Showing posts with label History Geography General Study. Show all posts
Showing posts with label History Geography General Study. Show all posts

Glacier Role In Shaping High Mountain Area Landform

Glacier High Mountain Area Landform

Glacier Shaping High Mountain Area Landform

Glaciers are moving bodies of ice and high amounts of rock and sediment, that can change landscapes by forming sculpt mountains and carve valleys. In the past glaciers have covered more than one third part of Earth's surface, and continue to flow and shaping high mountain area landforms. Past glaciers have created a variety of landforms such as, 

U-Shaped Valleys, and Hanging Valleys

Glaciers erode carve a set of distinctive, flat-bottomed, steep-walled valleys like Oolah Valley, which is also called the Gates of the Arctic National Park AK, is an example of a U-shaped valley and hanging valleys.


Cirques are made by glacier in the shape of bowl or amphitheater. Glaciers depressions carve mountains side wall and set high elevations to form the Cirques. Dixie Pass Trail, Wrangell-St Elias National Park, AK is an example of cirques.

Nunataks and Horns

Nunataks areas and horns are formed by the glacial erosion in areas, where many numbers of glaciers flow in multiple directions, and form stark, rocky outcrops above it. Lake McDonald Glacier National Park, MT, is the example of nunataks and horns.

Lateral and medial moraines

Lateral and medial moraines are formed by the glacially transported rock and debris, on the sides of glacier's boundary between two edges tributary of glaciers.

Glacial Till and Glacial Flour

Glaciers till blankets or flour are made by the sediments produced through glacial grinding. Glacial till contains sediments of tiny particles smaller than a grain of sand to large boulders, Glacial flour is the smallest size of sediment smaller than sand. the milky colored of the rivers water is due to the fed by glaciers flour.

Glacial Erratics

Glacial Erratics are chunks of rocks that are picked up by  Glaciers and transport over long distances. Where these rocks are found known as glacial erratics.

Paternoster Lakes

Paternoster lakes valley is made by the glacial erosion in small basins scooped out by the glacier. Lyell Glacier's lakes in Yosemite National Park, CA is the example of Paternoster Lakes.


Kettles are formed when glacier recedes, and sediment from the glacier deposited in a flat area, which forms an outwash plain. known as kettles, Lamar Valley Yellowstone National Park, WY Lake is an example of Kettle.


Drumlins are formed by glacier flow, Drumlins are hills of sediment, which are generally a streamlined quarter mile or more in length. Spectacle Island in Boston Harbor National Park is an example of a drumlin.

Outwash Plains and Eskers

Outwash plains and eskers are formed by the flow of meltwater in front of or beneath the glacier ice. Outwash Plains and Eskers are the result of glacial sediments composition, reworked by glacier's melting flowing water. Tana Glacier Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, AK create Outwash Plains and Eskers.

Reverse Migration COVID-19 Lockdown Social Economic Impacts

Reverse Migration COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown Impacts

Reverse Migration

Reverse migration is defined as the migration of people from urban areas to rural areas. While the right direction of migration is from rural areas to urban areas. In March 2020, due to COVID-19 pandemic lockdown migration patterns dramatically changed in reverse direction. job losses due to the anticipation of COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns, mass movement of migrants rushed to get home, from Europe, the Gulf, North America, and Domestic migrants took trains or by foot from big cities in India back to their towns and villages.

COVID-19 Lockdown Social Economic Impacts

The spread of COVID-19 pandemic has threatened human lives across the globe. the COVID-19 Lockdown disrupted livelihoods, trade, economy and businesses across across the world. Socio-Cultural Impacts due to the Physical isolation by the COVID -19 pandemic lockdowns have led to depression, alcoholism, substance abuse, and in some cases suicides. poor and disadvantaged groups suffers more by the COVID -19 lockdown. migrant workers stuck at national and international borders, while returning to their own homes and faced the unfair treatment, rage, negative psychological impacts, of the Covid -19 pandemic. The global economy is heading toward a severe unprecedented economic crisis due to the COVID-19 Lockdown. As the global social economic conditions have been profoundly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. all countries in the world have faced difficulties due to Covid-19, but the South Asian countries due to their large population have faced more challenging situation like health care problem, increase poverty rates, lack of water and sanitation, and inadequate living space to follow the social distancing to stop the spread of the Covid -19 virus, imposed of stringent COVID -19 lockdowns, affected the lives and livelihoods of millions of people in the South Asian countries. Covid-19 Lockdown impacts on social and economic sectors including migration, tourism, informal sector, agriculture and rural livelihoods dwindling micro-small and medium industries, and informal businesses, included closure of offices, restaurants, hotels, schools, colleges and education institutions, international borders, suspension of visas, complete international and domestic travel ban, ban on public gatherings. huge sources of foreign exchange have also been affected significantly due to the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown.

Ocean Resources Exploitation Ecological Problems

Ocean Resources Ecological

Ocean Resources Exploitation

Ocean is the important source of food, travel from one country to other countries, and help in explore trade and acquire wealth. The oceans maintain ecosystem balance on the land. ocean is the largest absorber of Carbon dioxide,and ocean winds regulate and maintain cool climate. The ocean currents maintain marine ecosystem and provide nutrients to growth of ocean vegetation, planktons, fish species, and millions of other species beneath the ocean. Over the years people have more exploited ocean's resources like gem, minerals, Rutile, Zircon, Monazite, Manganese, Phosphates, crude oil and gas for commercial use. The oceans ecological systems are continue changing, due to climate change and man made exploitation. There is a common need of globally to protect the ocean, for this The United Nations Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) come in front and provides a basic framework for ocean governance and resource exploitation.

Ocean Ecological Problems

Due to pollution, climate change, man made industrial development and associated activities, are harming the coastal and marine ecological systems. Marine life is disturbing and threatening by noise pollution, mainly come from shipping, seismic air guns used in oil and gas, and naval sonar. We are polluting the oceans by Oil spills, dumping of toxic wastes, and plastics into the ocean. Human commercial activities like fisheries, shipping, extraction of minerals, exploration the natural gas and oil and climate change effects are very much harmful for the ocean ecological systems. a large number of people in the world are dependent on the ocean coastal and marine ecosystems resources. In spite of ocean's ecological and economic importance, the major drivers of ocean ecological degradation are anthropogenic habitat conversion of land use, by overexploitation of resources, destructive harvesting practices, pollution from domestic, agricultural and industrial effluents added into the ocean. To reduce the adverse impacts on coastal ecological and marine biodiversity across the world, IUCN created a sustainable development goals framework to manage and protect marine ecological and coastal ecosystems from land-based pollution. and enhancing the sustainable use of ocean-based resources through international law.

Volcanic Eruption Causes And Lava Deposition Landforms

Volcanic Eruption Causes Lava Deposition Landforms

Volcanic Eruption Causes

Earth is very much hot inside, so that some rocks slowly melt and convert into a thick flowing substance, which is called magma. Magma is lighter than the solid rock, magma rises and some of the magma erupted through vents and fissures to the Earth's surface. Which is called volcanic eruption and erupted magma is called lava. there are several factors for triggering a volcanic eruption some of these are, the pressure from the dissolved gases in the magma, the injection of a new batch of magma into an already filled magma chamber and the tectonic plates are pushed down another tectonic plate.

Formation Of Lava Deposition Landforms

Volcanic landforms Formation are the geological processes, which is depends on the eruptive behavior of the volcano. After eruption of the volcano, the volcanic Lava cold down and formed the original landform. volcanic landforms modified according to lava materials. There are many different types of volcanic landforms like,

Shield Volcanic Landform

Shield volcanoes are formed by the lava flows over a central vent. shields contain low viscosity basaltic magma. Due to low viscosity of the magma, lava travel down in a gentle slope. shield volcanoes is in a roughly circular or oval shape. Hawaiian volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa are the example of Shield Volcanoes.

Strato Volcanic Landform

Strato Volcano Landform is in higher steeper slopes than shield volcanoes, with 6 to 10 degree slopes on the flanks and 30 degree near the top. 50% Pyroclastic material is in Strato Volcano Landform.

Cinder Cones Or Tephra Cones Volcanic Landform

Cinder cones are in small volume. They are from by strombolian eruptions and consist basaltic to andesitic material. Cinder Cones Slopes are between about 25 and 35 degree. Cinder cones occur in a groups of tens to hundreds of cones in one area. Paricutin Volcano in Mexico is the example of cinder cone.

Volcanic Domes Or Lava Domes Landform

Volcanic Domes occur due to the extrusion of highly viscous gas with poor andesitic and rhyolitic lava. Due to the high viscosity the lava does not flow away from the vent, and piles up near the vent. Volcanic Domes contain more gas rich magma, they can be extremely dangerous after eruption.

Craters and Calderas Volcanic Landform

Craters are circular depressions, due to volcanic explosions, within the range of 1 km in diameter. Calderas are circular to elliptical larger depressions in the diameters of 1 km to 50 km.  Calderas form due to collapsing a volcanic structure. Calderas collect rain water and snow melt, and form lakes. 8 km diameter Crater Lake Caldera in southern Oregon is a example of Calderas. million years ago Larger calderas have formed in the western United States, including Yellowstone Caldera in Wyoming, in eastern California Long Valley Caldera, and Valles Caldera in New Mexico. 

Plateau Or Flood Basalts Landform

Plateau or Flood basalts are made up of low viscosity basaltic magma from fissure vents, in extremely large volume and spread in huge areas with low slope and build Plateau Or Flood Basalts Landform. in Iceland the Laki basalt is the example of Plateau Or Flood Basalts.

Irrigation Sources Changes Happening In Uttar Pradesh

Irrigation Sources In USA

Irrigation Sources In Uttar Pradesh

The primary occupation in India is the Agriculture, which is completely depends on irrigation. in the state of Uttar Pradesh the facilities of Irrigation for the farmers are not even everywhere, Somewhere it is plenty of irrigation sources, and many parts are facing scarcity of water for irrigation. In Uttar Pradesh hathras has the highest irrigation facilities and sonbhadra has the lowest irrigation facilities. In Uttar Pradesh canals are the major source of iirrigation, which are originating from himalayas ranges rivers. the major canals in Uttar Pradesh are Upper Ganga Canal, Lower Ganga Canal, Sharda Canal, Eastern Yamuna Canal, Agra Canal, and Betwa Canal. The net irrigated area in Uttar Pradesh increased 77.81% during the period of 2001 to 2005, which was 77.19% during 1996 to 2000. 

New Irrigation Sources Projects


Other than canal and tubewell irrigation, there are others sources of irrigation in Uttar Pradesh. Water is very important for successful agriculture farming. The most of the irrigation Water for the agriculture crops come from rainfall, which is supply to fields through canals, well, tube-wells, tanks, ponds or tapping water. We should adopted rain water harvesting for the ground water recharge, and try dry farming techniques in low water areas. In Uttar Pradesh mega irrigation projects are going on, by these projects about 4 million farmers of Uttar Pradesh will be benefited. The Uttar Pradesh government are working for small and marginal farmers, to irrigate 16.49 lakh hectares of additional land from these new irrigation projects. new irrigation projects of Uttar Pradesh Government will supply water to those areas, where lack of water for agriculture. these irrigation projects will take water from Saryu Canal, Umraha, Ratauli, Lakheri, Bhavani, Masgaon, and Barwar Lake. By these irrigation projects the farmers of Purvanchal, Western Uttar Pradesh and Bundelkhand will be benefited, among them the farmers of Bundelkhand will get the maximum benefit of new irrigation projects, because Bundelkhand is often hit by drought due to lack of rainfall. the uttar pradesh government completed the Rasin Dam Project in Chitrakoot and Bandai Dam Project in Lalitpur. New Solar power electricity plant of 2.50 MW capacity is building at the top of Jakhlaun Pump Canal in Lalitpur. In the coming days, these irrigation projects will become a model for the Uttar Pradesh state.

What Is Liberalisation And Impacts Of Liberalisation

What is Liberalisation Impacts Of Liberalisation

What Is Liberalisation ?

liberalization is the process in which government provide loose controls and relaxation in laws, relating to economic and social matters. Liberalisation provide reductions in restrictions on international trade, capital and the removal of government restrictions on business to freeing of markets from state intervention. In the second half of the 20th century significant liberalisation trade progressed by the signing of free trade agreements, for example the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1947, and in Europe the Single European Act lmpose in 1986 , and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1992. During the 1970s free trade promoted to most Organisation in Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, and many developing countries. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) figureout between 1991 and 1996, that 95 percent of the national foreign direct investment (FDI) regulations in the world are in the direction of further liberalisation. Liberalisation was begun to eliminate government limitations on multiple areas of the economy. 

Impact of Liberalisation

Liberalization played a major role in stimulating rise in FDI and international trade at the rate of 6 percent per annum between 1948 and 1997. Liberalisation have contributed to the globalization of the world economy. Liberalisation in India begun  in 1991, by the adoption of New Economic Strategy in the field of investment and trade sectors. Which drastically changed in the Indian economy. private sector organisations also benefited to conduct business transactions with fewer government's restrictions due to liberalisation. Liberalisation has opened economic borders to foreign companies and investments by encounter difficulties to enter countries with many barriers. Impact of Liberalisation on Free flow of capital for the businesses to reach the capital from investors. In India economic reform policies launched in 1991, in the field of export-import policy, technology up-gradation, fiscal policy, and foreign investment, industrial licensing, and more general areas. Negative Impact of Liberalisation by restoration of the political power and economic power will lead to weakening the entire Indian economy Technological development destroyed many small scale industries and other businesses in India. Mergers and acquisitions of Small businesses or companies by the big companies.

Concept Of Nation Citizenship In Context Of Communalism

Concept Nation Citizenship Communalism

Concept Of Nation Citizenship And Communalism



Nation is taken from the Latin word nasci, which meaning is to be free. Nation is defined as a combination of cultural and political factors, by which group of people bound together with a common language, religion, history and traditional values. These classically statehood factors gave the birth of nationalism concept.


Citizenship is related to the concept of nation, in which the members of a nation or state take a membership relation between the individual and the nation or state, in which the members and the nation are bound together by a reciprocal rights and responsibilities. According to the T. H. Marshall citizenship is a full and equal membership in a political community. citizenship has been evolving and changing according to the invented nature of nation.


In a broad sense communalism meaning is a strong attachment to their own community. Particularly in India, communalism meaning is to suppresses distinctions within the community and emphasizes the essential unity of the community against other communities. this practice of communalism increase the belief of orthodox tenets, intolerance and hatred of other religions. Which divides the society. We should approach a positive aspect of communalism for the affinity of an individual social and economic upliftment. In India communalism has its roots in the religious and cultural diversity of India. communalism has been used by political parties as a tool to create divide, differences and tensions between the communities on the basis of religious and ethnic identity. Which led to result in communal hatred and violence. In ancient India different society and different faith people remain coexisted peacefully. In India Buddha was the first prophet who gave the concept of secularism. Another example is Ashoka, who followed a policy of peace and religious tolerance. In Medieval India arrival of Islam marked occasional communalism violence by Mahmud Ghazni and Mahmud Ghor to attack on Hindus, Jains and Buddhists temples. While Rulers Akbar and Sher Shah Suri followed the toleration religious policy towards different cultures and tradition across the country.