Showing posts with label Business Management -1. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Business Management -1. Show all posts

Power Concept Nine Most Identified Power Tactics

Power Concept Nine Power Tactics


Power Concept


The power concept is the capacity of a person, that a person has the power can influence the behaviour of another person, according to their wishes. The power potential to influence the behaviour of another person is called power politics in organizational behaviour. There are two types of organizational power the informal power and formal power. Informal Power comes from an individual’s character, personal skills, traits and knowledge. While the Formal Power comes from the individual’s position in an organization.


Sources of Formal power 


The Sources of Formal power are,


Legitimate Power


The Legitimate Power give the control of firing, demotion, subordinate’s authority and use the organization’s resources to accomplish organizational goals.


Reward Power


The reward power allows you to give pay raises, promotion, praise, interesting projects, and other rewards to subordinates. However there is a limit to the reward power, but it can be a great tool for the motivation of subordinates.


Coercive Power 


The coercive power give the control of punish or to withhold a punishment. The coercive power should be used very carefully. Coercive Power punishments can be, suspension, demotion,termination, unpleasant job work, and withholding of praise and goodwill.


Sources of Informal Power


The Sources of informal power are,


Expert Power


Expert Power is an informal power that comes from superior ability or expertise. In this, the organization members will tend to consult expert person for advice or help on a project.


Referent Power


Referent Power comes from fame. referent power fame could be in the field of film, sports, music and stars. People who have referent power possess high expertise. Their obtain resources, and secure their surroundings provided by referent powers.

 

Charismatic Power


Charismatic Power comes from someone’s personality and it is the Intense form of referent power. charismatic power also comes from physical attributes or abilities, charismatic power induce others to follow and believe in that person.


The Concept of Power Tactics


There are nine types of power tactics. These tactics are ways in the organization, by which a person translate power bases into specific actions. The nine power influence tactics are, rational persuasion, inspirational appeals, consultation, exchange, legitimacy,personal appeals, ingratiation, pressure and coalitions.


Rational Persuasion Power Tactics.


Rational persuasion power tactic is used by a valid reason, rational logic, or realistic facts, to try and convince someone with 


Inspirational Appeals Power Tactics.


Inspirational appeals power tactic builds enthusiasm by appealing to emotions, ideas and values.


Consultation Power Tactics.


Consultation power tactic focuses on making decisions, and encourage changes by getting others to participate in the planning process, 


Ingratiation Power Tactics.


Ingratiation tactic includes being friendly, helpful, using praise or flattery. Which emphasizes on getting someone in a good mood prior to making a request. 


Personal Appeals Power Tactics.


Personal appeals power tactic used to making a request, that refers to friendship and loyalty.


Exchange Power Tactics.


Exchange power tactic suggests making express or implied promises and trading favours.


Coalition Power Tactics.


Coalition power tactic Refers to prescribes getting others to support your effort to persuade someone.


Pressure Power Tactics.


Pressure power tactic focuses on demanding compliance by using intimidation or threats.

 

Legitimating Power Tactics.


Legitimating power tactic suggests organizational rules, policies, and express implied support from superiors, that basing a request on one’s authority or right.

Group Decision Making Techniques Brainstorming

 

Group Decision Making
Group Decision Making 

Group Decision Making


When a number of individuals meet together to discuss a common objective is called a group. The group decision making techniques are the interaction between the groups members, who meet face-to-face and discuss on both verbal and nonverbal interaction to communicate with each other. In group decision making techniques, the group members share their ideas, knowledge, expertise and experience to try discover and evaluate creative alternatives to solve a complicated problem. Group-Decision-Making brings more knowledge and expertise at the time of decision making collectively.


Group Decision Making Techniques 


Group decision-making techniques are used by group leaders in idea generation regarding a complicated business problem solutions. The creativity, knowledge and expertise of the group members reduce the risks associated with the decision. The following techniques used for group decision making, which are discussed in detail below.

Brainstorming.

Delphi Technique.

Nominal Group Technique (NGT).

Fish Bowling.

Electronic Meeting.

Devils Advocacy.

Didactic Interaction.


Brainstorming


Brainstorming technique of group decision-making given by the Alex Osborn, in brainstorming  technique a pool of ideas are generated for clearly states problem in a judgement-free environment. The members of group are asked to generate as many ideas as possible spontaneously, without criticism, comments, and judgements during the brainstorming process. All the ideas given by the group members are are recorded and evaluated by the manager later on. In brainstorming group decision making technique a large number of creative ideas are generated. brainstorming technique is carried out in a bias-free environment. Brainstorming technique for decision making results in a low cost per idea. The size of the group is small, which leads to increased participation of group members. In brainstorming group decision making technique there is no restriction or judgement, for quality ideas. The idea is acceptable to all. In the end of the brainstorming, no plan or solution is generated,except a list of ideas for the manager.


Delphi Technique


Delphi group decision making technique is a planning process,judgement and solutions are obtained through e-mails, other methods and questionnaires by the group members without physical interaction. Norman C.Dalkey and his associates developed delphi technique. In delphi technique the group coordinator sends the delphi question and questionnaires to the group members and asked to share their ideas or solutions for the given problem. The group members write down their views, ideas, possible solutions and their answers to the group coordinator for the analysis of first response,feedback and second enquiry. The group coordinator analyzes previous questions and prepares another questionnaire for more refined solutions, clarification, agreements & disagreements, the group members again send their responses to the coordinator, delphi process continues until the group members reach out a suitable solution.


Nominal Group Technique (NGT)


Nominal group decision-making technique does not involve interaction between the group members. group members are present but don’t interact with each other so it is called nominal technique. The group members write their ideas without any discussion and noted on a chart one by one without any criticism. And in the last a written vote is taken from the group members.


Fish Bowling


In the Fish-Bowling group decision making technique all the group members sit in a circle and one of the group members sits at the centre, who is the decision-maker. Who sits in the centre suggests a solution for the given problem. All the members ask questions and critically evaluate the solution suggested by the person, who was in the centre. The group members cannot interact with each other, in the end all the views are expressed, and the ones with conses are selected.


Electronic Meeting


Electronic-meeting group decision making technique is a mix of nominal group technique and technology. The electronics meetings are conducted through an electronic medium. problem is shared online with the group members, and the group members submit their responses. The agreement and disagreements in the electronic meetings are shared through votes.


Devils Advocacy


Devils Advocacy group decision making technique appoints two group members as devils. These devils decision-making process discusse every possible loophole in the solution of the problem.


Didactic Interaction


Didactic Interaction group decision making technique is divided entire group into two parts, one part is in favour of the decision and the other part presents points against the decision.

Variable Pay For Performance Plans Success Criteria

Variable Pay Performance Plans

Variable Pay For Performance Plans


Variable Pay For Performance Plans are also known as performance pay. Which is used to recognise and reward employee contribution, who have worked above and beyond their normal job requirements, towards company productivity, profitability, and quality. Variable Pay For Performance is often based on two main factors, the employees own performance and company's performance. So, we see most of the schemes evolved by companies have a target based, and actual payout based on the completetion of that targets. Variable pay for performance is the extra money given to the employees in any organisation, except the fixed pay salary and cash allowances, retirals statutory pension such as PF, gratuity, benefits and perquisites and Esops, stock options and restricted stock units.


Criteria For The Success Of Variable Pay For Performance


Compensate for Individual Performance.

Piecework Rates.

Standard Hour Plan.

Merit Pay.

Performance Bonus.

Sales Commission.

Pay For Team Performance.

Profits sharing.

Team Awards and Bonus.

Pay for Organizational Performance.

Employee Stock Option Plan (ESOP).

The success and failure of the variable pay for performance plans depend on the middle managers, who will make or break your variable pay program. You should involve managers in variable pay program design and effectively convey the benefits of a well-designed variable pay program, which can positively affect the organization’s in various ways and also improve the Morale, Productivity, Quality, Customer service, On-time performance, Work methods and communication. Comprehensive Variable Pay programs are the critical success factors for the organizations, who support a performance reward framework. Variable Pay For Performance Compensation policies and programs must be aligned with the organization’s strategic objectives, and the top level management must allow the variable pay program. Variable Pay For Performance Compensation must be both internally equitable and externally competitive. The variable pay performance program must deliver what is promised, on time and fairly payments. Variable Pay For Performance payouts must be aligned with performance criteria achievement. Variable Pay For Performance opportunities must be motivate performance. Timing of Variable Pay For Performance payout allocations should be as close as possible to the qualifying event.

Difference Between Organization Structure And Design

Organization Structure Design Organic
Organization Structure And Design

Organization Structure And Design


Organizational structure is a stable representation of the organization. Organization structure is the corporate chart structures which provides the relationship between one job function to another by rows of members, managers and leaders, and different command chains. on the other hand the organization design is a dynamic representation of the organization. Which uses building processes and services to ensure that the business continues to operate at its best. The main point of the organization design criteria are the continuous process. The economy, the market forces, the governing structure, the buyer's tastes, and the external environments of the business.


Organization structure


Organization structure refers to the individual departments in a company depending on the size and nature of the organization. The major form of organization's structure are,


Tall Versus Flat Organization Structure


In most organizations, there is a hierarchy level, even though there is only one individual as head of the organization. This can be described as a flat surface standard structure with a very few layers interspersed between the top and bottom. On the other hand The tall structure has several layers between top and bottom.


Product Departmentalization Organization Structure


Departmentalization means the mode of operation of a business divided between different workers. The role of departmentalization is a division of activities in a company that relates to specific business functions. In a product departmentalization organization, the focus of the business units is on a particular product. For example, in a company the manager can be assigned to a particular department product, to supervise all aspects of one particular offering provided by the company.


Matrix Departmentalization Organization Structure


With large-complexities organization, matrix departmentalization structure is very common. Matrix departmentalization uses cross functional groups to operate on both products and functions. For example, automobile manufacturers would combine their design units with the commerce division in order to create specialized design for that model, thereby combining the knowledge and skills of each group.


How To Design An Organization


In an organization design the Galbraith Star model is a very useful tool. It uses asking and answering questions in five cores, which are,


Strategy


Organization's design strategies are the organization objectives, mission, vision and values. What are your competitive advantages, and value you provide to your clients? which products or services to be offered, which markets you serve, and the unique selling proposition.


Structure


How is distributed power structured centralized or decentralized? Do you want to organize tasks, divisions, or products into a matrix structure? For most businesses, the structure goes hand in hand with design.


Processes


How do you plan your budget for different tasks? How do document and procedural regulations ensure that the product or service is delivered into the hands of customers? What are the details of the completed metric process? and how are they valued?


Rewards


What reward systems are needed to motivate staff and keep them aligned to the goals of the organization? What you offer, promotions, bonuses, stoke options, commissions or pay based?


People


This section focuses on the company's recruitment, promotion, training and development plans to produce the talent they need to implement the strategy.


Organic Versus Mechanistic Organization


Now we have discovered some elements of the organizational structure and the types of structures that organization can choose to use when arranging its projects and employees. Some of these structures are very strict and hierarchical, like the official model, and some structures, as endless, fairly loose and free. They have all their advantages and disadvantages. When administrators connect the elements of organic structures together, the performance has some characteristics that can be better understood through the lens of organic engineering.


Organic organization


Organic organizations have the lowest level of formality, specialization and standardization. The organic model is mostly flat, and uses cross-range, hierarchical, and cross-functional systems with a comprehensive network of information that has lateral and upward concepts in addition to sharing below. They allow administrators to develop more creative ideas because the business is not so rigidly structured. Organizational structures are also used in a dynamic, unstable environment where things need to be quickly adapted to change, as the organic structure gives the organization the flexibility to act on the steps of environmental change and among many different elements. an organization that uses an organic structure is a consulting firm. A firm responds to buyer's questions while they arise, and questions change with the business environment. Firms want to respond to changes in consultations quickly, so that they can also address the needs of their customers.


Mechanistic Organization 


Mechanistic Organizations have centralized decision making and direct standardized formal systems. They work in simple, stable environments. Administrators integrate the clear departments through formal channels and formal meetings. Relationships are often hierarchical in mechanistic organization and focus on several layers of relationships.

Strategic Human Resource Management Practices Strategies

Human Resource Management Practices
Strategic Human Resource Management Practices

Strategic Human Resource Management 


Strategic human resource management (strategic HRM) provides a framework for managing and developing long-term business goals and outcomes. strategic HRM strategies, such as wages and performance, are integrated into the overall business in the context of the organization and the nature of the work. since the 1990s strategic HRM thinking is introduced in the business strategy, human capital administration, and business performance. Strategic HRM, supports long-term objectives of the organization. There is no Strategic Human Resource Management policy that will deliver successfully in all cases, because every Organizations have their individual policies according to culture and objectives.


How HR Practices Get Aligned With Corporate Strategies 


The strategic plan is the process of defining the long-term goal of the organization and establishing the necessary objectives to achieve it. This process involves thorough analysis of the current and anticipated conditions that affect the ability of an organization to achieve its mission. The business plan is a strategy designed to achieve the most competitive advantages and create the most profitable organization's mission. To successfully execute HR practices get aligned with corporate strategies project, each task within the corporate business needs to align its technical departmental strategy with the overall business plan. But it is easy for functional and department leaders to slip into the narrow of their strategy. After all, each office has a distinct range of services cash and accounts, sales and marketing, operations, HR, technology and production. However, aligning HR Practices with the corporate strategies, individual departmental plans with the overall strategy should be implemented with the business plan. The HR function, compared to other functions, is involved in the operation and performance of all other business functions. The HR function strategy intersects and affects other business functions in the following areas,

Unmatched talent.

Administration.

Training and development.

Employee retention and engagement.

Law enforcement services.

Compensation, benefits,

safety and security.

Therefore, successfully aligning HR strategy with corporate strategies in managing the state is critical to achieving the organization's mission. Alignment between HR and Corporate Strategies is the link through communication. Understand business plans and implement HR policy evaluate the results by Communication within the HR department and other business leaders in the organization.

What Is Personality Five Traits Predict Work Behaviour

Personality Five Traits Predict Work Behaviour

Personality Five Traits



What Is Personality


Personality is the qualities of a person that make him different from other person. Personality have a strong, interesting and attractive character. Personality is characterized by attitudes, cognitions, and emotions that highlight biological and environmental factors. While there is almost no clear definition of personality, most theories focus on stimulus and psychological interactions with the surroundings. The study of personality called personality psychology, that explain the differences in behavior to the study of personality, including biological, cognitive, and social theories.


The Big Five Personality Traits


The big five personality traits that predict work behaviour of a person are


Openness to Experience


Openness to Experience line is often used for the depth of someone's mental experience or imagination. A person's desire is to try new things, make room for them, and think of them. The men who eat high in this province are generally artful and curious, while those who go lowly are wont to be conventional and abide in comfort zones.


Consciousness


This notation measures someone's reliability and consistency. Someone who scores higher in this area is a more program organized, tends to control movements and is generally very organized. They usually see success in school and excel as a leader. Those who describe below in this area are more likely to rush up and down on assignments.


Extroversion


The extraversion of contacts indicates how social and talkative a person is. Those who are high in provocation are generally more assertive, rely on socially and reinvigorate their relationships with people, while those who are lesser seek more solitude and introspection.


Agreeableness


Concordance shows how one can get along well with others. Men in this craft are wont to be lazy, grateful, friendly, loving, and those who are inferior, dull, rude, and sarcastic.


Neuroticism


The last feature of the personality trait is also known as movement stability. It measures how well a person can control emotions such as anxiety and sadness. High scoring in this area indicates that someone is prone to emotions and even self-esteem. Those who receive a humble name are perhaps more confident and more daring.

Strategic Measures For Effective Management System

Strategic Measures Management System
Strategic Measures Management System

Strategic Measures For Effective Management


Strategic measures for effective management are very important for the manager and professional, who manage the workforce performance. There are six strategic measures for effective management of organization's success in management system. Strategic measures for effective management create culture of self-leadership among the employees. These strategic measures for effective management are,


1. Communication


The authority person should clearly communicate company objectives and performance expectations from the employees. Sometimes communicating the company’s objectives and organisational goals can seem quite big and, far from the employee’s daily job responsibilities. Then the role of manger communication start to help employees by translating the company’s goals and objectives for the contributions of individual in the goals.


2. Feedback


For effective management in the organization, create a culture of constant feedback checks and balances. Make a process for regular check-ins to discuss company's goals results, and share feedback of employees performance so that employees could know their performance. Where they are doing well and where they need to improve on. It can be done by a manager in the way to get feedback from direct reports and understand or identify challenges experiencing in getting employees work done.


3. Appraisals


The company should have 360-degree appraisals according to regular performance reviews. the manager should review and collect feedback about the employee from different angles coworkers, subordinates, and their clients if employees work in a client-facing role, for appraises the employee, 360-degree. The 360-degree appraisals give a more rounded view of the employee.


4. Achievements


The manager should acknowledge exceptional achievements of the employee. And make a possible reward for individuals. who have show their hard work exceptional, and not to be unnoticed the employee's hard work and encourage the rest of the team to do so.


5. Training And Development


Prioritise should be given to employee’s training and development in the organization. employee’s technical and behavioural evaluation training increase effective performance and current proficiency level in the management systems. The manager should determine the development action plan or personal development plan to bridge any gaps in employees may exist, and should arrange proper training for the employees to fill the gaps.


6. Performance Management


The manager in the firm should use the performance management software for the employees effective performance level. Implementing an effective performance management software system leads to improve the results from team members and employees, which gives better organisational performance. Using performance management software system simplify organization performance management process, and make easy to share review forms of employees, set 360 reviews of the individual, track goals, set up and remind stakeholders about scheduled reviews and check-ins. performance management software system has a simple interface that makes it easy to use for managers a making direct reports, making the entire performance management process truly seamless for the entire organization.