Showing posts with label History Geography General Study. Show all posts
Showing posts with label History Geography General Study. Show all posts

Feb 4, 2023

Free Entry Or Exit Multi National Corporations Strategies

Free Entry Or Exit Multi National Corporations

Free Entry Or Exit Multi National Corporations

In economics, free entry is a circumstance in which companies can freely enter the market for an economic appropriate, by way of organising manufacturing and commencing to sell the product. The assumption of free entry implies that if there are companies incomes excessively profits in a given industry, new firms that additionally are seeking a excessive profit are probable to begin to produce or change into a production of the identical correct to join the market. In such a case there are no boundaries stopping a start-up firm from competing. Where an opportunity of a earnings arises we anticipate that there will additionally companies entering into the market for the certain appropriate and compete for it. In most markets this situation is current only in the long run. The assumption of free entry doesn't imply that a company is truely in a position to set up a store without any expenses incurred. It is clear that the new entrant wants to gain the capital that they need for working in the industry. Therefore, even with a free entry to a market the entrant still has to face the equal fee shape as does an already present firm. Free entry is part of the perfect competition assumption that there are an limitless wide variety of consumers and marketers in a market. In prerequisites in which there is no longer a herbal monopoly prompted by using unlimited economies of scale, free entry prevents any existing firm from retaining a monopoly, which would restrict output and cost a higher charge than a multi-firm market would.

Free entry is normally accompanied through free exit, beneath which circumstance corporations that are incurring losses (such as would take place if there are too many corporations producing the product so that every is producing too little to be at its minimal efficient scale) can simply leave the market. However, exiting a market can also involve abandonment costs.

Long run market grant with free entry and exit, Supposing that absolutely everyone in a market for a desirable has get admission to to the identical technological know-how used for production of the correct and can get admission to the identical market where inputs for the production can be offered to make sure a homogenous exact and a perfect competition. In such a scenario all corporations have in the market and all firms that can doubtlessly enter the market have a uniform cost curve. In the quick run the range of corporations in the market is fixed. The entry of such a market depends on the incentives that have an impact on current businesses and viable new entrants. If firms that are already current in the market have excessive income it is an incentives for other companies to be a part of the market by means of placing up production or changing their product of focus. This free entry in instances of top income expands the wide variety of firms, increases the provide of the precise and pulls down expenses and with it the profits. In the equal manner, if companies in the market are experiencing losses and low profits many companies will exit the market which will convey up expenditures and increase profits. Remaining firms after the entries and exits have to be making a zero economic profit. This system of entries and exits in the end drives average whole cost and price to come to be equivalent at which factor the manner ends and companies are producing at their environment friendly scale.

Jan 22, 2023

Time And Motion Study In Business Management

Time And Motion Study Business Management

Time And Motion Study

A time and motion study (or time-motion study) is a commercial enterprise efficiency technique combining the Time Study work of Frederick Winslow Taylor with the Motion Study work of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth (the same couple as is nice acknowledged via the biographical 1950 film and book Cheaper by means of the Dozen). It is a primary section of scientific management (Taylorism). After its first introduction, time study developed in the direction of establishing standard times, while action find out about developed into a method for improving work methods. The two strategies grew to be integrated and sophisticated into a broadly normal technique applicable to the enhancment and upgrading of work systems. This built-in strategy to work device improvement is known as techniques engineering and it is applied these days to industrial as nicely as carrier organizations, which includes banks, faculties and hospitals.

Time Studies

Time study is a direct and continuous commentary of a task, using a timekeeping system (e.g., decimal minute stopwatch, computer-assisted digital stopwatch, and videotape camera) to report the time taken to accomplish a undertaking and it is regularly used when there are repetitive work cycles of brief to long duration, large range of distinct work is performed, or process manage factors represent a part of the cycle. The Industrial Engineering Terminology Standard, defines time study as a work dimension method consisting of cautious time measurement of the assignment with a time measuring instrument, adjusted for any determined variance from ordinary effort or tempo and to permit sufficient time for such gadgets as overseas elements, unavoidable or machine delays, rest to overcome fatigue, and personal needs. The structures of time and motion studies are regularly assumed to be interchangeable terms, descriptive of equal theories. However, the underlying principles and the purpose for the establishment of each respective technique are dissimilar, in spite of originating within the same college of thought. The utility of science to commercial enterprise problems, and the use of time-study strategies in fashionable putting and the planning of work, was once pioneered by means of Frederick Winslow Taylor. Taylor liaised with factory managers and from the success of these discussions wrote numerous papers proposing the use of wage-contingent performance standards primarily based on scientific time study. At its most basic stage time studies concerned breaking down every job into aspect parts, timing every phase and rearranging the components into the most efficient technique of working.By counting and calculating, Taylor wanted to radically change 

management, which used to be genuinely an oral tradition, into a set of calculated and written techniques. Taylor and his colleagues positioned emphasis on the content material of a honest day's work, and sought to maximize productivity irrespective of the physiological value to the worker. For example, Taylor thought unproductive time utilization (soldiering) to be the deliberate strive of workers to promote their quality interests and to keep employers ignorant of how speedy work should be carried out. This instrumental view of human behavior by Taylor prepared the course for human family members to supersede scientific administration in terms of literary success and managerial application. Time study procedure is the process developed with the aid of Mikell Groover for a direct time study, Define and report the trendy method. Divide the undertaking into work elements. These first two steps are carried out prior to the real timing. They familiarize the analyst with the undertaking and permit the analyst to strive to improve the work manner before defining the preferred time. Time the work elements to reap the determined time for the task. Evaluate the people tempo relative to fashionable performance (performance rating), to decide the everyday time. Note that steps 3 and four are finished simultaneously. During these steps, numerous distinct work cycles are timed, and every cycle performance is rated independently. Finally, the values accumulated at these steps are averaged to get the normalized time. Apply an allowance to the ordinary time to compute the widespread time. The allowance factors that are wished in the work are then delivered to compute the general time for the task. Conducting time research According to correct exercise guidelines for production research a comprehensive time learn about consists of, Study goal setting,Experimental design, Time facts collection, Data analysis, Reporting, Easy evaluation of working areas, and the collection of time facts can be finished in quite a few ways, depending on learn about purpose and environmental conditions. Time and action information can be captured with a frequent stopwatch, a handheld pc or a video recorder. There are a number of devoted software packages used to flip a palmtop or a handheld PC into a time learn about device. As an alternative, time and movement records can be amassed mechanically from the memory of computer-control machines (i.e. automatic time studies). In response to Taylor's time research and view of human nature, many sturdy criticisms and reactions had been recorded. Unions, for example, viewed time find out about as a disguised tool of administration designed to standardize and intensify the tempo of production. Similarly, humans such as Gilbreth (1909), Cadbury and Marshall heavily criticized Taylor and pervaded his work with subjectivity. For example, Cadbury in reply to Thompson noted that beneath scientific management worker skills and initiatives are passed from the man or woman to management, a view reiterated by way of Nyland. In addition, Taylor's critics condemned the lack of scientific substance in his time studies, in the feel that they relied heavily on character interpretations of what workers really do. However, the value in rationalizing production is indisputable and supported with the aid of academics such as Gantt, Ford and Munsterberg, and Taylor society contributors Mr C.G. Renold, Mr W.H. Jackson and Mr C.B. Thompson. Proper time studies are primarily based on repeated observation, so that motions performed on the same phase in another way by one or many employees can be recorded, to decide those values that are definitely repetitive and measurable.

Motion Studies

In contrast to, and motivated by, Taylor's time learn about methods, the Gilbreths proposed a technical language, permitting for the evaluation of the labor system in a scientific context. The Gilbreths made use of scientific insights to develop a find out about method based totally upon the analysis of "work motions", consisting in phase of filming the important points of a worker's activities and their body posture whilst recording the time. The films served two foremost purposes. One was the visual document of how work had been done, emphasizing areas for improvement. Secondly, the films additionally served the motive of coaching workers about the satisfactory way to perform their work. This technique allowed the Gilbreths to build on the fantastic factors of these workflows and to create a standardized exceptional practice.

Taylor And The Gilbreths Study

Although for Taylor, movement research remained subordinate to time studies, the attention he paid to the motion learn about method verified the seriousness with which he considered the Gilbreths’ method. The split with Taylor in 1914, on the groundwork of attitudes to workers, supposed the Gilbreths had to argue opposite to the exchange unionists, authorities commissions and Robert Hoxie who believed scientific management was unstoppable.The Gilbreths have been charged with the task of proving that movement find out about particularly, and scientific management generally, extended industrial output in methods which accelerated and did now not detract from workers' intellectual and physical strength. This was no simple challenge given the propaganda fuelling the Hoxie document and the consequent union opposition to scientific management. In addition, the Gilbreths credibility and tutorial success endured to be hampered via Taylor who held the view that movement research were nothing more than a continuation of his work. While both Taylor and the Gilbreths continue to be criticized for their respective work, it have to be remembered that they had been writing at a time of industrial reorganization and the emergence of large, complicated companies with new forms of technology. Furthermore, to equate scientific administration in simple terms with time and movement study and therefore labor manage not solely misconceives the scope of scientific management, but also misinterprets Taylor's incentives for proposing a special style of managerial thought.

May 30, 2022

Features Of Wildlife Eco Tourism Circuits Of Uttar Pradesh

Features Wildlife Eco Tourism Circuits national parks

Features Of Wildlife Eco Tourism Circuits

Features Of Wildlife Eco Tourism 

Wildlife eco tourism is the activity of observation and interaction with animal and plant life in their natural habitats. Wildlife Eco Tourism is the most important tourism assets for any country or states. The major threats for wildlife are diseases, climate change, human interaction with nature, poaching and illegal trafficking. There is a need of protection wildlife and biodiversity,by the help of governments and civil society. In nature species are connected through various food chain, if any species disappear it influence several others species. Promoting ecological wildlife conservation help in securing future food supplies and drugs developed from microbial organisms, plants, and animals. Wildlife activities are the indicators for various environmental problems. So we should stop the killing and trafficking of the wildlife animals and plants.

Wildlife Eco Tourism Circuit Of Uttar Pradesh 

The Uttar Pradesh has one of the richest wildlife biosphere reserves in the Tarai region. This lush green tarai region is the home of various types of wildlife biodiversity and fauna, in which tigers, elephants, deer, crocodiles, dolphins, exquisite bird species are commonly found. These dense vegetation and wildlife biodiversity are the dream come true for the nature lover. Dudhwa National Park in Uttar Pradesh is famous for home of various types of wild animals like tigers, leopards, varieties of deer and antelopes, elephants and birds. The dudhwa national park is full of, tranquil and green nest in the Tarai region foothills, which is an excellent weekend activities place. The rich lush green forests and the rivers flowing through the dudhwa national park give you the complete wilderness experience. Pilibhit is in the Uttar Pradesh, which is famous for Pilibhit Tiger Reserve located in the districts of Pilibhit, Lakhimpur Kheri and Bahraich. Which is situated in the foothills of the Himalayas and the plains of the Tarai. The Pilibhit Tiger Reserve Project is one of India’s heavily forested place for tigers survival. The Pilibhit Tiger Reserve is a home to habitat of around 127 animals, 556 bird species and 2,100 flowering plants. The fauna which is found in the pilibhit tiger reserve are tiger, Indian leopard, swamp deer, hispid hare and Bengal floricans. Katarnia Ghat is a swathe of pristine forest, which is situated about 200 km from Lucknow in Bahraich district. In the katarnia ghat, girwa river is the source of fresh water for gangetic dolphins. In the katarnia ghat you can find a roaring experience of tigers, leopards, deer and antelopes.

May 29, 2022

Main Industries And Industrial Centers Of Uttar Pradesh

Industries Industrial Centers Uttar Pradesh
Main Industries And Industrial Centers Of Uttar Pradesh

Main Industries Of Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh is the largest populated and industrial state in India. agriculture is the main economic activity in the Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh Main Industries are computer hardware, brass works, chemicals, stone products, jewelry, hand printing, cotton yarn, black pottery, silk dress materials, and betel leaves. The major Industries of Uttar Pradesh are agriculture, livestock, and fishing. Uttar Pradesh is the major contributor in the national food grain stock because of the fertile Indo- Gangetic Plain with irrigation facilities of canals and tube wells. Uttar Pradesh is also known for producing Rice, Oilseeds, Pulses, Potatoes, and Mangoes. Uttar Pradesh is also a reserves of many important minerals and gems source like dolomite, coal, sulfur, pyrophyllite, diaspore, limestone, and silica sand. The major Industries of Uttar Pradesh is handlooms and handicrafts.

Major Industrial Centers Of Uttar Pradesh

Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh is famous for cement production. embroidered textiles and handloom woven are famous in the Varanasi. Lucknow is known for its chikan embroidery, machine tools, furniture, automotive, distillery and chemicals. Agra is known for tajmahal tourist attraction and leather business. Kanpur are world famous leather and leather products production centers in Uttar Pradesh. Kanpur is the major leather manufacturing hub in the Uttar Pradesh. Meerut is the leading gold market in Asia and leading exporter of musical instruments and sports goods. Khurja is famous for pottery products. Moradabad is globally known for its brass work and Its brass handicraft products are exported all over the world. Noida is the main center of software and mobile app development in the Uttar Pradesh. Noida also known in the world for Information Technology, Automobile, IT Companies Construction,Infrastructure, Consulting,Electrical, Electronics Engineering Export, Garment, Textile,Advertising, and Media. Ghaziabad is known for educational and real estate hub. Ghaziabad is also known for automobile, construction, Information Technology, and engineering industries.

May 28, 2022

Urbanization And Slums Are Inseparable

Urbanization Slums Inseparable
Urbanization And Slums

Urbanization and Slums

The formation of slums are large number in developing countries rapidly urbanizing regions. The urban population in the world is rising, in the next three decades 60% urban population of the world will be in Asia, particularly in China and India. It is estimated that one third of the world’s population or one billion people are living in slum or squatter settlements. The largest slums population in the world is in the Asian region. which is almost 60% of the world’s total population. Urbanisation increasing in India because of rapidly growth in the services sector, due to which the population of cities are growing drastically. Delhi is the 6th largest metropolitan city in the world, and one third of its populations are living in slums with no basic facilities. Slums are illegal urban settlements considered as an integral part of urbanization. The slums areas have been become as a general urban phenomena throughout the globe. Urbanization means shifting the population from rural areas to urban are in search of better jobs, work and facilities. Due to the urbanization cities face the adverse outcomes of overpopulation, shortage of housing, shortage of basic amenities, environment pollution, unemployment and criminal activity. nutritional quality and quantity are very poor in the slums areas in comparison to other urban areas. levels of hunger and food insecurity remained high in slum areas and the people are prone to suffer from diseases like Typhoid and cholera, Cancer and HIV/AIDS. women and children from slums areas can be victims of social evils like prostitution, and Child trafficking. Slum areas are generally high incidence of crime due to the lack of education, law and order, and government services. the majority of slum  population work in the informal sector, which does not provide any financial security and others facilities for a decent living, so slums people remain in vicious cycle of poverty. Now Government has been thinking and taking new Initiatives for Slum Dwellers such as Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana, PM- Awas Yojana Urban. Improving sanitation by opening clinics and healthcare facilities. Government should take new approaches to urban planning and to build sustainable, robust and inclusive infrastructure for the urban development.

How Regionalism Affect National Integration

Regionalism Affect National Integration
How Regionalism Affect National Integration

Regionalism And National Integration

Regionalism can be defined as the identity of a person or people within a specific geographical region, language, and culture. Regionalism create brotherhood and oneness among the people to promotes the welfare and development of the particular regions and its people. In India regionalism implies excessive attachment to one’s region, which can be threat to the national integration. The roots of regionalism started in the colonial british period, by exploitative economic policies disparities and regional imbalances. the Non-Brahmin Dravida movement started in 1940s in Tamil Nadu. Later, this movement converted for the demand of a separate  independent Tamil state. In period of 1950s and 1960s various intense mass mobilisation of violent nature take place for the demands of statehood. during this period in India many princely states and other states started demand for separate state. Regional regionalism movements also seen in the form of militant and fundamentalist groups for the separation from India on the basis of ethnicity and other factors. Regionalism create linguistic or ethnic minorities unite against the majority community in that state. Regionalism demand within a state by people recognition of their regional identities rises because of imbalances, inefficient planning, isolation some part, neglect of a region, Internal colonialism,survival of one region at the cost of the other region, imposition of a particular ideology, language or cultural pattern, and expression of ethnicity. Regionalism can create militancy, extremism, which is a threat for the internal security and national integrity. threat.Nationalism is a sense of feeling belonging to one nation regardless of their caste, creed, culture, religion and region. when people identifying themselves more strongly with their region than their nation, it is called the sense of regionalism. nationalism tries to unite and establish harmony between all citizens through the constitution, national symbols, and national songs, while regionalism put all efforts towards particular region and culture. regionalism is considered as a threat to the sovereignty of the nation. Regionalism promotes Vote Bank politics, which weakens the national integration and harmony. Regionalism weaken the Unity in Diversity. regionalism is not threat or anti-national phenomenon, unless the militant, and aggressive turn happen.Constitution has various institutional mechanism to resolve the threats posed by violent regionalism.

May 26, 2022

Scientific Aspects Of Indian Cultural Heritage

Scientific Aspects Indian Cultural Heritage
Scientific Aspects Of Indian Cultural Heritage

Scientific Heritage Of Indian Culture

The indian cultural heritage of scientific aspects are based on the innovative thoughts of philosophers or rishis. In the Rig Veda Astronomy, in the Samhitas and the Atharva Veda, medicine and mathematics are clearly defined. Science is the integral part of Indian cultural heritage. First of all India gave the concept of numbers, the values of decimal place and the zero as early as AD 100, the second century BC, and fifth century AD, by Aryabhata,Pingala, and Brahmagupta. Other spheres of science where early philosophers made major contributions are in the fields of geometry, medicine, metallurgy, and alchemy. The evolution of copper metallurgy, Bronze and the lostwax method of casting technology first started in India. Indian Culture is an ancient most popular cultures in the world. India is known for its exuberant rich cultural heritage, which include the combination of customs, traditions, lifestyle, religion, languages, rituals, and cuisine. The scientific aspects of Indian culture heritage are, Joining both palms together to greet in indian culture termed as "Namaskar". The scientific reason behind it that, this denotes the pressure points of eyes, ears, and mind. Pressing hands together activate the pressure points, which helps us to remember that person for a long time. Wearing second toe rings does not denote married women but also have scientific reason behind it, that a particular nerve from the second toe connects the uterus and passes to heart. Wearing toe ring on this finger strengthens the uterus and keep menstrual cycle regularized. Throwing coins into rivers bring good luck, but the original scientific reason behind it is that, in the ancient times currency is made up of copper, which is very useful for the human body. in the ancient times rivers were the only source of drinking water, throwing coins in the river was intake sufficient copper as drinking river water. Applying tilak or kumkum on the forehead prevent the loss of energy, while applying Kumkum between the eyebrows the points Adnya-chakra is automatically pressed. Which supply blood to the face muscles. People ring the bells before entering the temple's inner sanctum, garbhagudi, garbha gruha or womb-chamber. where the main idol is placed, the scientific reason behind ringing the bells is that their ring clears our mind and helps us stay sharp and keep our full concentration on devotional purpose. The bells are made in such a way that it sound creates unity in our mind. The bells produces a sharp and enduring echo sound for minimum of 7 seconds. This echo sound activate all the seven healing centers in our body. Applying mehendi lending colour to the hands. mehendi is a powerful medicinal herb. mehendi cools down the body and keeps the nerves from becoming tense. Sitting on the floor and eating is the position of “Sukhasan”, which is a yoga asanas and helps in digestion. This is the scientific reason behind sitting on the floor and eating. Why should not sleep with your head towards north, the scientific reason behind it is that, human body has its own magnetic field. Which is called hearts magnetic field, due to the flow of blood. As we all know that Earth is a giant magnet. sleeping with head towards the north, body’s magnetic field become asymmetrical to the Earth’s Magnetic field, which create problems related to blood pressure and heart work harder to overcome this asymmetry of magnetic fields. The scientific reason behind fasting is mentioned in Ayurveda, that accumulation of toxic materials in the digestive system makes us ill. cleansing of toxic materials keeps our body healthy, which is done by fasting, which keeps digestive organs get rest and all body cleansing correctly. complete fast is good for heath, but occasional intake of warm lemon juice in the fasting prevents the flatulence. So we have great scientific aspects in our indian cultural heritage.