Showing posts with label History Geography General Study. Show all posts
Showing posts with label History Geography General Study. Show all posts

World All Countries Capitals Cities List

World Countries Capital City Name List

World's Countries Capitals Cities List


Countries         Capitals


Afghanistan Capital Kabul. 

Albania Capital Tirana (Tirane). 

Algeria Capital Algiers. 

Andorra Capital Andorra la Vella. 

Angola Capital Luanda. 

Antigua and Barbuda Capital Saint John's. 

Argentina Capital Buenos Aires. 

Armenia Capital Yerevan. 

Australia Capital Canberra. 

Austria Capital Vienna. 

Azerbaijan Capital Baku. 

Bahamas Capital Nassau. 

Bahrain Capital Manama. 

Bangladesh Capital Dhaka. 

Barbados Capital Bridgetown. 

Belarus Capital Minsk. 

Belgium Capital Brussels. 

Belize Capital Belmopan. 

Benin Capital Porto Novo. 

Bhutan Capital Thimphu. 

Bolivia Capital La Paz (administrative), Sucre (official). 

Bosnia and Herzegovina Capital Sarajevo. 

Botswana Capital Gaborone. 

Brazil Capital Brasilia. 

Brunei Capital Bandar Seri Begawan. 

Bulgaria Capital Sofia. 

Burkina Faso Capital Ouagadougou. 

Burundi Capital Gitega. 

Cambodia Capital Phnom Penh. 

Cameroon Capital Yaounde. 

Canada Capital Ottawa. 

Cape Verde Capital Praia. 

Central African Republic Capital Bangui. 

Chad Capital N'Djamena. 

Chile Capital Santiago. 

China Capital Beijing. 

Colombia Capital Bogota. 

Comoros Capital Moroni. 

Congo, Democratic Republic of the Capital Kinshasa. 

Congo, Republic of the Capital Brazzaville. 

Costa Rica Capital San Jose. 

Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Capital Yamoussoukro. 

Croatia Capital Zagreb. 

Cuba Capital Havana. 

Cyprus Capital Nicosia. 

Czech Republic (Czechia) Capital Prague. 

Denmark Capital Copenhagen. 

Djibouti Capital Djibouti. 

Dominica Capital Roseau. 

Dominican Republic Capital Santo Domingo. 

East Timor Capital Dili. 

Ecuador Capital Quito. 

Egypt Capital Cairo. 

El Salvador Capital San Salvador. 

England Capital London. 

Equatorial Guinea Capital Malabo. 

Eritrea Capital Asmara. 

Estonia Capital Tallinn. 

Eswatini (Swaziland) Capital Mbabana. 

Ethiopia Capital Addis Ababa. 

Federated States of Micronesia Capital Palikir. 

Fiji Capital Suva. 

Finland Capital Helsinki. 

France Capital Paris. 

Gabon Capital Libreville. 

Gambia Capital Banjul. 

Georgia Capital Tbilisi. 

Germany Capital Berlin. 

Ghana Capital Accra. 

Greece Capital Athens. 

Grenada Capital Saint George's. 

Guatemala Capital Guatemala City. 

Guinea Capital Conakry. 

Guinea-Bissau Capital Bissau. 

Guyana Capital Georgetown. 

Haiti Capital Port au Prince. 

Honduras Capital Tegucigalpa. 

Hungary Capital Budapest. 

Iceland Capital Reykjavik. 

India Capital New Delhi. 

Indonesia Capital Jakarta. 

Iran Capital Tehran. 

Iraq Capital Baghdad. 

Ireland Capital Dublin. 

Israel Capital Jerusalem (very limited international recognition). 

Italy Capital Rome. 

Jamaica Capital Kingston. 

Japan Capital Tokyo. 

Jordan Capital Amman. 

Kazakhstan Capital Nur-Sultan. 

Kenya Capital Nairobi. 

Kiribati Capital Tarawa Atoll. 

Kosovo Capital Pristina. 

Kuwait Capital Kuwait City. 

Kyrgyzstan Capital Bishkek. 

Laos Capital Vientiane. 

Latvia Capital Riga. 

Lebanon Capital Beirut. 

Lesotho Capital Maseru. 

Liberia Capital Monrovia. 

Libya Capital Tripoli. 

Liechtenstein Capital Vaduz. 

Lithuania Capital Vilnius. 

Luxembourg Capital Luxembourg. 

Madagascar Capital Antananarivo. 

Malawi Capital Lilongwe. 

Malaysia Capital Kuala Lumpur. 

Maldives Capital Male. 

Mali Capital Bamako. 

Malta Capital Valletta. 

Marshall Islands Capital Majuro. 

Mauritania Capital Nouakchott. 

Mauritius Capital Port Louis. 

Mexico Capital Mexico City. 

Moldova Capital Chisinau. 

Monaco Capital Monaco. 

Mongolia Capital Ulaanbaatar. 

Montenegro Capital Podgorica. 

Morocco Capital Rabat. 

Mozambique Capital Maputo. 

Myanmar (Burma) Capital Nay Pyi Taw. 

Namibia Capital Windhoek. 

Nauru Capital No official capital. 

Nepal Capital Kathmandu. 

Netherlands Capital Amsterdam. 

New Zealand Capital Wellington. 

Nicaragua Capital Managua. 

Niger Capital Niamey. 

Nigeria Capital Abuja. 

North Korea Capital Pyongyang. 

North Macedonia (Macedonia) Capital Skopje. 

Northern Ireland Capital Belfast. 

Norway Capital Oslo. 

Oman Capital Muscat. 

Pakistan Capital Islamabad. 

Palau Capital Melekeok. 

Panama Capital Panama City. 

Papua New Guinea Capital Port Moresby. 

Paraguay Capital Asuncion. 

Peru Capital Lima. 

Philippines Capital Manila. 

Poland Capital Warsaw. 

Portugal   Lisbon. 

Qatar Capital Doha. 

Romania Capital Bucharest. 

Russia Capital Moscow. 

Rwanda Capital Kigali. 

Saint Kitts and Nevis Capital Basseterre. 

Saint Lucia Capital Castries. 

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Capital Kingstown. 

Samoa Capital Apia. 

San Marino Capital San Marino. 

Sao Tome and Principe Capital Sao Tome. 

Saudi Arabia Capital Riyadh. 

Scotland Capital Edinburgh. 

Senegal Capital Dakar. 

Serbia Capital Belgrade. 

Seychelles Capital Victoria. 

Sierra Leone Capital Freetown. 

Singapore Capital Singapore. 

Slovakia Capital Bratislava. 

Slovenia Capital Ljubljana. 

Solomon Islands Capital Honiara. 

Somalia Capital Mogadishu. 

South Africa Capital Pretoria, Bloemfontein, Cape Town. 

South Korea Capital Seoul. 

South Sudan Capital Juba. 

Spain Capital Madrid. 

Sri Lanka Capital Colombo. 

Sudan Capital Khartoum. 

Suriname Capital Paramaribo. 

Sweden Capital Stockholm. 

Switzerland Capital Bern. 

Syria Capital Damascus. 

Taiwan Capital Taipei. 

Tajikistan Capital Dushanbe. 

Tanzania Capital Dodoma. 

Thailand Capital Bangkok. 

Togo Capital Lome. 

Tonga Capital Nuku'alofa. 

Trinidad and Tobago Capital Port of Spain. 

Tunisia Capital Tunis. 

Turkey Capital Ankara. 

Turkmenistan Capital Ashgabat. 

Tuvalu Capital Funafuti. 

Uganda Capital Kampala. 

Ukraine Capital Kiev. 

United Arab Emirates Capital Abu Dhabi. 

United Kingdom Capital London. 

United States Capital Washington D.C. 

Uruguay Capital Montevideo. 

Uzbekistan Capital Tashkent. 

Vanuatu Capital Port Vila. 

Vatican City Capital Vatican City. 

Venezuela Capital Caracas. 

Vietnam Capital Hanoi. 

Wales Capital Cardiff. 

Yemen Capital Sanaa. 

Zambia Capital Lusaka. 

Zimbabwe Capital Harare.

Smart Cities Mission In Eastern Uttar Pradesh

Smart Cities In USA

Smart Cities Mission Characteristics In Eastern UP


The Smart Cities Mission is designed for the development of economic growth and to improve the people's quality of life by enabling local area development by the modern advanced technology, that leads to Smart outcomes. with the help of smart technology the the under developed areas including slums, will be converted into better planned smart cities, which will improve the liveability of the whole City. in these smart city new greenfield areas will be developed in order to accommodate the growing population in urban areas. new application of smart technology solutions will enable cities to use better services, information data to improve infrastructure and comprehensive development. in this way the smart cities mission will improve quality of life, will create new employment and enhance incomes of the people, especially the poor and the disadvantaged. In eastern uttar pradesh under the smart cities mission Agra won the award for the micro skill development centre. The faster achievement of the physical and economic targets under the smart cities mission in eastern uttar pradesh Lucknow was selected in the first round. in the second round of the smart cities mission Kanpur, Agra and Varanasi selected and in the third round under the smart cities mission Prayagraj, Aligarh and Jhansi were selected, which will include following characteristics Social Aspects, Good Governance, Culture, Urban Environment, better Sanitation, Economy growth, Built clean environment, Clean Water, Urban Mobility and the new Sustainable Business model under the smart cities mission.

Uttar Pradesh Physical Region Bhabar And Terai

Uttar Pradesh Bhabar And Terai

Uttar Pradesh Physical Region


Physically Uttar Pradesh can be divided into three separate regions. first, the Himalayan foothills in the North, second Gangetic Plains in the central region and last the Vindhya Hills and the plateau in the South. the Himalayan foothills is called the Shivalik foothills. The Gangetic Plain comprises a flat topography, lakes, rivers, and ponds because of the presence of two mighty rivers Ganga and Yamuna. the soil in the Gangetic Plain is highly fertile alluvial soil. The Vindhya region is formed of hard rock Hills. which also have varying topography of plains, hills and valleys. in the Vindhya region  there is an area of plentiful water resources. 


Geographical Features of Bhabar and Terai


The Bhabar


Bhabar is a narrow, porous, northern part of the Indo-Gangetic plain. It is around 8-16 km wide running in east-west direction along the Shiwaliks foothills. the Rivers flowing in the Bhabar region, which are descending from the Himalayas region deposit their load along the foothills in the form of alluvial fans. when alluvial fans merged together they form the bhabar belt. porosity is the unique feature of the bhabar because of deposition of huge number of pebbles and rock debris across the alluvial fans. The Rivers streams disappear in the bhabar region because of porosity, so it is known as dry river area except in the rainy season. The Bhabar region is not suitable for agriculture and only big trees with large roots thrive in the bhabar region.


The Terai


The Terai is about15-30 km wide ill-drained, and thickly forested narrow region to the south of Bhabar, which is running parallel to it. dry rivers underground streams of the Bhabar belt re-emerge in the Terai belt. in the Terai region there is a lots of thickly forested which provides shelter to the wild life. Most of the Terai region receive high rainfall. Terai region is agricultural land which gives good crops of sugarcane, rice and wheat.

Population Increase Poverty Or Poverty Increase Population

Poverty Increase Population

Population Increase Poverty


Population increase trends and dynamics can increase poverty in any developing country. when population increase then less resources available to people due to which poverty increase. Poverty is influenced by population growth, age structure, and rural-urban distribution. these parameters have critical impact on a country’s development and raising living standards for the poor. Investments in reproductive health can improve a country’s productivity and development prospects. Access to reproductive health for poor people, like family planning, can affect population dynamics as well as reductions in infant and maternal mortality. which can break out of intergenerational cycles of poverty. The increase population major reasons are increase in birth rates decrease in death rates due to better medical facilities in the field of medicine. Immigration to better developed countries for better job opportunities, safeguarding from war, and natural calamities like hurricanes, earthquakes. India is a developing country, which have several economic and political challenges for population explosion, like poverty, better medical facilities, and immigration from the neighboring countries. increase population at an alarming rate are increasing poverty, unemployment, air and water pollution, shortage of food, health facilities and educational resources.


Poverty Increase Population


India faces cycle of population explosion due to poverty. the main reasons for population explosion in India is poverty. about more than 300 million people in India earn less than $1 everyday in which 130 million people are jobless. The people of India, who have to struggle earn money think that, more children mean more earning hands. so they give more children birth, due to poverty, such families are higher due to the lack of education. they produce more children because they think that not all of them would be able to survive, because they don't have better medical facilities. this is the main reason to increase population size of India. the cycle continues to increasing population that we see today. considering the above factors, in India the success of family planning programs are not much effective. we should give educating to women about the basics of family planning.

Women Organizations In Contemporary India

Women Organizations In Contemporary usa

Women Organizations In Contributions India


There are many factors, which are affecting women’s work participation in the country. there are lack of governments policy for women’s empower through education training and no easy resources such as land, credit and technology for women's organizations. in our country there is patriarchy due to which male is the main source of the family earn. This fact adversely affects women’s education & training. the employers also consider women workers as supplementary workers and give the low wage for women. new technology changes in the economy decline traditional rural industries. there is no assets such as land, house in women own name due to which access to credit for self employment opportunities is very hard for women. there are various home tasks for women, like child caring and cooking etc. due to which no additional time for women. Division of work based on the gender between men and women against women because of technological advancements. so women are the last to be hired and first to be fired. so there is need of women organizations in the whole country. Government programs to increase employment focused for women are seen as beneficiaries rather than active participants. many steps were taken by the government for women’s movement like Equal Remuneration Act, Minimum Wage Act, Maternity Benefit Act etc. to ensure equal opportunity for women in the society and at work. illiteracy is the major problem in women workforce, due to which 87% of women are employed in unorganized sector, where fear of losing jobs and lack of laws awareness to protect them. there are few women organizations are working to raise the voice of the women workers for improvement in their work place and working conditions which are,


Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) 


SEWA is a trade union organization. who is working for poor, self-employed women workers in the unorganized sector. most of them are illiterate don't know the labour laws. SEWA help them to obtain benefits like the workers of organized sector in the country. SEWA’s main goals are to organize women workers for full employment. 


Working Women’s Forum (WWF) 


This women organization forum is working for reduction poverty among the poor women. and also working for strengthening of economic, social and cultural status of poor working women, by providing micro-credit training, social mobilization and other interventions for poor women. 


Annapurna Mahila Mandal (AMM)


Annapurna Mahila Mandal women organization is working for the welfare of women and the girl child. It organizes various activities for women education, women's health, nutrition, mother and childcare, family planning, literacy on environmental sanitation. It works for the empowerment of women and make them able to take their own decisions and fight for security and their rights. This women organization also promotes individual and group leadership among the women.

India's Composite Culture

India Usa Composite Culture

India's Composite Culture Society


India is the country of high diverse rich cultural heritage, natural beauty, higher spiritual values of life, and it is known in the whole world for peace and values of life. The composite culture of India has various religions and cults, which are flourishing in the every part of country side by side. the composite culture is the soul of India.


Advantage of Composite Culture


From the early Vedic Age, we have got the social, religious and spiritual values, which have great influence on our social life. The age of Lord Rama and Lord Krishna thought us the doctrines of Karma and Truthfulness, which left deep influence on our culture beliefs. the Buddha's life teachings peace and ahimsa imparted new refinement to our glorious composite culture. the Great Nanak brought succor to the suffering of humanity. The Islamic Moghul emperors Akbar, introduced a new religion called Din-i-Ilahi, based on the principle of oneness of God. After Moghuls, the era of british rule in India was the dark period of Indian history. But during this period, We learnt the power of unity, patriotism and merits of a democratic polity. Indian culture is a composite culture, because here every one has freedom to profess, practise and propagate their religion. India has many races, castes, sub-castes, nationalities and communities, and one hundred and fifty dialects, and eighteen recognised regional languages,  but the heart of India is one. From Kashmir to Kanya Kumari and from Maharashtra to Nagaland, Hindi is recognised as the National Language of India. India has a rich cultural heritage in the fields of music, fine arts, dance, drama, theater and sculpture, beside that we have a bond of unity and brotherhood between people of difference faiths and creeds. the south temples and the caves of Khajuraho, Ajanta and Ellora are the examples of India’s proficiency in sculpture and architecture. Indian classical music and dances have worldwide popularity. We should feel proud to be a part of such rich composite cultural heritage. we should remain to ready accept and adopt anything good coming from any direction.

Mussolini Foreign Policy

Mussolini Foreign Policy Fascism Italy

Mussolini Foreign Policy In Italy


In the Italy Fascism leader Mussolini want to show the world, how powerful Italy was under his leadership. Mussolini foreign policy had to be robust to re-establish the greatness of the Roman Empire. Mussolini believed that accoured and conquered foreign territory was the sign of a great powerful nation. Mussolini aimed was to capture territory in Africa and in the Mediterranean, for which he says term mare nostrum (“our sea”). firstly in 1923, Mussolini invaded the Greek island of Corfu to reaveng the murder of four Italian international boundary delegation. personal. in 1924 he did an agreement with Yugoslavia that gave Fiume to Italy. For expansion in Africa he strengthen the Italian armed forces hold on Libya, particularly to attack on Ethiopia.  finally In October 1935 Mussolini invaded Ethiopia, his first conquests was Adwa, and in May 1936 he conquered Ethiopia and proclaimed the Italian king, Victor Emmanuel III, emperor of Ethiopia. in April 1939 Italy further invaded to Albania. When Albania’s King Zog refused to accept a trade agreement, then Victor Emmanuel was made king of Albania and King Zog escaped to Greece. The Italy and Ethiopian War antagonized the British and French governments, so they sanctions and isolated Italy diplomatically. Then Mussolini asked help from Hitler, hoping that German backing British and French will further concessions to Italy. However, Mussolini policy failed to bring further territorial gains in Africa, and Italy became the junior partner in the Rome Berlin Axis.

 

Italy Military Disaster


When in June 1940, France was about to fall and World War II seemed virtually over, then Italy join the war on Germany’s side. Mussolini's foreign minister, Galeazzo Ciano bitterly opposed this decision and huge crowds across Italy on June 10 against this. The real war started for Italy, when Mussolini attacked Greece from Albania in 1941. In October 1942 the decisive second battle of El-Alamein destroyed the Italian position, surrender all of Italy’s North African forces in May 1943. and lost Italy extensive empire in eastern Africa, including Ethiopia. the Italian forces were fighting far from home, In short of tanks, antitank guns, clothing, food, vehicles, and less fuel. the military supplies for Italy forces could not safely be transported to North Africa or Russia. due to the shortage of steel, coal, or oil the Italian factories could not produce weapons. Heavy attacks by U.S. forces in July 1943, destroyed the iron ore production capacities in Elba, Tuscan coast, and damaged several industrial zones such as Genoa, La Spezia, Turin, and Milan. Naples and other southern cities were also attack, which killed more than 3,000 people.

Gandhi's Views On Varna System

Gandhi's Views Hindu Varna System

Gandhi's Views On Hindu Varna System


Gandhi ji was belief in the varna system, according to him Varna system should have internal flexibility and mutually tradable in the Hindu society. according to Gandhi's Varna system, a shudra must do his hereditary duty, and if he has the potential of performing priestly duties he must perform priestly duties, without sacrificing or rejecting his ancestral duties. Gandhi's Varna system had flexibility for all the varnas in the Varnashrama system. according to Gandhi's Varna system brahmin have the right to pick up arms and learn the techniques of warfare or perform the duties of a shudra. Gandhi's varna system was not hierarchical. All the four varnas were equal in status and functional to the society. all the four varnas were free to horizontally and mutually replaceable. However, in the practical way varna system is hierarchical and religious and social disabilities imposed on all the four varnas. the starting of Varnashrama system came into existence in the early Vedic age 2500 BCE to 1500 BCE. in the first 25 years of life every one have Brahmacharya Ashram to be celibate and acquire skills and education to be employable. next 25 years in Grihastahram to acquires a house, gets married and begets children. after completion of 50th years of life, enter to the Vanaprasthahram for living in the forests for the next 25 years to meditate and acquire knowledge and wisdom. the Sanyasahram begin in the last 25 years of life in which person has renounced everything and lives the life of a mendicant to deliver acquired life knowledge and wisdom  to the people. In the original form of the varna system there was both vertical and horizontal mobility in the Indian version of division of labor and duties. during the later Vedic age 1500 BCE to 500 ACE, when Manusmiriti or Manavadharmashastra was written the varna system change into closed and rigid Caste system. Gandhi ji never practiced Varna system and his ashrams were free from Varna system and the rigid caste based system. the  concept of swaraj by gandhi was also free from religion and caste system. However, Gandhi ji believe was to defended the Varnashrama system with non-hierarchical based principle. Gandhi ji believe that birth alone cannot determine the Varna of a person.

Harappan Culture Civilization Town Planning

Harappan Civilization Town Planning:

Harappan Civilization Town Planning:


The town planning of Harappan civilization is one of the most impressive handiwork of the arrangement of a city. in the town planning of Harappan, each town was divided into two parts, one on higher ground which was for the fort, ruling class and the priestly class houses. lower part was the human settlements of other classes. many communities people lived there in the town with encircled high wall made of burnt bricks. The town planning of Mohenjodaro and Kalibangan was the same as per this pattern.


Houses:


The Harappan people houses were built by burnt bricks. The size of the bricks was in the proportion of 4:2:1. the towns of Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Rupar and Mehergarh also built by the burnt bricks. bricks dried in the sun were used in building of Kalibangan houses. each house had a drawing room, bed-room, kitchen, spacious verandah, bath room and a well nearby. The waste-water of the house was drained out into the main drain of the town. which shows their sense of health and hygiene. some houses were made double-storied buildings with stair­cases made of burnt bricks. Each house had a high compound walls to protect from wild animals.


Roads:


In Harappan town planning roads were very wide, crisscrossing the town from east to west and north to south. Each crossing was vertical and light-post on the crossing. The houses were built on the side of the roads. E.J.H. Mackay Commented on the Harappan roads, that the straight wide roads with vertical crossings acted as ventilators for the town, and kept the town pollution free.


The Great Bath:


The main attraction of the Harappan culture town planning was the Great Bath, which was situated in the Fort-area. The Great Bath was 12 metres in length, 7 metres in breadth and 3 meters deep, which was situated in a 55 metres long and 33 metres wide hall. The sides and floor were rock- hard with a stairway led to the great bath. the supply of water to the bath-pool was from a adjacent room with a big well. Separate sets of drains were connected to the great bath for in-let and out-let of water. A ring of rooms and a corridors were around the great bath. historians thinks that the Great Bath was for the exclusive use of the ruling and priestly classes for extraordinary occasions like coronation and different rituals.


Great Granary and Hearth:


The Harappan buildings was the large granary. Many stone floors formed with 16 metres long and 6 metres wide. these granary was immensely useful in times of flood, storms and droughts. many hearths at Kalibangan was discovered. in which Seven ovens were in a row on a brick-laden floor. May be, these were used for general auspicious occasions for the community-kitchen.

One Three History Geography Facts

History Geography  Usa


History Geography Facts


Social Economic Conditions of Sangam Period in South India


The Sangam Period was between the 3rd century B.C. and 3rd century A.D. on the south of river Krishna and Tungabhadra in south india.


Sangam Literature


Sangam Literature Sources give details about the Sangam Period which are,

Tolkappiyam was the earliest Tamil literary work. composed by Tolkappiyar on Tamil grammar, but it also provides political and socio-economic conditions of the dangam period.

Ettutogai

The Pattuppattu

Pathinenkilkanakku

Silappathikaram

Manimegalai

Hathigumpha inscription Kharavela Kalinga


Sangam Period Political History


The three dynasties, the Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas were the main kingdoms of Sangam Period.


Cheras:


The Cheras empire was in the central and northern Kerala and the Kongu region of Tamil Nadu. Cheras emblem was bow and arrow. Vanji was their capital. in the 2nd century A.D. Senguttuvan, the Red Chera or the Good Chera was the greatest ruler of Cheras. they used to trade with the Romans and built temple of Augustus.


Cholas:


 The Cholas rulling area was the central and northern parts of Tamil Nadu in the Kaveri delta, which is known as Cholamandalam. cholas capital was Uraiyur and King Karikala was the famous king.


Pandyas: 


The Pandyas rulling area was in Madurai. pandyas emblem was the Fish. padyas patronized the Tamil Sangams and facilitated the compilation of the Sangam litrature poems.


Social Economic Conditions of Sangam Period:


Sangam literature gives lot of information to understand the  Social Economic Conditions of Sangam age. Women had respect and allowed to choose their life partners. practice of Sati was in the higher strata of society, and life of widows was miserable. God Murugan was The primary deity of the Sangam period. in the Sangam age, cotton fabrics, spices like pepper, ginger, cardamom, cinnamon and turmeric and ivory products, pearls and precious stones were the major exports and horses, gold, and sweet wine were the major imports. Agriculture was the main occupation and rice was the most common cropof the sangam age.


Tandava Dance:


Tandava dance represents the movement, rhythm and Lasya which include grace, bhava and rasa.

In The Tandava dance there are three main components which are,

Natya: Natya represent the dramatic element of the tandava dance i.e. the imitation of characters.

Nritta: it shows the tandava dance movements in their basic form.

Nritya: it is the expressional component of tandava dance i.e. mudras or gestures.

There are nine rasas in tandava dance which are, Love, Heroism, Pathos, Humour, Anger, Fear, Disgust, Wonder and Peace.


Chola Temples Architectures


The Chola Temples were in the Dravidian temples architecture styles. which contains Circular and Square Sanctums with beautiful sculptures and inscriptions on the internal and external walls of temples. vimanas on the sanctum, Pillared mandapas which is called ardha mandapa, maha mandapa and nandi mandapa. Pyramidal storey in the deity room, Kalas and Dome shaped sikhara on the top of Gopurams. Brihadeshwara temple is the most famous Chola period temple. stones were used instead of bricks in the temples. Shiva temple of Thanjavur is one of the best example of chola's temples.


Women As The Torch Bearer During The Indian Freedom Struggle


In The history of Indian Struggle Women Played a major role, the women contributions in freedom fighting struggle is incredible. When most of the men freedom fighters were in jail, the women came forward and fought with courage and faced various exploitations and hardships to get freedom of india.

Women in First War of Independence (1857-58): The First War of Independence (1857-58) was finished within a year, in which the major Indian kings, the public and the indian militry personnel participated enthusiastically. in which Rani Lakshmibai was one of the great freedom fighter of the First War of Indian Independence. She faught against british rule with courage. She was the queen of Jhansi in bundelkhand.

Women in Non-cooperation movement (1920): When Mahatma Gandhi was return to India in 1915 from South Africa, he demanded self-rule and started non-cooperation movement in 1920. in which Muthulaxmi Reddy, Sucheta Kripalani, Susheela Nair, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, Sarla Devi and Aruna Asaf Ali participated, Kasturba Gandhi, the wife of Mahatma Gandhi, Kamla Nehru, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit and Swarup Rani, also participated in this National Movement.

Women in the Dandi Salt March (1930): In the 1930 women took part in breaking salt laws, forest laws and organised Prabhat Pheries from schools, colleges, legislative councils and clubs. Sarojini Naidu, Kamla Devi prepared salt and Nari Satyagraha Committee, Mahila Rashtriya Sangha, and Ladies Picketing Board During the movement,

Women in The Quit India Movement (1942): The Quit India Movement was against the British. Usha Mehta started cogress secret radio station called The Voice of Freedom. which broadcast News of protest and Gandhi’s famous "Do or Die" message for the Quit India movement by Usha Mehta and her brother until they are not arrest. Women take critical responsibilities in India’s freedom struggle.


Foreigner Role in India Freedom Struggle


As We all know that how much sacrifice and humiliation our countrymen faced to get rid of the British rule, but on the other hand in the Indian freedom struggle on numerous occasions, some kind-hearted foreigners who went against their peers and helped us in our freedom struggle, following are the foreigner who helped in indian freedom struggle.


Annie Besant


Annie Besant who was the famous British theosophist, socialist, orator, activist and writer. due to Theosophical Society she came to India, Annie Besant started the Central Hindu School, now it is known as the Banaras Hindu University. Annie Besant demand a self rule for India. in 1915, Annie Besant set up the Home Rule League along with Lokmanya Tilak.. she was arrested due to allegation of tyranny, Congress and Muslim league together protested to set her free. She was one of the foreign members in Congress, and the first to lead a Congress Session in, December 1917. 


Dinabandhu Charles Freer Andrews


Dinabandhu Andrews, came to India as a Missionary Philanthropist. he opposed social and cultural injustice by the British on the Indians, his service to uplift the untouchables Harijans along with Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, give him the title “Dinabandhu” which means friend of the poor. he was against the atrocities inflicted upon the people in India, Fiji, South Africa and other such colonies. He also negotiated with the Government regarding the freedom of Gandhiji from prison.


Madeleine Slade


Madeleine Slade Born in an aristocratic family in London, when  Madeleine Slade came in contact with Mahatma Gandhi, she was so much influenced by Gandhi's philosophy, she left all the luxury and began a simple life in the Sabarmati Ashram, she took part in all the Gandhi led socio-political struggles in India, she promoted Khadi and Satyagraha. she accompanied Gandhi ji to the Round Table Conference in London.


Samuel Evans Stokes (Satyanand Stokes)


Satyanand Stokes was not Indian person, his real name was Samuel Evans Stokes Jr. from a wealthy American family. he came to India to work in a leaper home in Himachal Pradesh, he fought relentlessly for laborers welfare in Shimla. He joined the Congress and attended the Congress Session at Nagpur in 1920. He signed the Congress manifesto in 1921 for all the Indians to join the National Independence Struggle by giving up the Government Jobs. like other foreign freedom fighters, he was jailed on the pretext of sedition, for a period of 6 months.

so many foreigners were faught for indian independence struggle.


Lord Dalhousie As The Founder of Modern India


Lord Dalhousie was the Governor General of India from 1848 to 1856. he was born on 22 April 1812, he was Scottish origin. He studied at Christ Church College Oxford.

when he came to india, on 12th January 1848 He was appointed as the Governor General of India and Governor of Bengal. In india he did many modern development work such as, the railways, telegraph postal networks, and public works department in India. The Ganga Canal also was completed during Lord Dalhousie tenure.

Despite the Doctrine of Lapse policy, Lord Dalhousie others works make him as the, ‘Maker of modern India’. Lord Dalhousie started Anglo-vernacular schools in India. He also worked on social reforms ban the practice of female infanticide. 

Lord Dalhousie started engineering colleges in each presidency. he expanded the Legislative Council of India and reformed in the civil services by starting a open competition for recruitment. Lord Dalhousie returned to Britain in March 1856, and died on 19 December 1860 at the age of 48 years. so due to Lord Dalhousie modern developmental works many people thinks, he was the founder of modern india.


Acharya Vinoba Bhave Bhoodan and Gramdan Movements 


Vinoba Bhave was great spiritual leaders & reformers of modern India, he was Born in 1895, After independence of india, Vinoba started an extraordinary and unprecedented work, the Bhoodan and Gramdan Movement. Vinoba started a journey in India to persuading land owners and land lords to give their some parts of land to poor and downtrodden people.

The Bhoodan Gramdan movement brought Vinoba to the international scene. The Bhoodan Movement transformed from a land-gift movement to a village-gift or Gramdan movement, in which 75% villagers want to donate their lands in favour of the village.

On April 18th 1951, Vinoba entered Nalgonda district and stay at Pochampalli village in which two-thirds were landless Harijan, They asked for eighty acres of land, Then Vinoba told that, If it is not possible to get land from the government, is there not something villagers themselves could do,  everyone was surprise, Ram Chandra Reddy, the local landlord, got up and said in excited voice, “I will give you 100 acres of land for harizans. This incident was first the Bhoodan movement.

In October 1951, Vinoba demand fifty million acres of land for the landless people in India by 1957. Gramdan movent is gone upto 1974. 


Slogan, 'Jai Jawan Jai Kisan Evolution and Significance 


Jai Jawaan Jai Kisaan slogan given by the second Prime Minister of India Lal Bahadur Shastri in 1965 at Ramlila Maidan Delhi. 

India suffered scarcity of food grains in the country and severe droughts In early 1960s, india also faced forced wars with China and Pakistan.

These problems arised a questions on the survival of India as a nation. india's buffer Food stock continous decreasing to dangerous level. the united states of america stopped its food aid. due to the wars Economy got stagnated due to poor industrial production.

Then to encourage the farmers of india to increase high production of cropes, and emotional support to soldiers who were fighting the wars with maximum efficiency in limited military constraints. Then slogan, "Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan" evolved.

during this period Health and Education sectors suffered very badly in india. Poverty reduction efforts slowed down.

Now there is need to new dynamics Green Revolution to India. which will outcome Indian dependency on others for foods, Also it will help to recover india's reputation at domestic and international fronts. after losses Indo-China war in 1962, India had suffered a moral breakdown.

hunger and wars threats could have been solved only with the help of the farmers and the soldiers, Hence, the slogan Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan given by the second Prime Minister of India Lal Bahadur Shastri.


Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Cotributions In Pre and Post Independent India


During Indian Independence Movement, Maulana Azad was Muslim Leader of Indian National Congress. after Independence of india, he became the First Education Minister in Indian Government. Maulana Azad played an important role in Hindu-Muslim unity. he was always against India’s partition.


Pre independence Maulana Azad Cotributions


Before India Independence he work as journalist, publishing critic of British Raj, and worked for Hindu-Muslim unity through the Al-Hilal newspaper.

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was a prominent Leader in Khilafat Movement in which he came in close contact with National Leaders, Mahatma Gandhi, Vallabh Bhai Patel and Jawahar Lal Nehru.

he also took part in Non-cooperation movement and Protests in opposition of the Rowlatt Act of 1919. He Organised several agitations and worked in the guidance of Mahatama Gandhi principles.

Maulan azad was one of main organisers of the Dharasana Satyagraha in 1931.

Maulana criticised and against Jinnah's Two Nation Theory, and he believed that Hindu and Muslims can live together in Independent India.

He was the Congress president from 1940 to 1945, during the Quit India movement launched, and He played a significant role in the Quit India Movement. he organised a large number of People rallies and agitations to protests against Colonial Government. 

He was in the negotiation with the British Cabinet mission for India’s independence.


Post-Independence Maulana Azad Cotributions


After India Independence He was a member of constituent assembly, and helped in shaping the Indian Constitution.

He was the first Union Minister of education after India independence. He played a important role in education sector, by foundation of IIT, UGC, AICTE, Sahitya Academy, Lalit Kala Academy, Sangeet Natak Academy and many other educational initiations.

He worked on Natural resources and scientific research, and started CSIR and scientific research laboratories in India.

Maulana’s contributions in Indian Independence will be remembered by generations to come for his service to the nation, he was awarded the country’s highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna.


Circumstances and Highlights of Tashkent Agreement 1966


The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement signed at Tashkent, capital of Uzbekistan between The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan on 10 January, 1966,  to resolve the Indo-Pakistan war of 1965. 

Pakistan sent its special forces dressed as Kashmiri locals, to capture Kashmir In April 1965, but this operation was failure due to the local population inform the Indian Army on time. This led to war in August 1965.

USSR and United States, used every diplomatic means to bring the india and pakistan to the negotiation table. 

which was held at Tashkent from 4th to 10th January 1966 in order to create a peace between India and Pakistan.


Tashkent Declaration Highlights


India and Pakistan will bring their previous positions held prior to August 5 1965.

No one would interfere in the internal affairs of the others and no toxic propaganda against each other.

Both the country will transfer of prisoners of war, and would work towards improving bilateral relations.


Background of Bangladesh Emergence


India and the outmost support of the Soviet Union played an important role in the emergence of Bangladesh as an Independent State.

The background of the Bangladesh’s Liberation war in 1971 was the general elections, which were held in December 1970 in pakistan. Awami League 

won 160 out of 162 seats in East Pakistan. Mujibur Rahman was the leader of Awami League, without handing power to Mujibur Rahman, the Pakistani army launched a brutal crackdown in Dhaka on March 25, 1971.


Role of India in the emergence of Bangladesh


When millions of men and women were forced to leave Bangladesh and murdered by the military of Pakistan. The Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi, full 

support of indian government to the Bangladeshi struggle for independence, and sent indian army to fight against Pakistani soldiers. When American navy reached for the help of Pakistan, the Soviet 

Union also send their navy to full support of India. when almost 10 million Bangladeshi men and women, forced to leave their motherland to 

save themselves, the indian government open the Bangladesh India border to allow the Bangladeshi refugees safe shelter in India.

The Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi traveled around the world, to gather support for the Bangladesh, and spent seven thousand 

crores rupees for the liberation war of Bangladesh, and also sacrificed the lives of 3630 officers and soldiers of indian Army. in which 9856 officers and soldiers were wounded 

and more than 213 indian army officers and soldiers are missing till today. the contribution of India’s role in the Independence of Bangladesh was a unique history. The birth of Bangladesh 

was the result of India’s support and sympathetic supervision of the USSR.


Industrial Revolution


The Industrial Revolution was the transition,

from hand production methods to machines manufacturing processes

from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840, in Europe and the United States.

Textiles industries were the major industry of the Industrial Revolution

began in Great Britain, so that many of the technological innovations were of British origin.

1840s and 1850s, Industrial Revolution were not as powerful to drive high rates of growth. Rapid economic growth began after 1870, by new innovations in steel making processes massproduction, assembly lines in factory, electrical grid systems, large-scale manufacturing of machine tools and the use of advanced machinery in steam powered factories, which has been called the Second Industrial Revolution.


Japan Industrial Revolution factors


In Japan the Industrial Revolution occurred during the Meiji period.

Meiji government leaders decided to catch up with the West Industrial Revolution. The Japan government built railroads, improved roads, and land reform program for the country further development. Meiji inaugurated Western-based education system for all young japani people, sent thousands of japani students to the United States and Europe, Meiji government hired more than 3,000 Westerners to teach modern science, mathematics, technology, and foreign languages for Japani people.

Textile manufacturing technology import from Europe has been increased Japan's total value of yarn from 12 million to 176 million yen.


Africa chopped into States artificially by European


Africa is the second-largest contenent in the world. Africa continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the north, the Red Sea in the northeast, the Indian Ocean in the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean in the west. 

The Africa chopped and Scramble into states, by the invasion, division, and colonization of European powers during the New Imperialism between 1881 and 1914. in 1870 The 10 percent of Africa was under the European control, which increased to almost 90 percent by 1914, except Ethiopia and Liberia remaining independent.

European colonization and trade in Africa regulated by the Berlin Conference of 1884, which is the starting point of the Scramble for Africa. political and economic rivalries among the European empires in the 19th century partitioning Africa largely because, Europeans not going to war In the later years of the 19th century. the European nations started, exercising military influence and economic dominance to bringing colonial imperialism.

Technological advancements in transportation, communication, steamships, railways and telegraphs. Medical advances for tropical diseases, development of quinine, an effective treatment for malaria, made vast expanses of the tropics more accessible for facilitated European expansion.


American Revolution Economic Revolt Against Mercantilism


The American Revolution was a rebell against the rule of Great Britain by the British colonists in America. many battles fought from 1775 until 1783, by the American British colonists and gained the freedom, and rise the new independent country the United States.

There were 13 colonies Delaware, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, New Hampshire, New York, and Rhode Island, who were rebelling.

the main reason of the American Revolution against Great Britain was no direct representation in the British government, and the British government imposed new laws and taxes on the American British colonies.

Mercantilism is the process by which a nation earn wealth, by the control of trade, expand exports and limit imports. In the context of the America Revolution, mercantilism refers to the idea that the colonists in America, create wealth for the Mother Country Great britain. the British saw the American colonists paid rent by providing materials for Britain.

The British government imposed new laws and taxes on the American British colonies, so they revolt againt the great britain tax incrase. so we can say that American Revolution was an economic revolt against mercantilism in the American British colonists.


The Great Economic Depression


The Great Economic Depression was a economic crisis in the United States in 1930s. It was first start in the United States, reason behind the great economic depression were the overproduction of goods, bank failures, crash of newyork stock market, and consumer debt.

but rapidly it spread throughout the world. During the Great Economic Depression, many people have no work, hungry, and homeless. farmers struggled due to drought.


The New Deal


During the great economic depression, Herbert Hoover was President of the United States. Many people thinks that Hoover was responsible for the Great Economic Depression, after him In 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president of the United States. He promised a New Deal for the people of United States, in Which

a series of laws, programs, formation of new government agencies, regulations of the stock market, banks, and businesses, house, work and feed the poor to deal with the Great Depression. 

The Great Economic Depression ended with the start of World War II during war people back to work, factories open for the supply of war. The New Deal laws palay important role to deal with The Great Economic Depression.


Urbanization In India


Urbanization in India started rapidly after independence adopting the mixed economy, rise new development in the private sector.

Urbanization in India, according to 1901 

census, was 11.4%, in 2011 census Urbanization count crossed 30%,

According to a survey of the UN State of 

the World Population report by 2030, 40.76% 

population of india is expected to moved in urban areas.

There are many causes of urbanization in India, which are

Creation of new government services after the Second 

World War

Due to Partition of India and Pakistan, Migration of people from Pakistan. 

The Industrial Revolution

and five year plan which aimed economic development and urbanization of India.

Employment opportunities attracts rural people moving towards urban.

Health, transport and education Infrastructure facilities in the urban areas.


Urbanization Social Problems In India


In The India urbanization is not done properly. Due to unplanned urbanization, 

many problem such as unemployment, pollution, improper sanitation facilities, increasing slums, poor standard of 

living and environmental damage are facing by India. it is expected that By 2030, more 

than 50℅ of India’s population will be in urban areas.


Male Membership to Women's Organization Free From Gender Bias


Male membership should be in solidarity and equal partnership with women’s organizations free from gender bias. our goal should be to transform the lives of women and protects women’s rights.

Male ego or gender bias, should be avoided and support the women’s organization by providing technical support, funding and advocacy platform.

Women’s Organization should be created to promote and protect gender equality, respect women's voice and leadership.

Male membership needs to be encouraged gender equality and he Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against women’s right in all aspects of life.

we should identifies and remove obstacles that prevent women to being economically empowered and fully participate in the society.

our aim should be to achieve gender equality of women and men in all spheres of life.

men and boys should contribute in eliminating discrimination on the basis of gender norms, and provide solutions to achieving gender equality in women’s organizations.

International Alliance of Women (IAW) is an international non-governmental organization advocates for equal participation of women at all levels in the corporate and private sectors.

UN Women is the Entity formed by The United Nations for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women.


Globalization


Globalization is described as the interdependence of the world’s cross-border trade in goods, services, technology, flows of investment, people cultures and populations, 

Centuries of technological innovation progress have made closer international cooperation,

 the world is more connected the effects of globalization are complex in the field of major technological advances, goods, services and benefits 

for the society, while harming certain groups.


Globalization Effect On The Aged Population in India


Ageing is a continuous universal natural process. ageing is a global issue according to World Population Prospect, India has the second largest aged people in the world.

elderly population in India, in 1951 was the 43.17 million, According to 2001 census it was around 77 million and is expected to increase 177.4 million by the 2025.

Globalization has played important role On The Aged Population in India,

by providing life saving drugs, control of various communicable diseases, better awareness and health facilities, which have resulted in drastic reduction in mortality rates and increase in the overall life span of aged people in india.

on the other hand due to globalization Indian society is undergoing rapid transformation, the traditional values and institutions are in the process of erosion weakening of intergenerational ties of the traditional family.

due to the influence of globalization and new life styles, the care of aged people has emerged as an important issue in India. replacing the joint family into the nuclear family and Children who migrate to the city, by leaving their old parents loneliness and lack of care.

Hence the changing factors in the family due to globalization leading to neglect and abuse of older people in india.


Regionalism


Regionalism is defind as the common sense of identity

by the people, on the basis of specific geographical region,

language, culture and particular ideology,


Causes of Regionalism in India


geographical isolation

Low economic development

Despite being rich in natural resources and exploit regional loyalties.

Reaction to imposition of a particular ideology, language and cultural pattern on all the people.


Demand of Separate State Due to Regionalism 


Imposition of a particular region, ideology, language and cultural pattern by the people can create a demand for separate statehood.

when linguistic or ethnic minorities within the states come together and unite against the isolation, low economic development in that state.

there can be violence and others riots for the demand of seprate state. the sepration of sub-regionalism was validated by the State Reorganisation Act of 1956. The recent examples are the formation of Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Telangana.

In the recent decade of 2000s, we have seen many vigorous movements for the creation of separate states due to regional deprivation.

which resulted in the formation of the three new states, Chhattisgarh from Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand from Bihar and Uttarakhand out of Uttar Pradesh.

The latest creation of seprate state Telangana by the division of Andhra Pradesh in 2014.


Continental Drift Theory


The continental drift theory hypothesis was given by Alfred Wegener in the year of 1912. Wegener said that continents were a single supercontinent. Alfred Wegener proposed single supercontinent name Pangaea, which meaning is all earth in ancient Greek. He told that Pangaea broke up and converted into the continents in their current positions. this hypothesis called the continental drift.


Evidences of Continental Drift


Alfred Wegener Give evidences to support his continental drift theory, he told that identical rocks of the same type and age are found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. mountain ranges in eastern Greenland, Ireland, Great Britain, and Norway, formed a single mountain range that was separated by the continents drifted. Ancient fossils of the same species, plants and animals are found of the same age on different continents that are now widely separated.


Naming Of Tropical Cyclones


World Meteorological Organization (WMO) maintains rotating lists for the naming of each Tropical Cyclone basin. If a cyclone is deadly then its name is changed and replaced by another one.  

The life of Tropical cyclones can be a week or more, there can be more than one cyclone at a time. so forecasters give each tropical cyclone a name to avoid confusion, tropical cyclones are named according to the rules at regional level. In Indian ocean and South Pacific, tropical cyclones receive names in alphabetical order of women and men's names. in the Northern Indian ocean naming tropical cyclones are listed alphabetically country wise, and are neutral gender wise.

The common rule of naming the Tropical cyclones is that, the name list is proposed by the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) of WMO Members for a specific region tropical cyclone at their annual/biennual sessions. 


Urban Heat Island


Urban Heat Island effect is due to human factors induced higher temperatures 8 to 10 degrees more in urban areas compared to the temperatures in rural areas. Due to Urban Heat Island effect in urban areas needs more power, air conditioner produce greenhouse gas emissions and polutes the air, which results the heat related illness and mortality.


Reason of Urban Heat Island effect


There are many reasons of Urban Heat Island effect in the cities like high use of construction materials like Asphalt and concrete, high rise buildings with dark surfaces, air conditioning, mass transportation fossil fuels vehicle and lack of trees and green park. To reduce Urban Heat Island we should planning smart cities with high number of trees.


Temperature Inversion


In the normal conditions of atmosphere, temperature usually decreases with increase in altitude in the troposphere. but due to horizontal or vertical movement of air the normal behavior of temperature in the troposphere get reversed, and temperature starts increasing with height rather than decreasing. This is called temperature inversion. Favourable Conditions for Temperature Inversion are Long winter nights, Cloudless and clear sky, Dry air near the ground surface, Slow movement of air and Snow covered ground surface.


Effects Of Temperature Inversion


The effects of Temperature inversion are the precipitation, forms of clouds, more dust particles in the air, Stops the movement of air, Lower visibility, Thunderstorms and tornadoes.