One Three History Geography Facts

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History Geography Facts


Social Economic Conditions of Sangam Period in South India


The Sangam Period was between the 3rd century B.C. and 3rd century A.D. on the south of river Krishna and Tungabhadra in south india.


Sangam Literature


Sangam Literature Sources give details about the Sangam Period which are,

Tolkappiyam was the earliest Tamil literary work. composed by Tolkappiyar on Tamil grammar, but it also provides political and socio-economic conditions of the dangam period.

Ettutogai

The Pattuppattu

Pathinenkilkanakku

Silappathikaram

Manimegalai

Hathigumpha inscription Kharavela Kalinga


Sangam Period Political History


The three dynasties, the Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas were the main kingdoms of Sangam Period.


Cheras:


The Cheras empire was in the central and northern Kerala and the Kongu region of Tamil Nadu. Cheras emblem was bow and arrow. Vanji was their capital. in the 2nd century A.D. Senguttuvan, the Red Chera or the Good Chera was the greatest ruler of Cheras. they used to trade with the Romans and built temple of Augustus.


Cholas:


 The Cholas rulling area was the central and northern parts of Tamil Nadu in the Kaveri delta, which is known as Cholamandalam. cholas capital was Uraiyur and King Karikala was the famous king.


Pandyas: 


The Pandyas rulling area was in Madurai. pandyas emblem was the Fish. padyas patronized the Tamil Sangams and facilitated the compilation of the Sangam litrature poems.


Social Economic Conditions of Sangam Period:


Sangam literature gives lot of information to understand the  Social Economic Conditions of Sangam age. Women had respect and allowed to choose their life partners. practice of Sati was in the higher strata of society, and life of widows was miserable. God Murugan was The primary deity of the Sangam period. in the Sangam age, cotton fabrics, spices like pepper, ginger, cardamom, cinnamon and turmeric and ivory products, pearls and precious stones were the major exports and horses, gold, and sweet wine were the major imports. Agriculture was the main occupation and rice was the most common cropof the sangam age.


Tandava Dance:


Tandava dance represents the movement, rhythm and Lasya which include grace, bhava and rasa.

In The Tandava dance there are three main components which are,

Natya: Natya represent the dramatic element of the tandava dance i.e. the imitation of characters.

Nritta: it shows the tandava dance movements in their basic form.

Nritya: it is the expressional component of tandava dance i.e. mudras or gestures.

There are nine rasas in tandava dance which are, Love, Heroism, Pathos, Humour, Anger, Fear, Disgust, Wonder and Peace.


Chola Temples Architectures


The Chola Temples were in the Dravidian temples architecture styles. which contains Circular and Square Sanctums with beautiful sculptures and inscriptions on the internal and external walls of temples. vimanas on the sanctum, Pillared mandapas which is called ardha mandapa, maha mandapa and nandi mandapa. Pyramidal storey in the deity room, Kalas and Dome shaped sikhara on the top of Gopurams. Brihadeshwara temple is the most famous Chola period temple. stones were used instead of bricks in the temples. Shiva temple of Thanjavur is one of the best example of chola's temples.


Women As The Torch Bearer During The Indian Freedom Struggle


In The history of Indian Struggle Women Played a major role, the women contributions in freedom fighting struggle is incredible. When most of the men freedom fighters were in jail, the women came forward and fought with courage and faced various exploitations and hardships to get freedom of india.

Women in First War of Independence (1857-58): The First War of Independence (1857-58) was finished within a year, in which the major Indian kings, the public and the indian militry personnel participated enthusiastically. in which Rani Lakshmibai was one of the great freedom fighter of the First War of Indian Independence. She faught against british rule with courage. She was the queen of Jhansi in bundelkhand.

Women in Non-cooperation movement (1920): When Mahatma Gandhi was return to India in 1915 from South Africa, he demanded self-rule and started non-cooperation movement in 1920. in which Muthulaxmi Reddy, Sucheta Kripalani, Susheela Nair, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, Sarla Devi and Aruna Asaf Ali participated, Kasturba Gandhi, the wife of Mahatma Gandhi, Kamla Nehru, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit and Swarup Rani, also participated in this National Movement.

Women in the Dandi Salt March (1930): In the 1930 women took part in breaking salt laws, forest laws and organised Prabhat Pheries from schools, colleges, legislative councils and clubs. Sarojini Naidu, Kamla Devi prepared salt and Nari Satyagraha Committee, Mahila Rashtriya Sangha, and Ladies Picketing Board During the movement,

Women in The Quit India Movement (1942): The Quit India Movement was against the British. Usha Mehta started cogress secret radio station called The Voice of Freedom. which broadcast News of protest and Gandhi’s famous "Do or Die" message for the Quit India movement by Usha Mehta and her brother until they are not arrest. Women take critical responsibilities in India’s freedom struggle.


Foreigner Role in India Freedom Struggle


As We all know that how much sacrifice and humiliation our countrymen faced to get rid of the British rule, but on the other hand in the Indian freedom struggle on numerous occasions, some kind-hearted foreigners who went against their peers and helped us in our freedom struggle, following are the foreigner who helped in indian freedom struggle.


Annie Besant


Annie Besant who was the famous British theosophist, socialist, orator, activist and writer. due to Theosophical Society she came to India, Annie Besant started the Central Hindu School, now it is known as the Banaras Hindu University. Annie Besant demand a self rule for India. in 1915, Annie Besant set up the Home Rule League along with Lokmanya Tilak.. she was arrested due to allegation of tyranny, Congress and Muslim league together protested to set her free. She was one of the foreign members in Congress, and the first to lead a Congress Session in, December 1917. 


Dinabandhu Charles Freer Andrews


Dinabandhu Andrews, came to India as a Missionary Philanthropist. he opposed social and cultural injustice by the British on the Indians, his service to uplift the untouchables Harijans along with Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, give him the title “Dinabandhu” which means friend of the poor. he was against the atrocities inflicted upon the people in India, Fiji, South Africa and other such colonies. He also negotiated with the Government regarding the freedom of Gandhiji from prison.


Madeleine Slade


Madeleine Slade Born in an aristocratic family in London, when  Madeleine Slade came in contact with Mahatma Gandhi, she was so much influenced by Gandhi's philosophy, she left all the luxury and began a simple life in the Sabarmati Ashram, she took part in all the Gandhi led socio-political struggles in India, she promoted Khadi and Satyagraha. she accompanied Gandhi ji to the Round Table Conference in London.


Samuel Evans Stokes (Satyanand Stokes)


Satyanand Stokes was not Indian person, his real name was Samuel Evans Stokes Jr. from a wealthy American family. he came to India to work in a leaper home in Himachal Pradesh, he fought relentlessly for laborers welfare in Shimla. He joined the Congress and attended the Congress Session at Nagpur in 1920. He signed the Congress manifesto in 1921 for all the Indians to join the National Independence Struggle by giving up the Government Jobs. like other foreign freedom fighters, he was jailed on the pretext of sedition, for a period of 6 months.

so many foreigners were faught for indian independence struggle.


Lord Dalhousie As The Founder of Modern India


Lord Dalhousie was the Governor General of India from 1848 to 1856. he was born on 22 April 1812, he was Scottish origin. He studied at Christ Church College Oxford.

when he came to india, on 12th January 1848 He was appointed as the Governor General of India and Governor of Bengal. In india he did many modern development work such as, the railways, telegraph postal networks, and public works department in India. The Ganga Canal also was completed during Lord Dalhousie tenure.

Despite the Doctrine of Lapse policy, Lord Dalhousie others works make him as the, ‘Maker of modern India’. Lord Dalhousie started Anglo-vernacular schools in India. He also worked on social reforms ban the practice of female infanticide. 

Lord Dalhousie started engineering colleges in each presidency. he expanded the Legislative Council of India and reformed in the civil services by starting a open competition for recruitment. Lord Dalhousie returned to Britain in March 1856, and died on 19 December 1860 at the age of 48 years. so due to Lord Dalhousie modern developmental works many people thinks, he was the founder of modern india.


Acharya Vinoba Bhave Bhoodan and Gramdan Movements 


Vinoba Bhave was great spiritual leaders & reformers of modern India, he was Born in 1895, After independence of india, Vinoba started an extraordinary and unprecedented work, the Bhoodan and Gramdan Movement. Vinoba started a journey in India to persuading land owners and land lords to give their some parts of land to poor and downtrodden people.

The Bhoodan Gramdan movement brought Vinoba to the international scene. The Bhoodan Movement transformed from a land-gift movement to a village-gift or Gramdan movement, in which 75% villagers want to donate their lands in favour of the village.

On April 18th 1951, Vinoba entered Nalgonda district and stay at Pochampalli village in which two-thirds were landless Harijan, They asked for eighty acres of land, Then Vinoba told that, If it is not possible to get land from the government, is there not something villagers themselves could do,  everyone was surprise, Ram Chandra Reddy, the local landlord, got up and said in excited voice, “I will give you 100 acres of land for harizans. This incident was first the Bhoodan movement.

In October 1951, Vinoba demand fifty million acres of land for the landless people in India by 1957. Gramdan movent is gone upto 1974. 


Slogan, 'Jai Jawan Jai Kisan Evolution and Significance 


Jai Jawaan Jai Kisaan slogan given by the second Prime Minister of India Lal Bahadur Shastri in 1965 at Ramlila Maidan Delhi. 

India suffered scarcity of food grains in the country and severe droughts In early 1960s, india also faced forced wars with China and Pakistan.

These problems arised a questions on the survival of India as a nation. india's buffer Food stock continous decreasing to dangerous level. the united states of america stopped its food aid. due to the wars Economy got stagnated due to poor industrial production.

Then to encourage the farmers of india to increase high production of cropes, and emotional support to soldiers who were fighting the wars with maximum efficiency in limited military constraints. Then slogan, "Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan" evolved.

during this period Health and Education sectors suffered very badly in india. Poverty reduction efforts slowed down.

Now there is need to new dynamics Green Revolution to India. which will outcome Indian dependency on others for foods, Also it will help to recover india's reputation at domestic and international fronts. after losses Indo-China war in 1962, India had suffered a moral breakdown.

hunger and wars threats could have been solved only with the help of the farmers and the soldiers, Hence, the slogan Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan given by the second Prime Minister of India Lal Bahadur Shastri.


Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Cotributions In Pre and Post Independent India


During Indian Independence Movement, Maulana Azad was Muslim Leader of Indian National Congress. after Independence of india, he became the First Education Minister in Indian Government. Maulana Azad played an important role in Hindu-Muslim unity. he was always against India’s partition.


Pre independence Maulana Azad Cotributions


Before India Independence he work as journalist, publishing critic of British Raj, and worked for Hindu-Muslim unity through the Al-Hilal newspaper.

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was a prominent Leader in Khilafat Movement in which he came in close contact with National Leaders, Mahatma Gandhi, Vallabh Bhai Patel and Jawahar Lal Nehru.

he also took part in Non-cooperation movement and Protests in opposition of the Rowlatt Act of 1919. He Organised several agitations and worked in the guidance of Mahatama Gandhi principles.

Maulan azad was one of main organisers of the Dharasana Satyagraha in 1931.

Maulana criticised and against Jinnah's Two Nation Theory, and he believed that Hindu and Muslims can live together in Independent India.

He was the Congress president from 1940 to 1945, during the Quit India movement launched, and He played a significant role in the Quit India Movement. he organised a large number of People rallies and agitations to protests against Colonial Government. 

He was in the negotiation with the British Cabinet mission for India’s independence.


Post-Independence Maulana Azad Cotributions


After India Independence He was a member of constituent assembly, and helped in shaping the Indian Constitution.

He was the first Union Minister of education after India independence. He played a important role in education sector, by foundation of IIT, UGC, AICTE, Sahitya Academy, Lalit Kala Academy, Sangeet Natak Academy and many other educational initiations.

He worked on Natural resources and scientific research, and started CSIR and scientific research laboratories in India.

Maulana’s contributions in Indian Independence will be remembered by generations to come for his service to the nation, he was awarded the country’s highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna.


Circumstances and Highlights of Tashkent Agreement 1966


The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement signed at Tashkent, capital of Uzbekistan between The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan on 10 January, 1966,  to resolve the Indo-Pakistan war of 1965. 

Pakistan sent its special forces dressed as Kashmiri locals, to capture Kashmir In April 1965, but this operation was failure due to the local population inform the Indian Army on time. This led to war in August 1965.

USSR and United States, used every diplomatic means to bring the india and pakistan to the negotiation table. 

which was held at Tashkent from 4th to 10th January 1966 in order to create a peace between India and Pakistan.


Tashkent Declaration Highlights


India and Pakistan will bring their previous positions held prior to August 5 1965.

No one would interfere in the internal affairs of the others and no toxic propaganda against each other.

Both the country will transfer of prisoners of war, and would work towards improving bilateral relations.


Background of Bangladesh Emergence


India and the outmost support of the Soviet Union played an important role in the emergence of Bangladesh as an Independent State.

The background of the Bangladesh’s Liberation war in 1971 was the general elections, which were held in December 1970 in pakistan. Awami League 

won 160 out of 162 seats in East Pakistan. Mujibur Rahman was the leader of Awami League, without handing power to Mujibur Rahman, the Pakistani army launched a brutal crackdown in Dhaka on March 25, 1971.


Role of India in the emergence of Bangladesh


When millions of men and women were forced to leave Bangladesh and murdered by the military of Pakistan. The Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi, full 

support of indian government to the Bangladeshi struggle for independence, and sent indian army to fight against Pakistani soldiers. When American navy reached for the help of Pakistan, the Soviet 

Union also send their navy to full support of India. when almost 10 million Bangladeshi men and women, forced to leave their motherland to 

save themselves, the indian government open the Bangladesh India border to allow the Bangladeshi refugees safe shelter in India.

The Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi traveled around the world, to gather support for the Bangladesh, and spent seven thousand 

crores rupees for the liberation war of Bangladesh, and also sacrificed the lives of 3630 officers and soldiers of indian Army. in which 9856 officers and soldiers were wounded 

and more than 213 indian army officers and soldiers are missing till today. the contribution of India’s role in the Independence of Bangladesh was a unique history. The birth of Bangladesh 

was the result of India’s support and sympathetic supervision of the USSR.


Industrial Revolution


The Industrial Revolution was the transition,

from hand production methods to machines manufacturing processes

from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840, in Europe and the United States.

Textiles industries were the major industry of the Industrial Revolution

began in Great Britain, so that many of the technological innovations were of British origin.

1840s and 1850s, Industrial Revolution were not as powerful to drive high rates of growth. Rapid economic growth began after 1870, by new innovations in steel making processes massproduction, assembly lines in factory, electrical grid systems, large-scale manufacturing of machine tools and the use of advanced machinery in steam powered factories, which has been called the Second Industrial Revolution.


Japan Industrial Revolution factors


In Japan the Industrial Revolution occurred during the Meiji period.

Meiji government leaders decided to catch up with the West Industrial Revolution. The Japan government built railroads, improved roads, and land reform program for the country further development. Meiji inaugurated Western-based education system for all young japani people, sent thousands of japani students to the United States and Europe, Meiji government hired more than 3,000 Westerners to teach modern science, mathematics, technology, and foreign languages for Japani people.

Textile manufacturing technology import from Europe has been increased Japan's total value of yarn from 12 million to 176 million yen.


Africa chopped into States artificially by European


Africa is the second-largest contenent in the world. Africa continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the north, the Red Sea in the northeast, the Indian Ocean in the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean in the west. 

The Africa chopped and Scramble into states, by the invasion, division, and colonization of European powers during the New Imperialism between 1881 and 1914. in 1870 The 10 percent of Africa was under the European control, which increased to almost 90 percent by 1914, except Ethiopia and Liberia remaining independent.

European colonization and trade in Africa regulated by the Berlin Conference of 1884, which is the starting point of the Scramble for Africa. political and economic rivalries among the European empires in the 19th century partitioning Africa largely because, Europeans not going to war In the later years of the 19th century. the European nations started, exercising military influence and economic dominance to bringing colonial imperialism.

Technological advancements in transportation, communication, steamships, railways and telegraphs. Medical advances for tropical diseases, development of quinine, an effective treatment for malaria, made vast expanses of the tropics more accessible for facilitated European expansion.


American Revolution Economic Revolt Against Mercantilism


The American Revolution was a rebell against the rule of Great Britain by the British colonists in America. many battles fought from 1775 until 1783, by the American British colonists and gained the freedom, and rise the new independent country the United States.

There were 13 colonies Delaware, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, New Hampshire, New York, and Rhode Island, who were rebelling.

the main reason of the American Revolution against Great Britain was no direct representation in the British government, and the British government imposed new laws and taxes on the American British colonies.

Mercantilism is the process by which a nation earn wealth, by the control of trade, expand exports and limit imports. In the context of the America Revolution, mercantilism refers to the idea that the colonists in America, create wealth for the Mother Country Great britain. the British saw the American colonists paid rent by providing materials for Britain.

The British government imposed new laws and taxes on the American British colonies, so they revolt againt the great britain tax incrase. so we can say that American Revolution was an economic revolt against mercantilism in the American British colonists.


The Great Economic Depression


The Great Economic Depression was a economic crisis in the United States in 1930s. It was first start in the United States, reason behind the great economic depression were the overproduction of goods, bank failures, crash of newyork stock market, and consumer debt.

but rapidly it spread throughout the world. During the Great Economic Depression, many people have no work, hungry, and homeless. farmers struggled due to drought.


The New Deal


During the great economic depression, Herbert Hoover was President of the United States. Many people thinks that Hoover was responsible for the Great Economic Depression, after him In 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president of the United States. He promised a New Deal for the people of United States, in Which

a series of laws, programs, formation of new government agencies, regulations of the stock market, banks, and businesses, house, work and feed the poor to deal with the Great Depression. 

The Great Economic Depression ended with the start of World War II during war people back to work, factories open for the supply of war. The New Deal laws palay important role to deal with The Great Economic Depression.


Urbanization In India


Urbanization in India started rapidly after independence adopting the mixed economy, rise new development in the private sector.

Urbanization in India, according to 1901 

census, was 11.4%, in 2011 census Urbanization count crossed 30%,

According to a survey of the UN State of 

the World Population report by 2030, 40.76% 

population of india is expected to moved in urban areas.

There are many causes of urbanization in India, which are

Creation of new government services after the Second 

World War

Due to Partition of India and Pakistan, Migration of people from Pakistan. 

The Industrial Revolution

and five year plan which aimed economic development and urbanization of India.

Employment opportunities attracts rural people moving towards urban.

Health, transport and education Infrastructure facilities in the urban areas.


Urbanization Social Problems In India


In The India urbanization is not done properly. Due to unplanned urbanization, 

many problem such as unemployment, pollution, improper sanitation facilities, increasing slums, poor standard of 

living and environmental damage are facing by India. it is expected that By 2030, more 

than 50℅ of India’s population will be in urban areas.


Male Membership to Women's Organization Free From Gender Bias


Male membership should be in solidarity and equal partnership with women’s organizations free from gender bias. our goal should be to transform the lives of women and protects women’s rights.

Male ego or gender bias, should be avoided and support the women’s organization by providing technical support, funding and advocacy platform.

Women’s Organization should be created to promote and protect gender equality, respect women's voice and leadership.

Male membership needs to be encouraged gender equality and he Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against women’s right in all aspects of life.

we should identifies and remove obstacles that prevent women to being economically empowered and fully participate in the society.

our aim should be to achieve gender equality of women and men in all spheres of life.

men and boys should contribute in eliminating discrimination on the basis of gender norms, and provide solutions to achieving gender equality in women’s organizations.

International Alliance of Women (IAW) is an international non-governmental organization advocates for equal participation of women at all levels in the corporate and private sectors.

UN Women is the Entity formed by The United Nations for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women.


Globalization


Globalization is described as the interdependence of the world’s cross-border trade in goods, services, technology, flows of investment, people cultures and populations, 

Centuries of technological innovation progress have made closer international cooperation,

 the world is more connected the effects of globalization are complex in the field of major technological advances, goods, services and benefits 

for the society, while harming certain groups.


Globalization Effect On The Aged Population in India


Ageing is a continuous universal natural process. ageing is a global issue according to World Population Prospect, India has the second largest aged people in the world.

elderly population in India, in 1951 was the 43.17 million, According to 2001 census it was around 77 million and is expected to increase 177.4 million by the 2025.

Globalization has played important role On The Aged Population in India,

by providing life saving drugs, control of various communicable diseases, better awareness and health facilities, which have resulted in drastic reduction in mortality rates and increase in the overall life span of aged people in india.

on the other hand due to globalization Indian society is undergoing rapid transformation, the traditional values and institutions are in the process of erosion weakening of intergenerational ties of the traditional family.

due to the influence of globalization and new life styles, the care of aged people has emerged as an important issue in India. replacing the joint family into the nuclear family and Children who migrate to the city, by leaving their old parents loneliness and lack of care.

Hence the changing factors in the family due to globalization leading to neglect and abuse of older people in india.


Regionalism


Regionalism is defind as the common sense of identity

by the people, on the basis of specific geographical region,

language, culture and particular ideology,


Causes of Regionalism in India


geographical isolation

Low economic development

Despite being rich in natural resources and exploit regional loyalties.

Reaction to imposition of a particular ideology, language and cultural pattern on all the people.


Demand of Separate State Due to Regionalism 


Imposition of a particular region, ideology, language and cultural pattern by the people can create a demand for separate statehood.

when linguistic or ethnic minorities within the states come together and unite against the isolation, low economic development in that state.

there can be violence and others riots for the demand of seprate state. the sepration of sub-regionalism was validated by the State Reorganisation Act of 1956. The recent examples are the formation of Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Telangana.

In the recent decade of 2000s, we have seen many vigorous movements for the creation of separate states due to regional deprivation.

which resulted in the formation of the three new states, Chhattisgarh from Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand from Bihar and Uttarakhand out of Uttar Pradesh.

The latest creation of seprate state Telangana by the division of Andhra Pradesh in 2014.


Continental Drift Theory


The continental drift theory hypothesis was given by Alfred Wegener in the year of 1912. Wegener said that continents were a single supercontinent. Alfred Wegener proposed single supercontinent name Pangaea, which meaning is all earth in ancient Greek. He told that Pangaea broke up and converted into the continents in their current positions. this hypothesis called the continental drift.


Evidences of Continental Drift


Alfred Wegener Give evidences to support his continental drift theory, he told that identical rocks of the same type and age are found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. mountain ranges in eastern Greenland, Ireland, Great Britain, and Norway, formed a single mountain range that was separated by the continents drifted. Ancient fossils of the same species, plants and animals are found of the same age on different continents that are now widely separated.


Naming Of Tropical Cyclones


World Meteorological Organization (WMO) maintains rotating lists for the naming of each Tropical Cyclone basin. If a cyclone is deadly then its name is changed and replaced by another one.  

The life of Tropical cyclones can be a week or more, there can be more than one cyclone at a time. so forecasters give each tropical cyclone a name to avoid confusion, tropical cyclones are named according to the rules at regional level. In Indian ocean and South Pacific, tropical cyclones receive names in alphabetical order of women and men's names. in the Northern Indian ocean naming tropical cyclones are listed alphabetically country wise, and are neutral gender wise.

The common rule of naming the Tropical cyclones is that, the name list is proposed by the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) of WMO Members for a specific region tropical cyclone at their annual/biennual sessions. 


Urban Heat Island


Urban Heat Island effect is due to human factors induced higher temperatures 8 to 10 degrees more in urban areas compared to the temperatures in rural areas. Due to Urban Heat Island effect in urban areas needs more power, air conditioner produce greenhouse gas emissions and polutes the air, which results the heat related illness and mortality.


Reason of Urban Heat Island effect


There are many reasons of Urban Heat Island effect in the cities like high use of construction materials like Asphalt and concrete, high rise buildings with dark surfaces, air conditioning, mass transportation fossil fuels vehicle and lack of trees and green park. To reduce Urban Heat Island we should planning smart cities with high number of trees.


Temperature Inversion


In the normal conditions of atmosphere, temperature usually decreases with increase in altitude in the troposphere. but due to horizontal or vertical movement of air the normal behavior of temperature in the troposphere get reversed, and temperature starts increasing with height rather than decreasing. This is called temperature inversion. Favourable Conditions for Temperature Inversion are Long winter nights, Cloudless and clear sky, Dry air near the ground surface, Slow movement of air and Snow covered ground surface.


Effects Of Temperature Inversion


The effects of Temperature inversion are the precipitation, forms of clouds, more dust particles in the air, Stops the movement of air, Lower visibility, Thunderstorms and tornadoes.