Jan 17, 2020

Four Types Learning Theories Models In Organizational Behaviour

Learning Theories Models In OB

Learning Theories In Organizational Behaviour 

Learning is the individual's personal growth as a result of collaborative interactions with others. Learning has taken place if a person reacts to others or changes in prior behavior. there are four types of learning Theories, which are,
Classical ConditioningLearning Theory. 
Operant Conditioning Learning Theory. 
Cognitive Learning Theory.
Social Learning Theory.

Classical Conditioning Learning Theory

Classical conditioning is a type of conditioning in which a person reacts to certain stimuli that would not normally produce a response. It is a learning process to add a particular thing to our environment to predict what will happen next. With Classical conditioning, resulting in behavior along with another desired event connection to understand learning processes. When we think of classical conditioning, the first name that comes to our mind is that Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov. The general stimulus for the flow of saliva is the taste of food. But often mouth watering at the sight of luscious peaches, described on it or even thinking about it. Thus, one situation is substituted for the behavior of another. This is called conditioning. In the case of classical conditioning, a simple surgical procedure allowed Pavlov to accurately measure the amount of saliva secreted by the dog. When Pavlov presented a dog with a piece of meat, the dog experienced a significant increase in saliva. When Pavlov stopped the presentation of the meat and only rang the bell, the dog did not salivate. Pavlov then proceeded to add the flesh and the ringing of the bell. After hearing the bell repeatedly before receiving food, the dog started dripping saliva as soon as the bell rang. After a while, the dog only salutes at the sound of the bell, even if no food is offered. In classical conditioning, learning involves a conditional stimulus and unconditional stimulus. Here, the flesh was an unconditional stimulus; This of course caused the dog to react in a specific way. When the bell was paired with the meat, the reaction eventually produced when presented alone. It is a conditioned response.

Operant Conditioning Learning Theory

The second type of conditioning is called operational conditioning. Here, we learn that a particular behavior usually has a reward or punishment. What Pavlov did for classical conditioning, Harvard psychologist B.F. Skinner did it for operational conditioning. Operator conditioning argues that the behavior of one will depend on different conditions. People will repeatedly behave in a specific way from where they will get benefit. On the other hand, they will try to avoid a behavior where they will not get anything. Skinner argued that creating pleasurable results for specific forms of behavior would increase the frequency of that behavior. In a well-known experiment in which handlers exhibit learning, psychological B.F. Skinner trained the mice to press a lever to obtain food. In this experiment, a hungry rat was placed in a box containing some hidden food. At first, the rat ran randomly around the box. When press the lever, the food box Leaving the food reinforced the reaction of the lever. After repeating the process of pressing the lever after quitting the food, the rats pressed the lever for food. If they are positively reinforced to do so then people Will engage in desired behavior. Rewards are most effective way, if they immediately follow the desired response. Also, behavior that is not rewarded, or punished is less likely to be repeated. For example, suppose you are an 'X' bank employee. Your branch manager has announced in a meeting that you will get a bonus if you can deposit $ 100,000,000 for the bank. You worked hard and found that you did it successfully. But when the time comes, you get That you are not given any bonus for your hard work, which increases the bank's deposit by $ 100,000,000. In the next year, if your manager again tells you about hard work. Maybe you Will not work hard because last year you got nothing for it. Many of the activities that we will engage in during everyday life can be classified as an operator. Locking your keys in a lock, writing a letter, saying "I love you" to your wife, to parents Calling on the telephone, these are all functions that are operative in the sense that we do them in anticipation of a return that acts as a corroboration for the commission of these behaviors.

Cognitive Learning Theory

Cognitive theory refers to a person's thoughts, knowledge of interpretations, understanding or ideas about himself or her environment. It is a process of learning through active and creative thought processes, such as practice or using our memory. An example could be that you were taught how to tell time by looking at a clock. Someone told you about big hands and small hands. The meaning is taught, and you have to practice telling the time when you were learning it for the first time. This learning process was completely inside your mind and did not involve any physical movements or behaviors. Cognitive Theory has been used to explain mental processes as they are influenced by both internal and external factors, which ultimately bring about learning in a person. Cognitive Learning theory implies that various processes related to learning are first explained by analyzing mental processes It envisions that with effective cognitive processes, it is easier to learn new information stored in memory over a longer period of time. On the other hand, ineffective cognitive processes result in learning difficulties that can be traced back to someone.

Social Learning Theory

Social learning theory also called observational learning, emphasizes on person's ability to learn what happens to Model, Parents, teachers, co-workers, movies TV actors, bosses and others behavior are learned by observing the behavior of others and its consequences for them. In this theory, it is said that the influence of the model is the central issue. Four procedures have been found to determine the influence of Social Learning Theory on a model. These processes are,
Attention Process
Retention Process
Model Reproduction Process
Reinforcement Process

Attention Process

People learn from a model only when they identify and pay attention to its important features. If the learner is not attentive, they will not be able to learn anything. We are most often affected by the available attractive models because we see the same as ours.

Retention Process

The effect of the model depends on whether the model is not readily available. After how well do people remember the functions of the model.

Model Reproduction Process

 A person has observed a new behavior by observing the model, This involves recalling the model's behaviors and performing its own tasks and matching them with those models. This process then demonstrates that the individual can perform modeling activities.

Reinforcement Process

If positive incentives or rewards are awarded Then individuals are motivated to exhibit impersonal behavior. Positively reinforced behavior is given more attention, learned better and performed more often. Finally, we can say that social learning theory is a function of outcomes. This observation also acknowledges the existence of education and the importance of perception in learning. In this case, a person who wants to learn must identify the target behavior and select the appropriate model and modeling medium.