Organizational culture is described as a system of shared beliefs, values, and employees appropriate and inappropriate behavior. These values have a strong impact on employee behavior as well as organizational performance. organizational culture was popularized in the 1980s when best-selling book In Search of Excellence written by Peters and Waterman's, argued that the company's success could be attributed to an organizational culture that was decisive, Customer oriented, empowered people. Since then, organizational culture has become the subject of numerous research studies, However, organizational culture is still a relatively new concept. Unlike a subject such as leadership, whose history spans many centuries, organizational culture is a young but rapidly evolving field within organizational behavior. By culture and by and large it is invisible to individuals. Even though it affects all employee behavior, thinking and patterns of behavior, individuals become more aware of their organization's culture when they have the opportunity to compare themselves to other organizations. organizations have different cultures, and culture dictates what is right and what is wrong as well as acceptable and unacceptable.
Characteristics Of Organizational Culture
What values reflect the characteristics of organizational culture? There are following set values of culture, that can be used to describe the characteristics of organizational culture, which are,
Which Organizations have innovative cultures, they are flexible and adaptable in nature and experiment with new ideas. These companies are characterized by a flat hierarchy in which the title and other position differences are minimized.
Companies with aggressive competition culture value and competitive rivals, may fall short in the area of corporate social responsibility. In aggressive culture companies, the ceo or people of that companies may use language such as We will kill our competition. The aggressive culture is cited as a reason for new legal troubles for the companies before the old ones are resolved.
The OCP Framework describes outcome-oriented cultures that emphasize achievement, outcome, and action as key values. the company implemented a results-oriented work environment (ROWE) program that allows employees to work anywhere and anytime, They are evaluated based on the results and clearly stated objectives. Outcome-oriented cultures hold employees as well as managers responsible for success, and use systems that reward employee and group output. In Outcome-oriented cultures companies, rewards tied on performance indicators not to seniority or loyalty. Research indicates that organizations have performance-oriented culture tend to outperform companies. overtaking employee performance experienced well publicized business and ethical failures. performance pressures in individual generates unethical behaviors, people tend to view their peers as rivals and short-term consequences are rewarded, resulting unhealthy work environment acts as an obligation, Organizational crisis and the logic failure.
Stable cultures are predictable, rule-oriented and bureaucratic. The goal of these organizations is to coordinate and align individual effort to the greatest levels of efficiency. When the environment is stable and fixed, these cultures can help make the organization effective by providing a stable and consistent level of output. Public sector institutions can be seen as stable cultures.
People-oriented cultures respect for fairness, support and personal rights. These organizations think that, people are their greatest asset. unbiased processes and management styles in these compnies create an environment, where work is fun. In these organizations, there is a greater emphasis on treating people with respect and dignity. These company is regularly ranked as one of the best places to work by world's best Newspapers and magazines.
Organizations with team-oriented cultures are emphasize on collaboration among employees. Im team-oriented culture cross-training is provided to employees so that they are able to help each other when needed. The company emphasizes on team work. Employees participate in daily meetings, where they collaborate to understand the sources of problems and determine future actions. In team-oriented companies selection process, applicants who are not seen as team players are not hired as employees. In team-oriented organizations, members tend to have more positive relationships with their co-workers, and especially with their managers.
Organizations with detail-oriented cultures are characterized by attention to detail to be precise and emphasized in the OCP framework. Such a culture gives companies a competitive advantage in the hospitality industry, enabling them to distinguish themselves from others.
Service culture is importance for the retail industry in the overall economy, a service culture can make or break an organization. In service culture organizations, employees are trained to serve the customer well, and cross-training is the norm. Employees are empowered to solve the problems they see, Because employees is with direct customer contact to resolve any issue, employee empowerment is really valuable in these companies. employees come up with unique ways in which they better serve customers, In service culture organizations, employee service performance rewards through bonuses and incentives.
Some jobs are sensitive to security like loggers, aircraft pilots, fishing workers, steel workers, and roofers are among the top ten most dangerous jobs in the United States. America's Most Dangerous Jobs are Loggers and fishermen with the highest risk. In which organizations safety sensitive tasks are undertaken, building and maintaining a safety culture provides a competitive advantage, and reduce accidents, maintain a high level of morale and employee retention, Some companies have to suffer severe consequences when they are unable to develop this kind of culture. Which organizations have a safety culture have a strong commitment to security at the management level and deceit to lower levels. Managers can play a key role in increasing the level of safe behavior in the workplace, by motivating employees to demonstrate safe behavior day-to-day and act as safety role models. safety culture organizations leaders allow employees to behave voluntarily for safety committees, make recommendations to increase safety, protect colleagues from threats, and secure their jobs.