Oct 20, 2019

Perception Definition Stages Types

Perception Meaning Definition Stages Types

Perception Types Meaning and Definition

Perception is the interpretation of sensory information to represent and understand the enviro nment of any organization. perception is the feelings of physical or chemical stimulation of the sense organs signals in the nervous system. This signals  are not passive receipt, but is shaped by learning, memory, expectation, and attention. Perception is a process of converting sensory organs signals into meaningful information. what we see or hear in our mind and later use it to judge a situation, person, group etc. and give a decision. Perception  functioning is influenced by three classes of variables, the objects or events being considered, The environment in which perception occurs, and the person who makes perception.

Definition Of Perception

Perception is complex functions of the nervous system but seems intuitive because this process occurs outside conscious awareness.
Joseph Reitz tells; "Perception encompasses all the processes by which one obtains information about one's environment by to see, hear, feel, taste and smell."
B. V. H. Gilmour defined, "perception is the process of being aware of situations in order to add meaningful associations to cognition."
According to Udaya Pareek perception is the process of reacting, selecting, organizing, interpreting, checking, and reacting to sensory stimuli or data".
P. Robbins tells, "perception is the process by which person organize and interpret their sensory impressions to give meaning to their environments."
The perception consists of following senses.
Social World,

Importance Of Perception

The perception is a subjective, active, and creative process, through which we assign meaning to sensory information to understand ourselves and others. It also includes how we respond to information. Through the perceptual process, we gain information about the qualities and elements of the environment that are important to our existence. The conception not only builds our experience of the world around us, but allows us to function within our environment. Perception help to understanding human behavior because every person believes the world and adapts to life's problems differently. Whatever we see or feel, it is not necessarily the same. When we buy something, it is not because it is the best, but because we believe it to be the best. If people behave based on their perception, then we understand the current perception of environment and their behavior in changed circumstances. Can guess, A person may be looking at facts in a way that may be different from the facts seen by another viewer. With the help of perception, different people's needs can be determined, because people's perception is influenced by their needs. Perception helps for the manager to eliminate the errors, when dealing with people and events in the organization,  different people perceive the same situation differently. To deal with subordinates effectively, managers must understand their assumptions properly. Concept can be important because it provides more than objective production; It incorporates an observation and creates a transformed reality enriched by past experiences. Dharna builds character (not necessarily good or bad character) that defines the various roles that individuals play in clowns, Come in hypocritical, self-righteous, victimized, etc. It is important if we try to see things from others' point of view with them or Walk in their shoes for some time. If we walk in their shoes, we will get a new view of things and understand and love each other and can help the other properly. Thus, to understand human behavior, their Understanding perception is very important, that is, how they understand different situations. People's behavior is based on their perceptions of what reality is, not reality itself. Yes. The world as it is believed is the world which is important for understanding human behavior.

Factors Affecting Perception

By Perception processo, a person selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture. Individual Perception depends not only on physical stimuli but also depends on the stimuli of the surrounding area and the conditions. through which information from the external environment is selected, obtained, organized and interpreted to make it meaningful. Many factors distort the shape of  the perception. These factors may reside in the object or goal being perceived, or in the context of the situation in which the assumption is made. When a person sees a goal and tries to interpret what he sees, his Interpretation is strongly influenced by the personal characteristics of the individual thinker. The personal characteristics that influence the perception include a person's attitude, personality, origin. View, interest, past experience, and expectations. There are some factors that affect the target such as novelty, speed, sounds, size, background, proximity, similarity, etc. Characteristics of the target being viewed may be affected. Because goals are not viewed in isolation, the relation of a target to its background also affects perception,  There are also some situational factors, such as the time for others to think, work settings, social settings, etc. that influence the perception process. Apart from this, there are some other factors. From perceptual learning that is based on past experiences or any particular training that we receive, each of us learns to emphasize certain sensory inputs and ignore others. Another factor is the mental set, Such as anticipation keeps a person ready with good focus and concentration. We have a level of knowledge that we feel in our behavior. Learning has a great impact on perception. It creates hope in people. The perception is determined by both the physical and psychological characteristics of a human being, whereas sensation is imagined only with physical characteristics. Thus, the assumption that no one sees with the eye is a much more complex process by which a person selectively uses environment. When a person sees a goal and tries to interpret what he sees, then the interpretation comes from the personal characteristics of the individual thinker.

Perception Process

Perception is the process, to experience the world around us. perception is largely a cognitive and psychological process, how we feel the people and objects around us, which affects our communication. to fully understand perception process, we have to follow three stages of the perception process, which are,


The world is filled with an infinite number of stimuli, but our minds do not have the resources to pay attention to everything. Thus, the first step of perception is to decide What to attend. When we feel specific thing in our environment such as, an odor, a feeling, a sound, or something else. it becomes the present stimulus. Selection is the first part of the process, in which we focus on sensory information to attention. In selection, we select stimuli that attract our attention. We focus on those who stand for our senses (sight, sound, smell, taste and touch). We seek information through all our five senses, but our perceptual field contains so many sensations, that it is impossible for our mind to process all senses. Therefore as information comes through our senses, Various factors influence through the perception process.


When we decide to participate in a stimulus in the environment, then our brain started a series of neural responses, This neural process activates our sensory receptors, such as touch, taste, smell, vision, and hearing. Planning is the second part of the perception process, in which we sort and classify information that we congenital and learned cognates.


When we participate in a stimulus, and our brain receives and organizes information, we interpret it in such a way, that it makes sense to use our existing information about the world. By placing different stimuli into categories, we Can better understand others and react to the surrounding world. perception involves informing to people about sensing, organizing and interpreting. Sensation is a main symptom of perception, as it relates to external input. In the perceptual process, first of all thinker must choose, what will be considered. Then, organization occurs, when listeners identify the type of sound and compare it to other sounds heard in the past. Explanation and Classification Generally Are the most subjective areas of perception, they make decisions about, what listeners like and they want to keep listening. Assessments automatic judgments of positive and negative reactions to others, which are outside our awareness. Based on this, Perceptual output, which means that the values, attitudes, behavior, etc. of the thinker may be different. Therefore, when people react differently in a situation, Whose share of the behavior can be explained by examining their perceptual process, and their perceptions of how leading to their responses.

Errors In Perception

Perception is a process of analyzing and understanding stimuli. But always it is not possible to feel the stimuli as they are. Consciously or unknowingly, we forget the stimulus and misinterpret it. Many a times person behavior can be according to, time of perception, adverse background, lack of clarity of excitement, confusion, conflict in mind and other such factors errors in perception. There are following errors in the perception.
Halo Effect,
Horn Effect,


Illusion is a misconception. Where the person will mistake a stimulus, and experience it incorrectly. such as, in the dark, a rope is mistaken as a snake or vice versa. unknown person voice can be mistaken as the voice of a friend.


Sometimes we come across instances where a person perceives some excitement even if it is not present. This phenomenon is known as hallucinations. A person can see an object, a person, etc., or he can hear some sound, although in reality there are no objects and no sounds.

Selective Perception

Selective perception refers to a situation when people make selective interpretations based on their interests, background, experience, and viewpoint. This means that any feature that makes a person, object, or event stand out will increase the probability, that It will be considered. Because it is impossible for us to assimilate what we see, only certain stimuli can be taken.

Halo Effect

The person is evaluated on the basis of his positive quality, trait or characteristic. When we make general assumptions about a person based on, intelligence, sociability, or presence, a halo effect operates. In other words, it gives a rating to a man high or low in other traits. if any person has an exceptionally high or low characteristic in any traits, he will be rated in high in high traits except being low in other traits.


People can usually fall into at least one general category, on which they will be evaluated, on the basis of physical or behavioral symptoms, When we judge someone based on our perception, we are using a shortcut called stereotyping. for example, a manager might assume, that Middle East countries worker is lazy and cannot meet performance objectives, even if the worker has tried his best.


Often, people seek out and rate more positively those, who are similar to themselves. This tendency to approve equality may cause evaluators to give better ratings to employees, who exhibit similar interests, work methods, attitudes, or standards.

Horn Effect

When a person is fully evaluated on the basis of negative trait or characteristic. This results in an overall lower rating. for example, if an employee is not formally dressed up in the office, then he may also consider casual on work.


If people is rated relative to other people rather than individual performance. evaluate an employee's performance with other employees. In the early 20th century, Wilhelm Wundt identified opposite as a core principle of perception, and since then many different areas have been confirmed their influence. These effects shape not only visual properties such as color and brightness, but also other types of perception.

Failure of Perception

Perception often misinterprete of sensory information. Such cases are known as delusions. delusion is a term used by psychologists to refer to misconceptions. There are two types of delusions, they are caused by physical processes and due to cognitive processes. Confusion due to the deformity of physical conditions involves hallucinations, in which a person considers objects that are non-existent, for example, water on a dry road. Cognitive processes result in many illusions, but more general shapes. There are illusions, which often have unstable consequences. Misconceptions of the world around them can cause problems for workers. Mentoring managers, who flame out because they fail to read the circumstances properly and act accordingly. They develop poor working relationships, are very authoritarian, or have conflicts with upper management. As a result, their careers come to a standstill. It should be avoided and they were able to feel rightly, what they needed to do and had the emotional maturity and ability to make the necessary changes.

Causes Of Perception Very 

Our perceptions differ from person to person, and we are all have differ perceptions. Different people feel different things about the same situation. But more than that, everything we experience is told different meanings. And the meaning can change for a certain person. One can change one's perspective or just make things something else. . The way we see the world around us is different, and our personality is unique. Even though we can see the same picture, but the interpretation can be different, depending on many factors, Basically, perception is a very interesting aspect of life and business. How we perceive our world and how we think about our world, we think that we can determine, how we act and how we respond in certain situations. Thus, senses or mind Through perception, or apprehension, can be a very powerful and influential aspect of our lives.