Management Functions Planning Control Decision Making Study
Management is that the method, to managing all the executive task of a corporation, it is a enterprise for profit, non profit organization, or a government body organization. Management involves many functions to meet, organization's goals and objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technical and human resources. basically managers do following functions.
Planning is the first and important process to achieve a desired goal. planning predicts and forecast the future scenarios. and how to react to them. Planning is the most important, project management and time management techniques. If a person does this effectively, they can reduce the time and effort to achieve some specific goals. A plan is like a map. While following a plan, a person can see how far they have been in the direction of their project goal, and how far they are from their destination. In organizations, planning is used for defining targets and goals for future. and direction to achieve those targets and goals. by using available resources within time. planning enhances the efficiency of an organization. reduces the risks. and utilized maximum efficiency of available resources.
Controlling is one in every of the social control functions like, planning, organizing, staffing, and directional. This is an important task because, it helps to check the errors and take corrective action, so that deviations from standards can be minimized, and the desired goals of the organization can be achieved in the desired way. Control in management means that setting standards, activity actual performance, and taking corrective action.
In 1916, the first definitions of control is given by the henri fayol, according to him
"Control of degree enterprise consists of seeing that, everything is being disbursed in accordance with the set up, that has been adopted, the orders that are given, and the principles which have been laid down.
Its object is to signifies mistakes so as, that they may be rectified, and prevented from recurring." There are many others definition like, According to EFL Brech,
"Control is checking current performance, against pre determined standards contained within the plans, with a read to make sure adequate progress, and satisfactory performance."
According to Harold Koontz,
"Controlling is that the activity, and correction of performance so as to create positive, that enterprise objectives, and also the plans devised to achieve them, square measure accomplished."
According to Stafford Beer,
"Management is the profession of control."
Robert J. Mockler also given a more comprehensive definition of managerial control, according to him, "Management management is written, as a scientific effort by business management, to match performance, to planned standards, plans, or objectives, so as to work out, whether or not performance is in line with these standards, and presumptively so as to require any remedial action needed to visualize, that human and alternative company resources square measure being employed, within the handiest and economical
way, possible in achieving corporate objectives."
Characteristics Of Controlling
There are following characteristics of control,
Control is a continuous process.
Control is a management process.
Control is looking forward.
Control is closely connected with planning. Control reduces cost.
Control Achieves standard.
Controls saves time.
Control helps management monitoring. Control Compares performance against standards.
Elements Of Control
There are four badic elements of control.
The characteristic or condition to be controlled,
The first element is the characteristic or condition to be controlled, During any stage of processing the characteristic may be the output of the system, or it may be a condition, that is the result of the system. For example, the heat energy produced by the furnace, or the temperature in the room, is the result heat generated by the furnace. In school system, an educator works characteristics, that may be live, or control. knowledge displayed by students in a national exam. The second element of control is the sensor, which is used for measuring characteristic or position. For example, thermostat in the heating system, to sense the temperature of the home, and in the quality control system, this measurement can be done, by visual inspection of the product. The third element of control, is the comparator, which determines the need for improvement, by comparing what is planned. Some deviations from the plan are normal and expected, but when the changes are beyond acceptance, corrective action is required. It involves many type of preventive action, which indicates that good control is being achieved. The fourth element of control is the activator, which is corrective action to return the system, to its expected output. The actual person, device, or method can be used to direct corrective input, to the operating system or the organization.
This may be a hydraulic controller, deployed by a magnet or motor, in response to Associate in Nursing electronic error signal, Associate in Nursing worker directed to transform elements, that did not
pass a quality inspection, or a school principal, Who decides to purchase additional books.
Organizing could be a task elect for the cluster, to institution of effective authority relationships between people and work locations. Or it is a process of dividing work into segments and between different departments.
Characteristics of Organization:
These are the following important characteristics of organization.
Specialization and division of work:
The entire philosophy of the organization, focuses on the concepts of specialization, and division of work. The work division is the process, to assigning responsibility for each organizational component, to a specific individual or group. It becomes specific when the responsibility for a specific task, given to expert in that field.
Orientation towards goals
Every organization has its own purpose, objectives and goals. Organizing is the task to achieve the overall goals of the organization. The organization harmonizes the personal goals of the employees with the overall objectives of the organization.
Composition of individuals and groups:
In the Composition of individuals and groups, Individuals form a group and groups form an organization. Thus, organization is the structure of individual and groups. Individuals are divided into departments, and their work is to achieve organizational objectives and goals.
An organization is a group of people, with a defined role and relationship in which they work together, for the achievement of the organization's goals. This relationship does not end after completing each task. Organization is a continuous never ending process.
Flexibility is the important part of organizing process, organizing process should be flexible so that any change can be easily implemented. This ensures the ability to adapt and adjust activities in response to, changes occurring in the external environment. If necessary, programs, policies and strategies can be provided with flexibility in the systematic process.
Purpose of Organiziing
Organizing helps to achieve organizational goals. The organization is the task to achieving the overall objectives of commercial firms. Optimum utilization of resources. To make optimal use of resources such as men, material, money, machine and method, it is necessary to properly design an organization. The work should be divided between the right people, to minimize wastage of resources in an organization. To do managerial work. Planning, staffing, direction and control should be implemented properly within organization. Facilitates development and diversification. The organization structure determines, the input resources required for the expansion of a business activity, in the same way that organization is required for product diversity, such as the establishment of a new product line. Which increases creativity in managers by organizing. Human treatment of employees, The organization must work for the betterment of the employees, and should not encourage monotony of work due to high level of expertise. Now, the organization has adapted the modern concept of systems approach, based on human relations, and it abandons the traditional productivity and expertise approach.
Decision making may be a drawback determination activity, which is considered optimal, or at least satisfactory.
silent and explicit knowledge, are used simultaneously, in the decision making process. Human decision making performance based on following several perspectives.
Psychological: psychology plays an important role in Examining personal decisions in terms of a set of needs, preferences, and values that the person possesses or wants.
Cognitive: The decision making process is considered as a continuous process, integrated in interaction with the environment.
Normative: Analysis of individual decision-making logic concerned with their communicative rationality, and the invariant choice it leads to.
A major part of decision making involves the analysis of a limited set of options, described in terms of evaluation criteria. The task may then be to rank these choices, based on how attractive they are to the decision-maker, when all criteria are considered simultaneously. Another task may be to find the best option, or to determine the relative total priority of each option, when all criteria are considered simultaneously. Solving such problems is the based on multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA). This field of decision making is very old, which attract the interest of many researchers and practitioners, and is still highly debated. there are many MCDA methods available, which provides very different results, if applied to the same data. This heralds the irony of decision making. Logical decision making is used in all science-based professions, where experts apply their knowledge in a given field, to make informed decisions. For example, medical decision making often involves a diagnosis, and selection of appropriate treatment.
But natural decision-making analysis suggests, that in things with time pressures, high stakes or ambiguities, consultants might use spontaneous decision-making instead of structured approaches. They can follow a recognition primed decision, that based on their experience and arrive at a course of action, without giving importance to the options. The decision-maker's environment can play a role, in the decision-making process. For example, environmental complexity is a factor that affects cognitive function. A complex environment is an environment, with a large number of different possible states that come and go over time. Studies conducted at the University of Colorado, have shown that a lot of advanced environments correlate with higher psychological feature perform, that means that a choice is also influenced by location.
Cognitive operate was greatly laid low with high measures of environmental complexness, creating it easier to consider the case and build higher selections.