Individual Values In Organizational Behaviour
Generally value refers to moral considerations, general perceptions or inclination towards the world or sometimes just to interests, attitudes, preferences, needs, feelings and propositions. Values defined in organizational behavior are considered good, desirable, and appropriate or bad, undesirable and inappropriate in a culture. Some common values definition are giving below.
According to M. Haralambos Consider, “A value is a belief that something is good and desirable”.
According to R.K. Mukherjee, “Values are socially approved desires and goals that are internalized through the process of conditioning, learning or socialization and that become subjective preferences, standards, and aspirations”.
According to Zaleznik and David Consider, “Values are the ideas in the mind of men compared to norms in that they specify how people should behave.
Values conjointly attach degrees of goodness to activities and relationships”
According to I. J. Lehner and N.J. Kube Consider, “Values are an integral part of the personal philosophy of life by which we generally mean the system of values by which we live.
The philosophy of life includes our aims, ideals, and manner of thinking and therefore the principles by that we have a tendency to guide our behavior”
According to T. W. Hippie Consider, “Values are conscious or unconscious motivators and justifiers of the actions and judgment”
Characteristics of Value
Values are different for each individual. They can be defined as the thoughts or beliefs that a person holds desirable or undesirable. There is variability in that statement, first, which can give importance to a person, and Second, the degree to which he values. Values may be specific, such as respecting one's parents or owning a home, or they may be more general, such as the self Health, love and democracy. Personal achievement, personal happiness and materialism are the core values of modern society. The concept of desirable Defined as, an internal construct or standard of evaluation that an individual possesses. Values are of value, they are extremely practical, and assessment requires not only techniques, but also an understanding of the strategic context. They can provide standards of competence and ethics. They can go beyond specific situations or individuals. Work can be influenced by a combination of tradition, internal and external factors. They are relatively permanent. They are more central in a person's core. Most of our core values are family, friends, neighborhood schools, mass print, visual media, and society. Are learned early in life from other sources of life. Values are filled with effective ideas about thoughts, objects, behavior, etc. There is an element that follows a person's thoughts as right, good or desirable. Values can vary from culture to culture and even from person to person. Important in the integration and fulfillment of the basic impulses and desire of human beings. Play roles and are suitable for their livelihood. They are both personal and social responses and attitudes in social action. They are common experiences. They build societies, integrate social relationships. They mold ideal dimensions of the depth of personality and culture. They influence people's behavior and provide criteria for evaluating the actions of others. They help create norms for directing day-to-day behavior. The values of a culture may change, but most remain constant during an individual's lifetime. Socially shared, intensely felt values are our fundamental part of life. These values become part of our personality. They are shared and reinforced by the people we interact with. Since values often strongly influence both attitudes and behavior, they act as a kind of personal compass for employee conduct in the workplace. These help to determine, if an employee is passionate about work and the workplace, which in turn leads to above-average returns, high staff Satisfaction, strong team building and may lead to synergy.
Types Of Values
The values that are important to people influence the types of decisions they make, how they view their environments and their actual behaviors. Rokeach find two types of values and divided into
These are the values that we feel are the most important or most desirable. They refer to desirable end-stages of existence, the goals a person wants to achieve in his lifetime. They include happiness, self-respect, recognition, inner harmony, Enriched life and professional excellence are included. This survey lists 18 terminals which are
A comfortable and prosperous life
An exciting and stimulating active life
A sense of accomplishment
World of peace free from war and conflict
A world of beauty of nature and the arts
Equality, brotherhood, equal opportunity for all
Family security taking care of loved ones
Freedom, independence, free choice
Happiness and contentedness
Inner harmony and freedom from inner conflict
Mature love and spiritual intimacy
National security and protection from attack
Pleasure, enjoyable and leisurely life
Salvation, saved and eternal
Self-respect and self-esteem
Social recognition, respect and admiration
True friend and close companionship
Wisdom and mature understanding of life
Instrumental values behave with ideas on acceptable means of conductors to achieve terminal values. These include being honest, honest, ethical and ambitious. These values are more focused on personality traits and character. There are many types of values. One of the most established surveys for estimating individual values is the Rochech value survey. This survey lists 18 instrumental values which are
Ambitious and hardworking
Broad and open-minded
Capable, competent and efficient
Cheerful, lighthearted and joyful
Clean, neat and tidy
Courageous and standing up for your beliefs
Forgiving and willing to pardon
Helpful and working for the welfare of others
Honest, sincere and truthful
Imaginative, daring and creative
Independent, self-reliant and self-sufficient
Intellectual, intelligent and reflective
Logical, consistent and rational
Loving and affectionate
Obedient, respectful and dutiful
Polite, courteous and well-mannered
Responsible, dependable and reliable
Self-controlled,restrained and self-disciplined
Importance Of Values
Values are permanent beliefs that are better for a specific type of conduct or eventual state of existence, personally or socially. They are more difficult to change. As ethical conduct in the workplace gains more visibility, as a matter of discussion in management The importance of values increases. Values are general principles for regulating our daily behavior. They not only give direction to our behavior, but also have ideals and objectives in themselves. They are the expression of the ends, goals or objectives of social action. Our values are desirable, beautiful, appropriate, right, important, meaningful and good. With the undesirable, the ugly, the wrong, the unfair and the bad are the basis of our decisions about what. Pioneer sociologist Durkheim described the disruptive personal passion Emphasized the importance of values in Iyantrit. Indian sociologist R.K. Mukherjee describe "By their very nature, all human relationships and behaviors are intrinsic in values. The value is the foundation for understanding the level of motivation. It influences our perception. Value helps to understand what should happen or what should not be. It has interpretations of right or wrong. They affect behavior. The meaning is that some behaviors are preferred over others. They allow members of an organization to interact in a harmonious manner. They make it easier to reach goals that would be impossible to achieve individually. These set goals for achievement, and they connect cognitive, affectionate to all our activities. They are the guides of our lives, and they direct us are who we want to be. Values and morals can not only guide but also inspire and motivate a person. I can give energy and a zeal to live life and do something worthwhile. In fact, values are important for the study of organizational behavior, because they lay down the foundation for understanding of attitudes and motivations. They are part of a person's makeup. They remind us what is important in our lives, such as success or family, but on the other hand they provide the opposite which is not important. over time, Values cannot change. When we grow and change as individuals, we will begin to value different aspects of life. If we are younger, we value family as we do. When the children grow up, then we can start getting more business success from the family.
Sources Of Values
Sources of value are a comprehensive guide to financial decision making as both an art and a science. Generally, none of the values are relatively constant and permanent. An important part of the values established by parents in our early years. parents, teachers, friends and others. There are many sources from which we can derive different values. These are the Main Sources of values
Friends & peers
Community or society
Values in Workplace
Values can strongly affect employee conduct in the workplace. If an employee values honesty, hard work, and discipline, Therefore, this person is a more efficient employee, than an employee of opposite values. Can be a positive role model. Conflict can occur, however, if an employee realizes that his coworkers do not share his values For example, an employee who values hard work may dislike coworkers who are lazy or unproductive without being reprimanded. However, additional conflict may result if the employee overcomes his or her colleagues. Attempts to force one's own values. Values help guide our behavior. It determines what we think for right, wrong, good or injustice. Values are more or less permanent in nature. They represent a single belief, which guides action and judgment on objects and situations. They originated from social and cultural fields.