Definition Of Leadership
The definition of Leadership is to act of influencing others to do work towards their goal. In every organizations Leaders are present at all levels. Some leaders at higher positions of authority, and use their power that comes from their positions in the organization, as well as their personal power to influence others. This types of leaders are called a formal leaders. In the other hands, informal leaders don't have formal position of authority within the organization but they demonstrate leadership by influencing others through their individual forms of power. A caveat is important here: Leaders do not rely on the use of force to influence people. Instead, people voluntarily adopt the leader's goal as their goal. If a person is relying on force and punishment, then the person is a dictator, not a leader.
Characteristics Of Leaders
leadership characterstics that differentiate leaders from non-leaders, is the personality, physical and psychological characteristics of people who are seen as leaders. characteristics which showing a relatively strong relationship with leadership are discussed below.
General mental ability, referred to as psychological "G" and often referred to as "IQ" in everyday language, has been related to a person's emergence as a leader within a group. In particular, people who have high mental capacity are more likely to be seen as leaders in their environments. In addition to having a high IQ, effective leaders have high emotional intelligence (EQ). People with high EQ exhibit high levels of self-awareness, motivation, empathy, and social skills. The psychologist, who coined the term emotional intelligence, Daniel Goleman, believes that IQ is a threshold quality: it counts for entry- to high-level management jobs, but once you get there, It no longer helps leaders, because most leaders already have a high intelligence. effective leaders control their own emotions and understand other people's feelings, their intrinsic motivation, and their social skills.
Leaders Personality Traits
Leadership personality traits Psychologists have proposed various systems to classify the characteristics that make up an individual's unique personality; The most widely accepted are the "Big Five" models, which are Openness, Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. Openness to experience People who demonstrate originality, creativity, and try new things open to doing. they begin to emerge as leaders and are also quite effective. Honest people are organized, take initiative, and demonstrate perseverance in their efforts. Honest people are more likely to emerge as leaders and be effective in that role. Extraverts are sociable, assertive and energetic people. They enjoy interacting with others in their environment and demonstrate confidence. Because they are effective and sociable in their environment, they become leaders in a wide range of situations. extraversion is the most important relationship with both leader emergence and leader effectiveness. This is not to say that all effective leaders are Extravert, but you are likely to be Extraverted in Leadership positions.
Self-esteem is an important aspect of leaders personality. The person who has peace with oneself and an overall positive assessment of one's own values and abilities seems relevant to being a leader. Leaders with high self-esteem tend to support their subordinates more and, when punished, punish them more effectively. high self-esteem people have high confidence levels and this shows their image in the eyes of their followers. Self-esteem may also explain the relationship between certain physical characteristics and the emergence of a leader.
Integrity shows that those who are effective leaders have moral compassion and demonstrate honesty and loyalty. Leaders whose integrity is questioned lose their credibility, and they hurt their company's business along the way. Low integrity leaders actions were heavily criticized.
Four types of leadership styles, which are found in the leaders, they are,
Directive leaders provide specific directions to their employees. They lead employees to clarify role expectations, set schedules, and ensure what employees want to do on a given work day. instruction style will work well when employees are experiencing role ambiguity at work. If people are unclear about how their work is known, giving them specific instructions will motivate them. if employees already known their roles, and they are performing boring, routine and highly structured tasks, then giving them direction does not help. In fact, it can hurt them by creating an even more restricted environment. When staff capacity is high, directing leadership is also considered less effective.
Supportive leaders provide emotional support to employees. They treat employees well, take care of them on a personal level and are encouraging. Supportive leadership is predicted to be effective when employees are under great stress or perform boring, repetitive tasks. Supportive leadership can be more effective when employees really know how to do their jobs, but their jobs are unpleasant.
Participative leaders ensure that employees are involved in making important decisions. Participative leadership can be more effective when employees have a higher level of competence, and when decisions are made for them to be personally relevant. For employees with high internal control, whose believe are that, they control their fate, in this situation participative leadership is very important here to indirectly controlling organizational decisions that are very important for organizations growth.
Achievement oriented leaders style is to set goals for their employees, and encourage them to reach their goals. His style challenges employees and keeps them focused on work-related goals. This style is likely to be effective when employees have both a high level of competence and a high level of achievement motivation.
Decision Making Styles Of Leaders
Leaders make decisions alone using available information.
Consult Individually Style
Leaders obtain additional information from group members before making decisions alone.
Consult In Group Style
Leaders share the problem with the group members and discuss the solution in the group, and at last makes the final decision alone.
Leaders collectively share the information about the problem between group members and acts as a facilitator, and leader sets the decision parameters for the solution.
In delegate style The leader give chance to the team make decisions.