Group Decision Making In Organizational Behavior

Group Decision Making In OB


Groups Decision Making


Groups decision making benefits are to find decisions from the experienced and perspective large number of individuals. Therefore, a group may have the ability to be more creative and make more effective decisions. In fact, groups can sometimes achieve results beyond what they could have done as individuals. Can make work more enjoyable for group members. Finally, when a decision is made by a group rather than a single one, the implementation of the decision will become easier, as the group members will be more invested in the decision. If the group is diverse, better decisions can be made, as different members of the group may have different views based on their backgrounds and experiences. Research shows that for top management teams, the various groups that debate make decisions that are more comprehensive and preferable to the bottom line. group decision suffers from many disadvantages. While groups have the ability to make an effective decision, groups may suffer from coordination problems. Anyone who has worked with a team of individuals on a project may have difficulty in coordinating the work of members or coordinating the attendance of everyone in a team meeting. group decision making takes longer than individual decision making, as all members need to discuss their ideas about different options. Decision making by groups may be more effective.

Groups Thinking


Group thinking is a tendency to avoid critical evaluation of the group's favoring views. Ewing Janis, author of the book Victims of Groupthink, states that groupthink is characterized by following traits. illusion of disqualification is shared by most group members, which creates excessive optimism and encourages them to take extreme risks. There are collective rationalizations, in which members reduce negative information or warnings. Due to which they may have to reconsider their beliefs. Confidence occurs, which may lead members to ignore the ethical or moral consequences of their actions. When groups' rivals discount the ability to make effective responses, stable views of outflows are seen. Direct pressure is put on the member who expresses strong arguments against any stereotypes, confusion or commitments of the group Occurs when group members have the illusion of being unanimous on the basis of direct pressure on their. Lack of dissatisfaction is seen as unanimous. Self-appointed more members protect the group from information that runs counter to the group's beliefs and course of action.

Techniques for Making Better Decisions


There are following Tools and Techniques for Making Better Decisions.
Nominal Group Technique (NGT).
Delphi Technique .
Majority rule.
Consensus.
Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS).
knowledge management systems.
Decision trees.

Nominal Group Technique (NGT)


In The nominal grouping technique (NGT), group decision making to ensure that all members participate fully. NGT is not a regularly used technique in all meetings. Rather, it is used to structure group meetings when members are struggling with problem resolution or idea generation. It follows four steps. First, each member of the group begins writing ideas independently and quietly. Second, the group goes around the room in order to gather all the ideas that were generated. This process continues until all ideas are shared. Third, there is a discussion around each idea, and members ask for clarification and evaluate. Finally, group members vote for their favorite ideas using ranking or rating techniques. Adhering to the four-step NGT helps ensure that all members participate fully, and that avoided group decision-making problems such as groupthinking.

Delphi Technique


The Delphi technique is unique because it is a group process, that uses the written responses of a series of questionnaires rather than physically bringing individuals together to make decisions. outlining objectives, or proposing a solution. Each subsequent questionnaire is constructed from the information gathered in the previous one. This process ceases when the group reaches a consensus. Facilitators can decide whether to keep responses anonymous. This process is often used to generate best practice from experts. For example, Professor Michael Campion of Purdue University used this process when he was the editor of the research journal Personnel Psychology and wanted to determine the qualities that distinguished a good research article. Using the Delphi technique, he was able to gather responses from hundreds of top researchers around the world and distribute them to a list of criteria he could use to evaluate articles submitted to his journal, all Without leaving his office.

Majority Rule


Majority rules refer to a decision-making rule in which each member of the group is given one vote and the option that receives the largest number of votes is selected. This technique remains popular, perhaps due to its simplicity, speed, ease of use, and representational objectivity. Research also supports majority governance as an effective decision-making technique. However, those who do not vote in favor of the decision will be less likely to support it.

Consensus


Consensus is another decision-making rule that groups can use, when the goal is to gain support for an idea or action plan. Although consensus requires more time, it makes sense when support is needed to implement the plan. The process works from discussing the issues at hand, preparing a proposal, calling for consensus, and discussing any concerns. If concerns still exist, the proposal has been revised to accommodate them. These steps are repeated until consensus is reached. Consensus decision-making technique is inclusive, participatory, cooperative, and democratic. consensus has better accuracy, and it helps members feel more satisfied with the decision. However, groups take longer time with this approach, if consensus is not reached, members become frustrated.

Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) 


Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) are interactive computer-based systems capable of combining communication and decision technologies to help groups make better decisions. Research suggests that Group Decision Support Systems can actually improve the production of collaborative actions of groups through higher information sharing. Improving group decisions by improved pooling information.

knowledge Management Systems


Knowledge management systems are important for information sharing, and their expense reflects this reality. Businesses invested $ 2.7 billion in new systems in 2002 and estimated the number to double every 5 years. As the popularity of these systems increases, they risk being reversed. Man can only process so many thoughts and information at one time. the system is probably becoming too complex. If the system develops to a point of uneasy complexity, it has re-created the problem. Those who understand the interface will control the plot of the discussion, while those who are less discerning will only be along for the ride.

Decision Tree


Decision trees are diagrams with yes or no questions to answer that helps decision makers to reach the end of the tree. Decision-making trees are helpful in guiding the decision-maker to a predefined choice and ensuring continuity of decision-making following a course of action unlike the others, Using a decision tree.

Ethics and Decision Making 


Many decisions involve an ethical component, to assess the morality of a decision, Is this decision fair? Will I feel better or worse about myself after making this decision? Does this decision break any organizational rules? Does this decision break any laws? How would I have felt if the decision had been aired on the news.

Decision Making Around The Globe


Decision-making styles and approaches around the globe vary depending on the context, and an important contextual factor to keep in mind is the culture in which decisions are being made. Research from Japanese and Dutch decision makers suggests that both cultures are unanimous-oriented, with Japanese managers seeking a much greater consensus than Dutch managers. American managers value quick decision making, while Chinese managers tend to be more reflective and take their time to make important decision, especially when they involve some type of potential conflict.

United States Agreed To Buy COVID-19 Equipment From Russia

United States COVID-19

United States Agreed To Buy COVID-19 Medical Equipment From Russia


The United States is committed to the global fight against Coronavisrus COVID-19 pandemic. United States is a generous and reliable contributor to response and humanitarian action around the world for stopping the Coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak, but the united states don't have too much resources so, united states  cannot do it alone. The G20 countries agreed last week to work together to defeat coronaviruse COVID-19, and we are working closely with these countries and others to ensure that those severely needed supplies are found. After a phone call between United states President Trump and Russia President Putin, the united states will bought essential medical supplies from Russia, including ventilators and personal protective equipment. United states have agreed to buy Coronavirus COVID-19 related eqipments and medical supplies, which will be submitted to FEMA in York City. Both countries have provided humanitarian assistance to each other in times of  Coronavirus COVID-19 crisis in the world. It is time to work together to overcome a common enemy, Coronavirus that is a threat to the lives of all the people in the world.

Education And Sharing Day United States Of America 2020

Education And Sharing Day U.S.A.

Education And Sharing Day U.S.A. 2020


The President of the United States of America, declares April 5, 2020, as USA Education and Sharing Day, to all government officials, teachers, volunteers and United States Citizens. Donald J. Trump, by virtue of the authority enshrined by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, I call upon all people to observe this day with proper programs, ceremonies and activities. Let the next generation live a life of purpose and importance. Preparing for this purpose is one of our most important responsibilities. Education is essential to curiosity and strengthen the will to learn, education will develop character and prudence, and work collaboratively. On Education and Sharing Day, We pay tribute to family members, teachers, mentors, pastor members and other community leaders in the lives of our nation's youth, Investing through education and kindness and caring for each other. Education and. Sharing day is celebrated in the memory of Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, Lubavitcher Rebbe, a compassionate and visionary leader whose influence has already passed for more than a quarter century. Continues even after. This year Rabbi Schneider led the 70-year international Chabad-Lubavitch movement, building a faith-based network into a dynamic force for good, affecting millions of people around the world. While he witnessed the unimaginable tragedies that engulfed the world during World War II, the Holocaust, and the persecution and violence of the Cold War, the Lübwicher Rebbe maintained his fundamental belief in the liberating nature of all people's ability and education. Committed to the idea that education should pay more attention "with the emphasis on moral and ethical values, indeed the main motive for building character," he established college campuses and schools and centers for education , And spiritual development communities across our country and around the world. His legacy and lasting commitment to young people continues as an example of selfless service and devotion to all who know the story of his purposeful life. Life inspired by a commitment to unwavering virtue and faith The life and mission of Lubavitch Ribe Was central. When put into practice these values, empower people of all ages to fulfill their unique purpose and to grow and prosper our great nation. On this day, we acknowledge that each person has a unique purpose that can be attained through educationand skills, we need to renew our commitment to support education as a means Should be done by which individuals can  make their future prosperous. Develop your talent, and fulfill your God-given potential. We can work to create a bright future by preserving these foundations of freedom and fellowship for generations to come.

UN International Mine Awareness And Assistance Day

International Mine Awareness Day

United Nations International Mine Awareness Day


United Nations International Mine Awareness and Assistance Day is observed every year on 4 April. The United Nations International Mining and Assistance day provides an opportunity for the world to reflect both progress and landmines and unexplained ordinances. These explosive remains of war still endanger civilians in more than 60 countries. The United States has been working closely with partners around the world to address this serious humanitarian challenge, which involving innocent people, including many children. For more than 20 years, the United States has been part of the international donor community Leads so that, the availability of additional, loosely-protected, or otherwise least-risk weapons and light weapons and weapons Peace and security can be promoted by partnering with nations to alleviate. To address humanitarian threats and unexplained ordinances from landmines in post-conflict countries. The United States is the world's largest financial proponent of the destruction of conventional weapons, since 1993 has raised $ 3.7 billion in more than 100 countries. Invests more. In 2019, the United States funded conventional arms destruction efforts in 58 countries. Our assistance - to the government of the United States and to all our global partners is critical to building a more secure, and prosperous world. We should thanks to strong bipartisan who fund support from Congress, the State Department looks forward to continuing this important work with other donor countries, which are affected by the conflict, and the brave men and women who are involved in securing at-risk weapons and rebels Work in the field and clear landmines and other explosive hazards.

Decision Making In Organizational Behaviour

Decision Making In OB


Decision-Making


Decision-making refers to choosing between alternative courses of action, which may also include passivity. management work is to making decisions, half of the decisions made by managers is fail in any organizations. Why decisions fail Surprising but true, Half of the decisions in organizations fail. These decisions can affect the lives of others and change the course of an organization.

Types Of Decisions


Decision can be classified into three categories based on the type of at which they occur. Number one is Strategic decision which Set the course of an organization. Number two is a strategic decision which is made about how things will happen. Finally, third number is operational decisions, which refer to the decisions that employees make each day to run the organization. There are different decision-making models designed for understand and evaluate the effectiveness of the decisions. there are four decision-making models, which are,
Rational Decision-Making Model,
Bounded Decision-Making Model,
Intuitive Decision-Making Model,
Creative Decision-Making Model.

Rational Decision-Making Model


In the rational decision-making model a series of steps taken by decision makers to maximize the decisions outcomes results.  when making a rational decision-making model decision make sure that, you can establish your decision criteria before exploring options. This will prevent you from liking an option more and setting your criteria accordingly. advantage of the rational model is that it urges decision makers to generate all alternatives rather than just a few. By generating a large number of choices covering a wide range of possibilities, Despite all its benefits, there are many unrealistic assumptions involved in rational decision-model. that people fully understand their available options, they have no perceptual biases, and they want to make optimal decisions. Herbert Simon, a Nobel Prize-winning economist, observed that the rational decision-making model can be a helpful supporting tool for decision-makers it demonstrates how often decisions within organizations Are done. In fact, Simon argued that it might even come close.

Bounded Decision-Making Model


The bounded decision-making model limit the option for decision makers. In this decision-making processes the individuals have limit their choices to accept option without conducting an exhaustive search for alternatives. the first option that meets your minimum criteria. In bounded decision-making model, the decision maker saves cognitive time and effort by accepting the first option that meets the minimum threshold.

Intuitive Decision-Making Model


In intuitive decision-making model processes a decision is without conscious reasoning. A total of 89% of managers use intuition for decision-making due to, time pressures constraints, a great deal of uncertainty, changing situations, highly visible and high-stakes outcomes. Because they do not have time to use rational decision-making models. they rarely attribute luck to success. To the outside observer, they are guessing during the course of action to make an estimate, They do not decide between two or three options and choose the best one.

Creative Decision-Making Model


In creative decisions model an effective decision maker creat new imaginative ideas, flattening of intense competition among organizations and companies, individuals are motivated by creative in decisions ranging from cost cutting to creating new ways of doing business. In innovation process creativity is the first step, creativity and innovation are not the same thing. Innovation starts with creative ideas, but also includes realistic planning and follow. which may or may not work to solve real-world problems.

Faulty Decision Making Factors


To avoid faulty decision-making Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahnemann and Amos Tversky spent decades for studying, how people make decisions and They found faulty decisions making factors. which are influenced by following factors, Overconfidence Bias,
Hindsight Bias,
Anchoring Bias,
Framing Bias,
Escalation Of Commitment,

Overconfidence Bias


Overconfidence bias occurs when individuals reduce their ability to predict future events. Many people display signs of overconfidence. To avoid the effects of misleading and overconfident  bias, take time to stop and ask yourself if you are being realistic in your decisions.

Hindsight Bias


Hindsight bias is the opposite of overconfidence bias, when times seem backward and mistakes are apparent because they have already occurred. In other words, when surprising event has occurred, many people are likely to think that they already knew that this event was going to happen. This bias may occur because they are selectively reconstructing events. Hinds bias becomes a problem when looking at another's decisions. so depending on the information available at the time, it may be a reasonable option to continue with a regular routine. Therefore, it is important for decision makers to remember this bias before passing judgment on other people's actions.

Anchoring Bias


Anchoring Bias refers to the tendency of individuals to rely too heavily on one information. Job seekers often fall into this trap by focusing on a desired salary, ignoring other aspects of the job offer, such as fit with the job, and the work environment.

Framing Bias


Framing bias affects the tendency of decision makers to change the way a situation or problem is presented. Framing bias is important because depending on, how a problem is presented to us, we can choose an option that is harmful because of the way it is made.

Escalation Of Commitment


Escalation of commitment happens when
increase in commitment occurs, individuals continue on an unsuccessful course of action after the information can be a poor route to find out. This is sometimes called "sunk cost impurity", because continuity is often based on the idea that someone has already invested in the course of the action. Effective decision-makers avoid escalation of commitment.

U.S. President on National Financial Capability Month

U.S. National Financial Capability Month

U.S. National Financial Capability Month 2020


U.S. President on National Financial Capability Month 2020, recognize the importance of financial literacy for an independent and prosperous society, U.S. President committed to ensuring that all Americans have the resources and opportunities to make financial literacy and create a brighter and secure future. Small scale businesses and workforce are the backbone of united states economy. U.S. continue to meet the challenges posed by the coronovirus epidemic, the presidential administration is working tirelessly to ensure the individuals and business owners, to overcome recent difficulties. We are taking concrete steps to protect the American economy and the hardworking men and women of the united states. U.S. provide historical economic relief to small businesses and workers, including $ 350 billion. the Small Business Administration (SBA) is working to reduce financial burden and helping their employees to overcome this epidemic. the SBA is helping America's small businesses financial flexibility for the next several months, with the Treasury Department and the Revenue generated by  advancing tax from April 15 to July 15 May include. All taxpayers, individuals and businesses owners will have this extra time to pay without interest or penalties. The all resources available to all Americans and your family through the Treasury Department, that will help you make sound financial decisions in these uncertain times. Financial literacy is very important at all stages of life, especially during crises and unexpected life events. During the U.S. National Financial Capability Month 2020 and in the coming months, all Americans to explore ways in which They can further develop their financial skill set and develop themselves for success and secure a brighter, more prosperous future for all generations.