja.wikipedia.org


springer.com


nbcnews.com


e-monsite.com


softonic.com


ndtv.com


cocolog-nifty.com


newscientist.com


nginx.com


greenpeace.org


pcmag.com


oreilly.com


namecheap.com


histats.com


narod.ru


cmu.edu


csmonitor.com


chinadaily.com.cn


cbslocal.com


soratemplates.com


storify.com


ftc.gov


zendesk.com


marriott.com


pastebin.com


https://iassyllabusgs.blogspot.com


www.usaeservice.com



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