Low Cost Super Capacitor Developed By Waste Cotton And Seawater
International Autonomous Research Center for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), an autonomous organization of the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India has developed a simple, low cost environmental friendly and durable super capacitor electrode, derived from industrial waste cotton that can be used as an energy harvester storage device. For the first time natural seawater has been discovered as an environmentally friendly, cost effective scalable and alternative aqueous electrolyte, which can replace existing aqueous based electrolytes for the economic fabrication of super capacitors. Super capacitors are a next generation energy storage device, which receives extensive research attention due to its advantages such as higher power density, longer durability and ultrafast charging characteristic compared to conventional capacitors and lithium ion batteries (LIBs). the four main components of a super capacitor are electrode, electrolyte, separator and current collector, the first two are the major components, which directly determine the electrochemical behavior of the super capacitor. The manufacturing costs of electrode materials, as well as electrolytes, should be reduced, as these two component devices account for the major part of the manufacturing cost. In the search for a cost-effective material to make inexpensive super capacitor equipment, ARCI scientists transformed industrial waste cotton (waste) into highly porous carbon fiber (coffers), and then used porous carbon fiber to make high performance supersaturator electrodes. In recent research published in Energy Technology, ARCI scientists demonstrated the feasibility of using marine electrolyte as a natural electrolyte to manufacture aqueous based super capacitor devices, showing considerable potential for practical implementation. The study found that natural seawater based super capacitors exhibited maximum capacitance at current densities of 1 Ag-1. In addition, the seawater based super capacitor shows very good durability at 10,000 charge discharge cycles with 99% capacitance retention and 99% colombic efficiency (efficiency with which charge is transferred in a system that facilitates an electrochemical reaction). The team's new, durable and green super capacitor device shows great potential for practical application, and perhaps most importantly, with seawater based super capacitors as a low cost, environmentally friendly, this device's successful performance showed that solar powered super capacitors can not only store electrical energy, but also overcome shortcomings of the intermittent nature of solar radiation. Therefore, solar cells integrated with super capacitors can be used as energy harvester storage devices due to their long cycle life and maintenance free power supply. Requires the creation of matching capability. This study provides a solution for manufacturing super capacitors from abundant materials such as waste cotton and seawater.